Volume 20, Issue 2, Autumn 2022


DEVISING A GUIDE TO THE FLOWERING WINDOW OF COMMON AND INTRODUCTION VARIETIES OF DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.) IN IRAQ

A. S. Albarwary; A. A. Alrijabo

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 223-234
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176555

This study was conducted in 2019/2020 agricultural season in a high rainfall area in Fayda sub-district, Dohuk governorate. The study include two factors, the 1st factor was 28 durum wheat varieties grown in Iraq, while the 2nd factor was the sowing date in two levels: early sowing before the fall of first heavy effective rain and late sowing after the fall of the first heavy effective rain. The interaction between sowing dates and studied varieties and its effect on the flowering window was studied by determining three basic growth stages according to the Zadoks scale, which were the end of booting stage (Z-49) when first awns visible, the beginning of anthesis growth stage (Z-61), and anthesis complete growth stage (Z-69). The most important results obtained  in the field study on the effect of varieties and sowing dates in the flowering window, it was possible to develop a guide for the ideal sowing dates for durum wheat varieties in Iraq by knowing the extent to which the productivity of these varieties is affected by sowing dates, and through that it was possible to classify them into three groups, the first group of varieties can planted before the 1st  effective rain fall, the second after the 1st  effective rain fall, and the third is neutral, and these results were according  to early and late flowering based on the LSD values of the average varieties for the three growth stages under study.

DETERMINING THE QUALITY INDEX OF VEGETATION COVER USING THE MEDALAS MODEL FOR THE REGIONS OF WESTERN IRAQ

F. M. Jasim; A. Y. T. Almishity

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 235-246
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176557

Three sites were identified within the districts of Hit, Haditha and Anah from Anbar Governorate for the purpose of determining the quality of vegetation cover. The office work included obtaining topographical maps, Satellite imagery, digital elevation models, in addition to climatic data. The course of field work was determined on the basis of the geomorphological features within the terrestrial perspective and the nature of the ecosystem. A semi-detailed survey was conducted based on the networking method for the areas of Hit and Anah, while the free survey method was adopted for Haditha area. Soil texture classes for the study areas ranged from sandy loamy, sandy clay loam, clay loam and sandy clay. And the calcium carbonate content of the soils of the study areas ranged between 126- 495 g kg soil-1. As for the gypsum content of the soils of the study areas, it ranged between 68 - 480 g kg soil-1. And the content of the organic matter varied from 2.4-11.4 g kg soil-1. The results showed that the percentage of plant coverage was within the fourth class, as it ranged between 27.88% and 34.60% for all study areas. The drought index was within the fourth class, which is described as very dry, as its values ​​are 5.31, 5.78 and 5.61 for the regions of Hit, Haditha and Anah, respectively. The classes of erosion guide are included in the first class with low erosion and the second class with moderate erosion. Vegetation quality index (VQI) values ​​were distributed between the medium and low quality classes for the study areas.

EFFECT OF VITAMIN D3 ADDITION AND VARIOUS PARTICLE SIZE OF OYSTER SHELLS TO PRODUCTION DIETS IN LAYING HENS PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE

A. M. Rashed; A. A. Yousif

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 247-256
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176559

This study was conducted in the Layer farm of Animal production department/ College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, for the period from 20/ 7/ 2021 to 15/ 10/ 2021, to study the Effect of vitamin D3 addition and various particle size of oyster shells to production diets in laying hens productive performance. In this study, 108 Lohman Brown laying hens, 43 weeks were distributed randomly in to nine groups, four replicates for each one three hens reared in cages (cm). The experimental treatments were as follows: T1 normal diet (control group), T2/ calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell size less than 1 mm + vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T3/ calcium source 50% limestone +50 % oyster shell size 1-2 mm + vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T4 / calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell size 2-3 mm + vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T5/ calcium source 50% Limestone + 50% oyster shell size 3–5 mm + Vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T6/ Calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell size less than 1 mm + Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1, T7/ Calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell 1-2 mm + Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1, T8 Calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell 2-3 mm + Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1, T9/ Calcium source 50% limestone +50% oyster shell size 3-5mm + Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1. results showed no significant differences in daily feed consumption ratio, feed conversion coefficient, egg mass and egg production in the three periods of the experiment and in average. significant improvement (P≤0.05) in average egg weight during third productive period of the experiment for the second, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth treatments compared to the other treatments.

EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH POTASSIUM SILICATE AND SOME MICROELEMENTS ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF APPLE TREES CV. IBRAHIMI

H. Y. Hamad; A. A. Ismaeil

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 257-265
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176560

The experiment was carried out in one of the private orchards in the Saqlawiya sub-district of Fallujah district for the spring season 2021 to study the effect of foliar spraying with potassium silicate and Agri-fertilizer under the trade name IQ COMBI, which contains some microelements on some vegetative and chemical growth characteristics of the Apple cv. Ibrahimi. The spraying with potassium silicate included four levels (0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 ml. L-1) represents the first factor is symbolized by (S0, S1, S2 and S3) sequentially, while spraying with Agri-fertilizer IQ COMBI, represent the second factor included three levels its symbol is (Q0, Q1 and Q2) sequentially. The results can be summarized as follows: The foliar spraying with potassium silicate had a significant effect in improving the vegetative and chemical growth characteristics, as the level S2 gave the highest area per leaf of 32.13 cm2, while the level S3 gave the highest content of chlorophyll in leaves of 64.61 mg.100gm-1 fresh weight and highest content of carbohydrate in the branches was 9.73% compared to the level S0. The foliar spraying with Agri-fertilizer IQ COMBI had a significant effect on improving the vegetative growth and chemical characteristics, as Q2 gave the highest increase in the most studied traits. The interaction between the two factors of the study had a significant effect on all studied traits.

THE GRADUAL INCREASE OF LIGHTING INTENSITY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

A. A. Jassim; W. I. Al-Jugifi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 266-275
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176561

This study is conducted to find out the effect of the gradual increase of lighting intensity and its effect on the productive performance of broilers. In this study, 224 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were  randomly distributed into 4 treatments with 4 Replicates for each treatment i.e. Replicates The treatments Of The Experiment: T1 the lighting program according to the guide for 308 ROSS company (Control Treatment), T2 the lighting program according to the guide with a gradual increase of lighting intensity every 20 minutes, T3 the lighting program according to the guide with a gradual increase of lighting intensity every 40 minutes, T4 Lighting program according to the guide with a gradual increase of lighting intensity every 60 minutes.
The productive performance features Were Studied Weekly and at 1-21 ,21-35,1-35 Days. The results of the study show a significant superiority of all experimental treatments in the average body weight and weight gain compared with the control treatment at the third week as well as the period from 1-21 days. It is also noted that the fourth treatment has a significant superiority at the rates of consuming feed compared with the control treatment. Besides, the second treatment is significantly greater at the relative growth rate compared with the control treatment at the second week and at the period from 1-21 days as well. Even though it does not differ significantly at the end of the experiment.
It is also concluded that there is no significant difference among the treatments in both; food conversion factor and the percentage of Mortality. Finally, it is observed that there are no significant differences in all characteristics of the cumulative productive performance among all treatments from 1-35 days. So, it is regarded as an important indicator in the productive performance leading to the outcome that no significant effects of the gradual intensity of lighting on the productive performance of broilers.

RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SALICYLIC ACID, DECIS EXPERT AND SIVANTO PRIME AND THEIR COMBINATIONS IN CONTROLLING OF MYZUS PERSICAE (SULZER) ON BROCCOLI

M. A. Al-Hassan; Kh. W. Ibade; Z. S. Ahmed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 276-289
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176562

An experiment was conducted with Randomized Complete Block Design in the Ramadi city during the season 2020 - 2021 to study the effect of the Decis Expert, Sivanto Prime insecticides, Salicylic acid, and the combination of them to control Myzus persica ((Sulzer), which is one of the important insects that infect the broccoli crop Brassica oleracea var. Italica. The study showed that all tested concentrations of Salicylic acid combination with pesticides gave effective results after periods of treatment, an increase in the efficiency of pesticides against the insect and some growth and chemical characteristics of the broccoli crop when compared with the treatment with pesticides alone. This can be a good economic orientation for reducing the recommended rate and its reflection on environmental effects.

EFFECTS OF SHACKLING AND CONE RESTRAINING ON RESIDUAL BLOOD IN CARCASS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS RESPONSES OF BROILER CHICKENS

F. A. Noraldin; A. B. Sabow

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 290-297
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176564

The effects of restraint methods on stress hormones (corticosterone, adrenaline, and noradrenaline), blood biochemistry (glucose and lactate), and bleeding efficiency were examined in broiler chickens. Thirty 30 male Ross broiler birds were randomly allocated to either shackling or cone restraint prior to the neck cut. As measures of well-being, physiological data such as alterations in blood metabolites and hormone levels were assessed. Each bird's blood was calculated by comparing its initial body before and after the neck cut for 90 s. The amount of leftover blood was determined using the haemoglobin content of the Pectoralis major muscle. Compared to their shackled counterparts, the plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose, and lactate were lower in the coned broiler chickens (p<0.05). Those shackled lost significantly less blood than those restrained in a cone. Coned broilers showed significantly less residual haemoglobin in their breast muscles than shackled broilers. It can be concluded that pre-slaughter cone restraint is preferable to shackle restraint. However, a feasible restraint device has not yet been developed.                                                   

