Issue 2


CALCIUM CARBONATES EFFECT ON PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND TEXTURE CLASSES IN CALCAREOUS SOILS IN SULAIMANI GOVERNORATE.

S. M. Karim

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 131-142
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175868

This experiment was carried out to study the effect of removal of CaCO3 on particle size distribution (PSD) and texture classes in some soils in Sulaimani Governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Thirty four soil samples were collected from different calcareous soil horizons. These soils were analyzed for CaCO3 and the carbonates were ranged from 51.9 and 42.63 g kg-1. The three weighted soil textures (sand, silt and clay) were determined before any removal of the CaCO3 and after the removal of CaCO3. The sand fraction ranged from 87.6 to 316.0 g gk-1 while the clay fraction ranged from 237.7 to 614.7 g kg-1 and the silt fraction was slightly higher than clay fraction. The results showed that removal of CaCO3 led to a change in PSD in all the samples and 85% of those changed textural class. The carbonates did not show a uniform distribution in soil particle size and generally carbonates were most accumulated in sand and silt size. The soil had the most prevalent PSA change in the silt and sand fractions following CaCO3 removal. The maximum significant correlation between particle size distribution before and after carbonates removal was related to clay particles (P< 0.01) but the correlation was not significant between the silt components. Therefore, we recommend that all calcareous soil samples from the semiarid be pretreated for CaCO3 removal prior to particle-size analysis and subsequent textural classification.
 

 

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF LIGHT CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATIONS ON GEOTECHNICAL BEHAVIORS OF THE SOIL

R. A. Hasan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 143-157
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175869

Crude oil spills contaminate the soil in many ways including environmental impact and physical and chemical changes of the properties of the host soils. Organic liquids will affect the geotechnical behaviors of the soils. For better understanding of the soil behaviors as a function of oil contaminations a deep experimental investigation was conducted on kaolinite clay and sandy soils. These soils that were polluted by various amounts of crude oils (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% by weight of dry soil). The geotechnical characteristics of the uncontaminated and contaminated soils were determined including the plasticity indices, compaction characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, and linear shrinkage limit. The outputs revealed a decline in dry density and optimum moisture content. The hydraulic conductivity of both soil types decreased due to oil contaminations. Crude oil contamination increased the plasticity indices and raised the linear shrinkage limit of clay soil. Oil-contaminated soil obligates improvements and maintenance prior utilization as construction materials or agricultural purposes
 

 

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT SKIP FEEDING PROGRAMS ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER CHICKS

S. S. Shawkat; S. A. Rashid; Z. A. Muhammed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 158-168
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175870

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various skip feeding programs on some carcass characteristics of mixed sex broiler chicks. Two Hundred- Forty unsexed 1 day-old commercial strain broiler chicks were included in the experiment. Broilers allocated randomly to four treatment groups with four replicates each and 15 chicks per replicate. The feeding programs were as follows; (T0): Control treatment (The feed is placed in front of the birds on a permanent basis), (T1) Skip every 1 day, (T2) Skip every 2 days, and (T3) Skip every 3 days. Birds were fed ad libitum for two weeks. At age 42 days, one male and female were randomly chosen from each replicate to estimate the carcass characteristics. The results showed that during 14-42 days of age, significant differences (P≥0.05) were obtained for (dressing, breast, back, wings, thigh, drumstick, liver, heart, and gizzard) weight (g) in different skipping programs in males and females. Dressing, breast and thigh weights were significantly increases in group (T0) as compare with other groups. Significant increases were recorded for relative weights of liver, heart and gizzard for males in group (T1), while it was mentioned that characteristics and abdominal fat in females of group (T3) were increased in weights. The effect of treatments on chemical composition of breast, thigh and wings in both sexes were not significant differences except the fat percentage was significant improvement (P≥0.05) in breast percentage for (T2). No significant differences were observed in thigh and wings in both males and females except percentage of fat content in breast in group (T2) which recorded high values.
 