THE ROLE OF FUNGI IN THE TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON WASTE

W. S. Al-Taee; A. H. Alkhafagi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 298-309
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176565

This study aims to clarify the importance fungi, in treating soil pollution with hydrocarbon residues. The soil's physiological, physical, chemical properties, and biological diversity, are affected by the long-term existence of crude oil. The study showed that the fungi's natural presence or addition to the soil would change and decrease the concentrations of polycyclic hydrocarbons according to the different concentrations of crude oil. The most important isolates of hydrocarbon decomposers belong to Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp.

EFFECT OF ADDING CORDYCEPS SINENSIS EXTRACT AND THE PROBIOTIC TO THE DIET ON THE DRESSING RATIO, THE RELATIVE WEIGHTS OF INTERNAL VISCERA AND THE MICROBIAL CONTENT OF BROILER CHICKENS

S. Kh. Shihab; H. H. Nafea

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 310-320
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176566

This study was carried out at the poultry farm of animal production Dep. College of Agriculture –University of Anbar during the period from 28/10/2021 to 8/12/2021 (42 days), to show the effect of adding Cordyceps sinensis (C.S.) extract and a probiotic in Dressing ratio, the relative weights of internal viscera and Microbial content of broilers. 210 chicks one day unsexed chicks of strain (Ross 308) were used with an average weight of 40 g, randomly distributed into 7 treatments, and each treatment containing 3 replicates (10 chicks/replicate) and treatments were as follows: T1: was a control without any addition to the diet, T2 and T3 adding C.S extract at a level of 300 and 600 mg/kg feed respectively, T4 and T5 adding a probiotic at the level of 3 and 6 gm/kg feed respectively, T6 adding of C.S extract at a level of 300 mg/kg feed + the probiotic at a level of 3 gm/kg feed, T7 adding of C.S extract at a level of 600 mg/kg feed + the probiotic at a level of 3g/kg fodder. 6 g / kg feed.
The results showed a significant superiority (P≤0.05) in the dressing percentage in treatments T2, T4, T5 and T7 compared to treatments T1 and T6, and it did not differ from treatment T3. In abdominal fat, treatment T2 was significantly (P≤0.05) superior to the rest of the treatments. There are no significant differences in the relative weight of internal viscera of the body for Fabricia, pancreas, gills, stomach, spleen, liver and heart. In the total microbial content, treatment T5 was significantly (P≤0.05) superior to all treatments and did not differ significantly with treatments T4 and T7. The results also showed a significant improvement (P≤0.05) for the numbers of lactobacilli bacteria in treatments T4, T5, T6 and T7. Compared with treatments T1, T2 and T3, the number of Escherichia coli decreased significantly (P≤0.05) in treatments T3, T5, T4, T6 and T7 compared with the control treatment T1, and it did not differ significantly with treatment T2.
We conclude from this that the addition of Cordyceps Sinensis extract and the probiotic at the above levels improved the microbial performance of the intestines, abdominal fat, relative weights of internal viscera and the dressing rate of broilers without any negative effect.

EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CANOLA OIL ON THE HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

A. H. AL-Qudsi; H. S. Alamili

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 321-328
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176567

The fish production industry has become one of the most important animal production projects, and fish industry suffer from feed costs, so this study aims to find accessible food additives that increase production or reduce costs. This was done by 126 fish of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Average individual weight 42.72 g ± 2.28 g. and 254.78 g ± 2.95 g biomass weight. were randomly distributed to 21 aquaria, with seven treatments with three replicates, 6 fish per aquarium. Fish were fed 3% by weight of biomass, on a prepared diet with a protein content of 28%. It was divided into seven sections by treatments, T1 without addition, T2, T3and T4 adding sunflower oil 2, 4 and 6 g/kg, consecutively, T5, T6 and T7 adding canola oil 2, 4, and6 g/kg consecutively. The experiment period lasted 70 days, at the end of the experiment blood samples were taken from the experimental fish. The results of the blood and biochemical characteristics of common carp showed that there were no significant differences at the level (P≤0.05) in all experimental treatments.

EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH CHELATED IRON AND SEAWEED EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH OF BUCKTHORN SEEDLINGS AL-TAFAHI CULTIVAR

H. H. Al-Ali; H. I. El-Hamdani

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 329-341
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176580

The experiment was carried out in the lath house of Horticulture and Gardening Engineering Dept. / College of Agriculture / Al- Anbar University during the growth season to study the effect of foliar spraying with chelated iron at three levels 0, 50 and 100 mg L-1 and symbols F0, F1 and F2 and three levels. From marine algae extract 0, 1 and 1.5 g L-1 and its symbol S0, S1 and S2, and their interaction in vegetative growth traits and leaves content of mineral elements for buckthorn seedlings AL-Tafahi cultivar, the results showed the positive effect of foliar spraying with chelated iron in most Characteristics of vegetative growth and the content of buckthorn seedlings. So, spraying 100 mg L-1 chelated iron significantly superior in Original stem diameter, bait stalk diameter, Percentage of dry matter in leaves, phosphorous, potassium, saponins in succession, which amounted to 8.034 mm, 6.922 mm, 33.074%, 0.410%, 1.308%, 1.215gm ml-1, sequentially. As for spraying 50 mg L-1, it was significantly superior to nitrogen and total protein, respectively, as it reached 1.706%, 10.658%. The spraying with seaweed extract Alga Mix 1.5 gm L-1 resulted in a significant superiority in all characteristics of vegetative growth and leaf content of nutrients except for Percentage of dry matter in leaves, as it led to a significant increase in Original stem diameter, bait stalk diameter, total protein. Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, saponins, respectively, amounted to 7.968 mm, 6.857 mm, 12.641%, 2.456%, 2.045%, 0.420%, 1.289%, 1.189 g ml-1, the results showed that the interaction between the studied treatments (chelated iron 100 mg L-1+ seaweed extract 1.5 g L-1) gave a significant increase in Original stem diameter, bait stalk diameter, Percentage of dry matter in leaves, phosphorous, potassium, saponins, respectively, amounted to 11.667 mm, 10.333 mm, 35.272%, 0.433% , 1.730%, 1.545 gm ml-1 sequentially compared to the control treatment, while the interaction (chelated iron 50 mg L-1 + seaweed extract 1.5 gm L-1) gave a significant increase in the percentage of nitrogen in the leaves and the percentage of total protein, respectively, which amounted to 2.468 %, 15.420% sequentially compared to the comparison treatment.

EFFICIENCY OF MYCOTAL AND TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI ON EGGPLANT

H. M. Saleh; D. D. Farhan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 342-347
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176581

A study was conducted to evaluate efficiency of Mycotal at a concentration of 1.2 x 107 spores / ml and Trichoderma harzianum at concentrations 1.5 x 106 and 1.5 x 107 spores / ml on nymphs and adults of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci under field conditions on eggplant, Solanum melongena. The results revealed that Mycotal, active substance is the fungus Lecanicillium muscarium, showed the highest average relative efficiency in killing nymphs and adults in Mycotal treatment, which amounted to 79.93 and 85.62%, respectively, compared with T. harzianum treatment for the two concentrations, which amounted to 60.76, 67.76% for nymphs and 69.55, 72.19% for adults, respectively.

RESPONSE OF OLIVE TREES CULTIVAR AL-ASHRASSI TO NUTRITION WITH CHELATED IRON (CHI) AND DRY YEAST EXTRACT (DYE)

R. H. Alrawi; R. M. Al-Dulaimi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 348-359
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176582

This study was carried out in the Western Desert Olive Field of Rawa village (Abu Koi) in 2021-2022 season to study the impact of the paper spraying with (CHI) encoded by F0, F1, F2 three levels of concentrations of 0, 100, 200 mg L-1 and (DYE) Y0, Y1, Y2 with three levels of concentration of 0, 10, 20 g L-1 and their interference in the characteristics of vegetative and fruity growth. Trees were sprayed to full wetness with three consecutive dates, the first spray was in April after full flowering, the second was in May and the last one was in June. The results showed the following: The effect of leaf spraying with (CHI) for the F2 transaction at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 in which their superior differences in the studied traits increase in the number of nodes 24.74 node plant-1, leaf area 7.20 cm2, fruit weight 6.15 g, fruit dry weight 2.05 g, iron concentration in leaves 31.63 mg kg-1. Whereas, the effect of leaf spraying with the second factor (DYE) showed the Y2 treatment with a concentration of 20 g L-1 superior differences in the studied traits in increase in the number of nodes 19.15 node plant-1, leaf area 7.05 cm2, wet weight of Leave 0.40 g, dry weight of fruit 2.10g, fruit weight 6.36 g, total yield 14.03 kg tree-1, iron concentration in leaves 24.40 mg kg-1.

EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF FENNEL SEEDS (FOENICULUM VULGARE) ON IMPROVING EGG QUALITY IN LAYING HENS

M. M. Haglan; A. A. Majed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 360-373
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176586

The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of adding Fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare L.) into the diets of laying hens on egg quality. This study was conducted in poultry fields belonging to Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, and University of Anbar for 12 weeks.  A total of 72 laying hens (Lohman Brown) were used in this experiment, at age 43 weeks. Hens were randomly distributed to six treatments groups and with four replicates per treatment (3 hens/replicate). The treatments were T1: (positive control) based diet containing 1% hydrogenated vegetable fat, T2: (negative control) based diet containing 1% Sheep fat, T3, T4, T5 and T6 The based diet contained 1% Sheep fat + supplementation of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1% Fennel seeds powder sequentially.  The results showed significant (P≤0.05) differences for the supplementation treatments on the qualitative characteristics of egg quality, as treatment T6 was significantly (P≤0.05) superior to the rest of the experimental treatments in shell weight, yolk weight, yolk index, percentage of Albumen weight %, Albumen weight (g) and Haugh Unit. Treatments T5 and T6 were significantly (P≤0.05) superior to the rest of the experimental treatments in shell thickness, percentage of yolk weight%, and Albumen index, while there was no significant effect (P≤0.05) of the supplementation treatments on (percentage of shell weight%) compared to the two control treatments T1 and T2. It was concluded adding 0.75 and 1% Fennel seeds powder to laying hens' diets improved quality of eggshell, yolk, and egg white.

RESPONSE OF SOME INDICATORS OF VEGETATIVE AND SEED GROWTH OF THE FIRST-GENERATION HYBRID OF GYNOECIOUS CUCUMBERS FOR PROTECTED CULTIVATION TO THE DATE OF HARVEST, THE DATE OF SEED EXTRACTING AND NUTRIENT SPRAYING

A. N. Jebur; H. A. Alzubae

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 374-386
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176590

The experiment was carried out in one of the greenhouses of the Department of Horticulture and Landscaping / College of Agriculture / University of Anbar. With an area of ​​500 m2 during the autumn season 2021, two locally derived strains were pollinated and a sexual modification process was performed on them to produce male flowers and it is considered a pollinator for the other strain. The study included six dates of harvesting and seed extraction, harvesting fruits after 45, 50 and 55 days of hybridization and direct extraction of seeds, symbolized by T1, T3 and T5 sequentially, and harvesting fruits after 45, 50 and 55 days of hybridization and extracting seeds after 5 days of harvest and symbolized by T2, T4 and T6 sequentially. and spraying with three concentrations of BREXIL DUO 0, 1.5 and 3 gm. l-1 and symbolized by S0, S1 and S2 sequentially. The fruits were collected and their seeds extracted according to the dates. The harvesting date after 55 days of hybridization and the date of seed extraction after 5 days of harvesting led to an increase in stem diameter in field emergence and dry weight of field emergence of seedlings if they gave values ​​of 2.288 mm and 47.464 mg sequentially. Treatment with BREXIL DUO showed superiority In the characteristics of vegetative growth at a concentration of 3 g l-1, which amounted to 2.151 mm and 47.870 mg respectively, in addition to the specifications of the seeds represented by the percentage of germination, speed of germination, weight of seeds in fruits and average seed yield in the experimental unit in fruits that were harvested after 55 days of hybridization and date Extraction of seeds after 5 days of harvesting and spraying with a concentration of 3 g l-1 of BREXIL DUO was 99.000, 98.222 (%), 4.479, 5.266 (seed day-1), 3.416, 3.301 (gm. fruit-1), 170.700 and 165 .094 (g) respectively

EFFECT OF SPRAYING WITH NANO-PROLINE AND SEAWEED EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH OF ROSEMARY PLANT ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L.

H. Kh. Al-Mohammadi; M. R. Alshaheen

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 387-398
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176605

A lath tria was carried out at lathhouse belonging to the Department of Horticulture and Landscaping, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar for the year 2020-2021. For the purpose to test the effect of spraying with nano-proline and marine algae extract on rosemary plant, three levels of nano-proline were used viz., 0, 200 and 400 mg L-1. And three levels of seaweed extract 0, 100 and 200 mg L -1 a significant and clear effect of spraying nano-proline was recorded on the studied traits compared to plants that were not sprayed, a significant increase was also recorded in the studied traits. It was found that treatment with Proline at the highest concentration 400 led to a significant increase in all these studied traits (1.7956%), (12.6733) mg/100g, and (13.7800%), respectively. The results showed that treatment with nanorolene led to a significant increase in the leaves content of nutrients (N.P.K) significantly at concentration 400. which were sprayed with marine algae extract, which is distinguished by the interaction between the two factors of the study, where the highest rates of the studied traits were recorded in the combination 400 Proline + 200 Seaweed extract. A significant increase was also recorded in the studied traits, which were sprayed with marine algae extract, the treatment with marine algae extract positively affected the chemical characteristics, as the concentration 200 mg. plant-1 gave the highest values ​​for these traits. (2.1433% for carbohydrates), (14.33 for chlorophyll), (14.022% for the percentage of dry matter) and also had a significant effect on the percentage of nutrients in the plant and the values ​​of the elements were (1.0137N: %) (0.03556P=%) (1.4033K=%) The interaction between the two factors of the study had a positive effect in all the studied traits, as the highest rates were recorded for the studied traits when the combination 400 P and 200A. Where the highest values ​​were recorded compared to the rest of the treatments, including the measurement treatments, where the percentage of carbohydrates was 3.3967%, the content of leaves was chlorophyll 15.7567 and the percentage of dry matter 15.0733%. The results also show the clear superiority in the percentage of nutrients in the leaves, the value of which was N 1.1697%, P 1.427% and K 1.4933%.