 

HEAVY METALS AND CONTAMINATION PARAMETERS REMOVAL BY DIFFERENT PLANT FROM WASTEWATER IN HYBRID CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

Q. K. Salh; K. T. Muhammad; K. A. Rashid

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 169-181
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175871

Water is essential requirement for every living creature on our planet to grow and prosper. The progress expansion and increased population of Sulaimani city caused increased in water demand and need for reusing of waste water for irrigation. This study aims to remove some waste water heavy metals and parameters by root and shoot of Macrophytes in Hybrid Constructed wetlands (HCW). HCW are designed as (Vertical-Horizontal and Horizontal-Vertical) along with sand filtration implemented with two local Macrophytes (Typha angustifolia and phragmate australis). The plant root and shoot were analyzed in beginning and end of the study to determine the removal rate. The result shows increase in the mean concentration values of heavy metals and waste water parameters in root and shoo of both T. angustifolia and Ph. australis in HCW (H&V) and (V&H). Therefore, Macrophytes in HCW can be used to remove heavy metals and other parameters from waste water used for irrigation.
 

PREDICTION OF SOIL HARD-SETTING USING SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION DATA AND ITS RELATION WITH DEGREE OF GYPSIFEREOUS SOIL COMPACTNESS

R. K. Saber; A. A. Al-Kayssi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 182-194
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175872

A laboratory experiment was carried out to predict soil hard-setting index (H-index) depending on soil moisture retension curve and its relationship soil degree of soil compactness (%DC) for seven soil samples with different gypsum content (62-443 g kg-1). Soil samples with (G2) 106, (G3) 153, (G4) 202, (G5) 245 and (G6) 337 g kg-1 gypsum content were prepared by mixing of surface soil layer soil with low gypsum content (G1) 62 g kg-1 with sub-surface with high gypsum content (G7) 443 g kg-1. The soil moisture retension curve of the soil samples were measured at tensions 0,5, 15, 33, 100, 500, 700, 1000 and 1500 kPa and at the soil bulk densities 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 and 1.8 Mg m-3. Soil hard setting (H-index),was determined according to van Genuchten-Mualem equation. The results indicate that soil hard setting index ( H-index) was negatively correlated with soil gypsum content. It decreases with increasing soil gypsum content. The soil bulk density was positively correlated with H-index, and Degree of soil compaction (%DC) was positively correlated with H-index for all gypsiferous soil samples.
 

 

PROFT MAXIMAZATION OF CATTLE BREEDERS IN RAMADI DISTRICT BY USING SHORT RUN COST FUNCTION FOR THE YEAR 2019

H. M. Al-Kohly; M. A. Al-Daoodi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 195-206
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175993

Livestock is no less important than plant wealth, as it is a basic source of food and a source of easy-to-digest animal protein for humans, as livestock is an important aspect in the agricultural sector, where the protein content of cattle and poultry meat reaches nearly (20%) , While the percentage of protein in fruits (0.7%) and in vegetables is approximately (0.1%), and the revitalization of the industrial sector takes place on most animal products, as main raw materials are used in the industrial sector, and that the strength of this intertwining relationship between agriculture and industry has a prominent effect on Generating and increasing funds and distributing them, and despite the development in the country and the large number of projects for the production of beef, these projects are unable to meet the need for local demand for beef and bridge the gap that occurs between local production and demand for it, which forces the state to allow By importing large quantities of this commodity. The study aims to analyze and estimate the cost functions for beef using the different cost functions, and analyze them statistically, analogically and economically. The cost function for beef cattle breeders in the short term was estimated using the OLS method for beef cows on a random sample of (50) farms in Ramadi city For the year (2019), the cubic formula was the best formula for estimating this function as it is more in line with economic logic and passed the first and second degree tests, and the level of production that lowest costs was determined at (132,299) tons, and the most profit was (245.15) tons in the short term.