THE EFFECT OF TOPICALLY USING MELATONIN AND ANABASIS ARTICULATE EXTRACT WITH VAGINAL SPONGES ON SOME HORMONES AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS

H. A. Al-Ani; A. S. Asker; N. M. Hseen

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 399-407
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176606

This study was conducted in the University of Anbar College of Agriculture in the Department of Animal Production Sheep Field, for the period from 10/15/2021 to 5/7/2022. The aim of this study is to use the melatonin hormone in two different doses and the Anabasis articulate extract in vaginal sponges topically, to understand their effectiveness on the oxidative state and some of the reproductive hormones on the local Iraqi ewes. The study was conducted on twenty local ewes within 4-2.5 years age range and 47 kg weight average. All ewes were treated with vaginal sponges for 14 days, and was randomly divided into four treatment groups: (T1) 20 mg melatonin hormone, (T2) 30mg melatonin hormone, (T3) Anabasis articulate extract at a concentration 3 g and (T4) was left without any treatment and was considered a control treatment. The treatment was applied through a sponge with a hole made in it using a surgical scalpel; that hole position should be away from a pulling thread attached to the sponge to avoid cutting it accidentally and thus not being able to pull the sponge out. The treatment continued from day 0 of pushing the vaginal sponges until day 14 when they were withdrawn. All ewes were injected with eCG hormone at a dose of 500 IU intramuscularly after sponge withdrawal.
Also, the experimental ewes were kept with 3 rams for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and the levels of estrogen, progesterone, antioxidants glutathione peroxides (GPX), and Malone Dialdehyde (MDA) were measured.
The experiment treatments showed no significant differences in both estrogen and progesterone hormone levels compared with the control group, which indicates that there was no effect of the sponge materials on the hormones absorption. As for the antioxidants, the study showed the superiority of the experimental treatments in the levels of GSH compared to the control group. Also, the MDA recorded a decrease in its levels in the treated groups compared to the control one. 
We conclude from this study that placing the hormone melatonin at 20,30 Mg concentration and the Anabasis extract at 3g in vaginal sponges did not affect the hormone’s actions neither its absorption from the sponge, but rather improved the uterus conditions and prevent fluid accumulation around the sponge. It also prevents infections and improves the oxidation state by increasing GSH activity and MDA level reduction.

EFFECT OF ADDING UREA AND SPRAYING WITH NATURWIN ON GRAPE SEEDLINGS CV. KAMALI

Sh. M. Abbood; A. H. Hashim

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 408-413
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176607

The experiment was carried out in nursery of Al-Musaib technical college in 2020 season to know the effect of adding Urea fertilizer in three levels 0, 5 and 10 g. seddling-1, and spraying by NATURWIN fertilizer, also in three levels 0, 10 and 20 ml /L-1 on vegetative and chemical characterizes on grape seedling, cv. Kamali. The results showed the treatment of cv. Kamli grape in urea fertilizer in 10 g. seedling-1 concentration was significant effect in increase of all characterizes, stem length (cm), leaf aria(cm2), chlorophyll Value (mg. g-1). Nitrogen and Potassium content (%) where gave 1.27, 2.19, 24.50, 70.44 and 81.56 respectively, Compare with non-treated seedlings (control) which got lowest values, results showed a cv. Kamali grape treated with in (NATURWIN) fertilizer with 10 ml.seedling-1 concentration was a significant effect in increasing of stem length, leaf area and chlorophyll which gave values average 83.33, 69.00 and 24.02 respectively, compare with non-treated seedlings which got a lowest average values in this characterizes. while the stem diameter, nitrogen value, phosphorous and potassium characterizes was no significant effect which got a lowest values. The results showed spraying by (NATURWIN) with 20 ml. L-1 concentration was a significant effect in increasing of all studied characterizes values average compare with non-treated seedlings which got a lowest average values in this characterizes also, the overlap between experiment factors was significant effect on all treated seedlings compare with non-treated. which registered a lowest values.

PREDICTING THE EXPECTED VALUES OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VARIABLES DETERMINING THE FOOD SECURITY COEFFICIENT OF THE WHEAT CROP IN IRAQ UNTIL 2030

O. K. Jbara; D. A. Naghmash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 414-435
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176613

The research aims to predict the expected values ​​of the most important variables determining the food security coefficient of the wheat crop in Iraq for the period (2021-2030), where the food security coefficient of the wheat crop was calculated. The results showed that the wheat food security coefficient was about (0.97), which indicates that the value of the security coefficient Food is less than the correct one, but it is greater than (0.50), which is enough for more than six months, which requires maintaining the level of food security of wheat and seeking to increase that rate by the concerned state agencies, either by expanding the cultivation of the wheat crop or increasing imports, which It leads to an accumulation in the strategic stock sufficient for local consumption to enhance the food security of wheat and the ability to face the emergency conditions that the country may go through, and then predict the expected values ​​of the most important variables specific to the food security factor of the wheat crop in Iraq until 2030, and the exponential smoothing method will be used in predicting the expected values ​​of the most important variables specific to the food security coefficient in Iraq, through the results of predicting the expected values ​​of the most important variables specific to the food security coefficient of the wheat crop during the current period. A study, where the method of double exponential smoothing (DES) was adopted, and it appeared that the prediction of the cultivated area is declining during the future years, and one of the reasons for this decline is the deterioration of soil fertility due to salinization and erosion as well as environmental conditions, while the rest of the variables are expected to be on the rise in the coming years.

STUDY CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS FOR BARLEY UNDER SEED RATES

A. A. Fadel; Z. A. Abdulhamed; Sh. A. Yousif

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 436-449
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176637

The research was applied at Station No. 1 belonging to the College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, to determine the most appropriate traits for improving barley grain yield during the season 2021-2022 by designing randomized complete blocks in the split plots with three replications, The purpose of studying the path way coefficient  of the yield and its components for five cultivars of barley (Samir , Aksad 617, Amal, Buraq and Abba 265)  and three seed rates 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1  were studied for characteristics of flowering, plant height, number of tillers, area of flag leaf, physiological maturity, crop growth rate, duration of seed filling, spike length, number of spikes and number of grains per spike. The weight of 1000 grains and harvest index as a selective function for improving grain yield. The traits gave a significant positive correlation with yield in most of the traits The seeding rate of 120 kg ha-1 gave the direct effect of the number of tillers m-2, the number of spikes m-2 and the weight of 1000 seeds on the yield of the plant positively 0.982, 2.803 and 1.432, and the seeding rate of 160 kg ha-1 gave the direct effect of the number of m-2 and the number of spikes M-2 amounted to 0.401 and 0.541 respectively, while the seeding rate was 200 kg ha-1 for the number of m-2, physiological maturity, number of spikes m-2, biological yield and harvest index, which amounted to 1.626, 1.074, 0.218, 0.503 and 0.517 respectively. We suggest focusing on programs Breeding and improvement on the characteristics of the number of tillers M-2 and the number of spikes M-2 is the best selective traits for all seed rates to improve the grain yield due to its significant correlation and direct and high impact on yield.

EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENT GINGER AND TURMERIC POWDER ON JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA) PERFORMANCE, CARCASS TRAITS AND BLOOD PARAMETERS

A. J. Khalil; D. D. Maulod; S. M. Ahmed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 450-463
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176660

Completely randomized design were used as the quails were distributed to four feed treatments randomly (45 birds/ treatment) with three replications (15 birds/ replicate). Treatments were: basal diet without additives (control), basal diet with 5g/kg of ginger powder, basal diet with 5g/kg of turmeric powder and equal mixture of 10g/kg ginger and turmeric powder. Results showed all treatment additives significantly increased (p≤0.05) in live body weight with body weight gain. Feed intake until 21 days of age significantly decreased (p≤0.05) in turmeric treatment but as a whole study until 42 days of age, there were no considerable variations (p≤0.05) between treatments. Significant decrease (p≤0.05) of feed conversion ratio was occurred in turmeric treatment. Addition of ginger and turmeric significantly increased (p≤0.05) male and female eviscerated dressing percentage, breast percentage and back percentage. Inclusions ginger and turmeric powder significantly decreased (p≤0.05) blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL in both of males and females but HDL in males did not changed significantly (p≤0.05) while in females significantly reduced (p≤0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 5g/kg of ginger and 5g/kg turmeric powder either alone or as a mixture as an effective supplement could be used to enhance growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood  lipids.