RESPONSE OF YIELD AND ITS COMPONENT OF FOUR MAIZE CULTIVARS FOR FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH GLUTATHIONE

N. H. Zeboon; R. H. Mahmood

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 207-220
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175992

 A field experiment was conducted in the experimental field affiliated to the college of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, the University of Baghdad, Jadrya during the fall season 2018 to investigate the response of the yield of four varieties of corn to the spray of glutathione. The Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replications in order of factorial experiments. The experiment included two factors, the first was represented by four maize varieties (Fajer 1, Baghdad 3, 5018, and Al-Maha) and the second by four Glutathione concentrations 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg.L-1 sprayed at the two plant stages of 6 and 12 leaves for 75% of the total plants. The results showed a significant difference among varieties, The variety 5018. was superior in most of yield traits. So It produced the highest averages of the traits, ear length 20.79 cm, number of rows per 18.433 rows. ear-1, number of grains per a row 77.6 grains.row-1, area unit yield 9.076 Mg.ha-1, and biological yield 18.202 Mg.ha-1 compared to the other varieties. The Spraying with Glutathione had significant effect on the yield and its components. The concentration 300 mg.L-1 was superior in the most studied traits such as ear number 1.800 ears.plant-1, ear length 20.78cm, row number per an ear 19.317 rows.ear-1, 100-grains weight 32.68g, area unit yield 9.202 Mg.ha-1, and biological yield 19.500 Mg.ha-1, whereas the plats treated by spraying 200 mg.L-1 of Glutathione gave the highest averages of the traits, number of grains per a row and number of grains per an ear 44.82 grains.row-1and 809.ear-1 respectively, and the spray treatment 0 mg.L-1 gave the lowest averages of the most studied traits. We can conclusion from this study, it can be foliar spraying maize plants 5018 variety with 300 mg L-1 concentration from glutathione, because it improved from yield traits and its components.
 

TREND DETECTION OF AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE IN SULAYMANIYAH GOVERNORATE, IRAQ

G. H. Ahmed; D. A. Al-Manmi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 221-233
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175995

Change in the magnitudes of temperature and rainfall temporally and spatially can be observed, on both regional and global scales, so detecting the trend of their changes is essential to fit the management plans of hydrological, agricultural, and other water-related activities. In this study, the trend of annual temperature and annual rainfall magnitudes within Sulaymaniyah Governorate have been investigated by using the Mann–Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope estimator. The recorded data at five stations namely Sulaymaniyah, Dukan, Halabja, Penjwen, and Chamchamal stations across Sulaymaniyah Governorate have been studied. The results showed that the positive increasing trend appeared in the annual temperature values of the data of Sulaymaniyah, Dukan, Penjwen, and Chamchamal stations, while Halbja station didn’t reveals any trend in its annual temperature values. Regarding the trend of annual magnitudes of rainfall, the results showed that the trend didn’t appears in the rainfall magnitudes of all of the studied stations, based on the calculated value of (Z), the trend has not appeared in average annual rainfall depth in all of the studied stations at the significant level of 95%, however by taking the p-values, slightly trend toward negative was observed in Sulaymaniyah Station, while moderately trend toward negative and positive increase has appeared in Halabja and Chamchamal stations respectively, but at Dukan and Penjwen Stations, the trend has not appeared in the average annual rainfall.

STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION FUNCTION AND A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE TWO PERIODS (1971-2002) AND (2004-2014)

G. A. Tawfiq; I. A. AlSnbll

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 234-247
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175996

The structural changes that occurred in the Iraqi economy affected many factors, including these external factors and pressures imposed on the country, including internal variables such as nationalization of oil in the seventies and reflected on the investments of the agricultural, industrial and services sectors represented by agricultural, industrial and service projects. Structure and lack of integrity of the pattern that the indicators of structural changes associated with this sector have had or have had a negative impact on economic growth at the level of the economy in general. The researcher adopted the analytical, mathematical and standard approach to extract the agricultural production function for the period (1971-2002) and the period (2004-2014). The research aimed to measure the role of the agricultural sector in the gross domestic product, and to know the structural imbalances and the nature of their development during the study stages, and to find opportunities for solutions to obstacles or obstacles related to the agricultural sector by improving its position and performance in the Iraqi economy. The research concluded that there are structural imbalances in the ratio of agricultural work to the agricultural area (one per acre). Therefore, it is recommended that attention be paid to expanding the agricultural area, preserving its assets and not transferring it to the residential, service, and industrial sector, and reducing the number of workers according to the real needs of the agricultural sector, which is equivalent to the value of the marginal production for each worker, keeping pace with modern technological developments in agricultural production, and stopping the flight of capital to outside the agricultural sector , And reinvest it into the agricultural sector.

NON-CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF URTICA PILULIFERA OIL EXTRACT ON THE MORTALITY RATES OF WHITE –FLY IMMATURE STAGES BEMISIA TABACI ON CUCUMBER PLANT IN PLASTIC HOUSE

S. S. Sheet; S. K. AL-Jamil

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 248-255
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175997

This study conducted in Plant Protection Department College of Agriculture and Forestry Mosul University in 2020 to know the non_cumulative effect of oil extract of Urtica pilulifera on mortality rate of immature stage of White-fly Bemisia tabaci on cucumber plant in plastic house . The results show that the higher rate of mortality in egg was 24.33% at conc.3% after 72 h.of treatment. And the higher rate of mortality of nymph was 46.33% at conc.3% after 72 h. OF treatment.

ASTUDY THE THREE ORGANIC ACIDS AND THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp ON THE GROWTH AND PATHOGENESIS OF Alternaria spp AND ON STIMULATING TOMATO PLANT RESISTANCE AGAINST IT

Z. A. Hamdaan; S. S. Selim

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 256-268
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175998

The present study has investigated the activity of three organic acids (Benzoic, Salicylic and Oxalic and the effect of Trichoderma spp activity and its filtrate on the growth of Alternaria spp. And its role in stimulating the resistance of tomato plant against infection with /(treatment procedure) inoculating with fungi sprouts at 5 ×10³ concentration as the filtrate of Trichoderma spp. In a 10-day incubation period showed high inhibitory efficiency for the colony growth diameters of Alternaria spp. In vitro, after 7 days, an average was 21.67 mm compared to the control treatment that gave an average diameter of 50 mm. Trichoderma spp. Also gave a high inhibitory ability against the fungus Alternaria spp. The antagonistic experiment reached 22. 84% also gave organic acids (benzoic, salicylic and oxalic) a high inhibition against Alternaria spp. It reached 100% in laboratory media for 7 days at a concentration of 9 ml of benzoic acid and a concentration of 12 ml of each of salicylic and oxalic. The results of spraying plants showed an increase in the severity of infection as an indication of an increase. The number and area of spots in the control treatment that included inoculating tomato plants with Alternaria spp. To 3.14 spots/leaf per number and 7.69 mm² per area, while it reached when the treatment was sprayed with organic acids and the filtrate of Trichoderma spp. Before inoculation with Alternaria spp. The average number of spots was (0.96, 1.00 and 1.27). And 0.50) spot / sheet and area rate.