ASSESSMENT OF SOME RECENTLY INTRODUCED BARLEY CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO SOIL AND FOLIAR FERTILIZATION

F. A. Omer; A. H. Mohammed; D. N. Sulaiman; O. O. Salih

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 464-475
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176775

Barley can be cultivated and gives better yields in a large number of environments under various fertilization practices. This experiment was conducted in two growing seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 under rainfall condition. Four new introduced cultivars of barley (Arta, Tadmor, Clipper and Furat2) along with two commonly grown cultivars (Local-1 and Local-2) were represented in the current study; Soil (DAP) and foliar fertilization treatments were also involved; the treatments were arranged through Split Plot Design in RCBD with four replications where the seasons considered the main plots, barley genotypes sub plots and fertilization sub-sub plots.
The results of the present study demonstrated that each of Arta and Furat2 cultivars performed better in respect to growth and final grain yield under the multi environment conditions of the study.  Additionally, the soil application of DAP and foliar fertilization treatment influenced significantly on the yield and growth parameters in various proportions. Application of both DAP and foliar treatments on barley that were grown under the rainfed condition resulted in the highest grain yield, better yield components and most of the growth traits during both growing seasons compared to control treatment. The GGE biplot analysis also showed the alignment of the introduced barley cultivars to the side of DAP and foliar fertilizers for final grain yield and most of yield component parameters demonstrating the importance of both fertilizers and mainly soil (DAP) for enhancing the yield of barley under rainfed environments.

EFFECT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM IN SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

Mustafa. S. Abd Al-Jabbar

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 476-482
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176777

Alaboratory experiment was carried out during 2020 in the laboratories of the College of Agriculture / University of Anbar in order to study the role of phosphogypsum in the values ​​of saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary height and water holding capacity of soil in clay soil. The phosphogypsum was added mixed with the soil at four levels (without adding, 0.3%, 0.6% and 0.9%) by weight of the soil. The treatments were incubated for 90 days by adding water at the limits of the field capacity and compensation the lost water after deplete 50% of the available water. The amount of available water, the saturated hydraulic conductivity, and the capillary height has been estimated. The soil water holding capacity increased significantly, which was 16.91% at the addition of 0.9% compared to the treatment without addition. While the highest value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity was 0.35 cm per hour -1at the level of 0.9% addition. The capillary height decreased significantly with the increase in the level of phosphogypsum addition, and the lowest value was 52 cm when adding 0.9%.

THE GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CADMIUM: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

N. M. Jebril; R. Boden; C. Braungardt

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 483-494
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176912

Cadmium (Cd) groundwater contamination is a widespread problem that causes severe environmental and health concerns. Excessive concentrations of Cd, which contaminate water, have been detected in several countries, have consequently attracted attention, and raised significant concern. The differences in Cd contamination relate not just to the source strength but also to the pathways whereby the Cd transfer to and transport within aquifers depends on its chemistry and geochemistry. Cadmium is a non-essential element for life, and it is toxic to Homo Sapiens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified some elements, including Cd, As, Hg, and Pb, as human carcinogens based on animal, molecular, and epidemiological models. The current information on cadmium contaminated groundwater was summarised in this review in response to this concern.

MEASURING THE SUPERIOR EFFICIENCY OF PROTECTED FARMS OPERATING IN ANBAR GOVERNORATE FOR THE SPRING SEASON OF 2020

S. H. Abdul Razzaq; W. H. Al-Enezi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 495-508
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.176949

This research aims to measure the superior efficiency of protected farms in Anbar Governorate using (Data Envelopment Analysises) for a sample that consisted of 91 farms for the year 2020 for the spring season, as well as clarifying the internal reasons behind achieving superior levels of efficiency. For the indicators of the statistical questionnaire collected from 91 operating protected farms in Anbar Governorate, a set of conclusions were reached, the most important of which are: Low efficiency levels for most of the protected farms due to the waste of resources used for these farms, efficient farms according to the high efficiency index can reduce variable costs A greater percentage than reducing fixed costs, and Fallujah district achieved the highest levels of efficiency and high efficiency, as it averaged efficiency and high efficiency 0.81 and 0.80 respectively, followed by spending his work, and the research reached a set of recommendations, the most important of which are: Provide the necessary environment for it, especially financially, in order to achieve more efficiency in order for its products to compete with the protected farms in neighboring countries, and on the other hand Owners of protected farms in Anbar Governorate are encouraged to reduce the waste in the use of their resources, especially the waste in fixed costs, a large part of which is due to the decrease in the houses on one farm optimum level.