APPLICATION OF LOCALLY ISOLATED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA METABOLITES AS BIO-PRESERVATIVES TO INCREASE SHELF-LIFE, SAFETY AND QUALITY OF SOME FRUITS

P. S. Ibrahim; K. E. Aziz; R. A. Koy

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 269-284
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175999

The bio-preservation of fruits using cell free supernatant (CFS) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated directly from locally fermented dairy product was an innovative approach. This study was aimed to increase the shelf life and quality of some fruit samples during storage at room temperature by coating samples with CFS of Lb24 (L. plantarum strain MZ409592). Forty LAB were isolated from 30 locally fermented dairy products. Six LAB isolates which had the highest antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms were identified by 16SrRNA phylogenetic identification. The results showed that the six LAB strains were belong to Lactobacillus plantarum. CFS of L. plantarum Lb24 had highest antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms using in-vitro method. Then, fruits were coated with CFS of Lb24 at different concentrations (10%, 20% and 30%) by sprayed method for further study. The microbiological results showed that apples, pear and fig fruits coated with 20% and 30% of CFS of Lb24 had higher shelf life over 14, 12 and 6 days respectively. While, control fruit samples had lower shelf life during storage at room temperature. The increase in shelf-life of the different fruits suggests the possible use of Lb24 (L. plantarum strain MZ409592) as bio-preservatives in fruits.

RESPONSE OF TWO FLAX CULTIVARS TO CHEMICAL AND NANO-FERTILIZERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS

B. A. omer; B. J. Mahmood

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 285-305
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.176003

This study was done during (11th of November to 8th of June ,2020) at two locations (Grdarasha and Grdmala) in Erbil governorate to test the influence of seven fertilizer treatments [Control, Nano-NPK, Super Nano, Triple super phosphate, Urea, KCl and agricultural sulphate], two flax cultivars (Libra and Brazowe) and their interactions on growth, yield and oil content. The results indicated to significant effect of the studied factors and their interactions on growth, yield and oil % of the two flax seeds. The maximum seed yield 4.65 and 6.27 g plant-1 was recorded from plots sprayed with Nano-NPK, while the lowest values 2.58 and 4.45 g plant-1 was recorded from control in both locations respectively. While the highest seed yield value 4.42 and 5.86 g plant-1 were obtained from Brazowe cultivar. On the other hand, the interaction treatment of (Super Nano* Brazowe cultivar) and (TSP * Brazowe) were recorded the highest seed yield per plant which were 5.97 and 6.99 g plant-1 respectively. The highest oil values 32.96, 30.73 and 33.42% was observed from treatments Nano-NPK, Brazowe cultivar and treatment combination of (Nano-NPK* Brazowe cultivar) respectively.  

THE EFFECT OF THE BACTERIAL IN KILLING BELTHIRUL WP THE THIRD AND FIFTH LARVAL AGES OF GALLERIA MELLONELLA L.

M. M. Idris; S. K. AL-Jamil

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 306-314
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.176004

This study was conducted in the laboratory of postgraduate studies in the Department of Plant Protection / College of Agriculture and Forestry for the year 2019 and included a laboratory study to find out the effect of the bacterial Belthirul WP with some other auxiliaries on the percentage killing of larvae of the third and fifth ages of the great wax moth Galleria mellonella L. after different exposure periods. The results showed that the average percentage killing percentage with concentrations (1, 2, 3 gm/ liter) for the bacterial Belthirul WP, the exposure period for the third and fifth larval ages، and the overlap between the biocide concentrations, exposure periods and larval ages exceeded the concentration of 3 gm / liter significantly in the average killing ratios of third and fifth age larvae after 72 hours of treatment, it reached the highest average 100، 95.5% respectively. The results also showed the superiority of myrtle oil in compatibility with the bacterial biocide in increasing mortality percentages, as it reached 100 and 97% and after 72 hours of treatment for larvae of the third and fifth ages of the great wax moth, respectively.

INTRODUCING SEVERAL WHEAT GENOTYPES AND TESTING THEM FOR PLANTING UNDER WESTERN PARTS OF IRAQ CONDITIONS

A. S. Abdul-Hassan; M. H. Al-Issawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 315-328
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.176184

A field experiment was carried out in the western parts of Iraq aimed to screen 21 wheat genotypes introduced to arid and semi-arid areas by the Ministry of Science and technology beside 3 registered genotypes (IRAQ, Diar, and Mahmodiah) for comparison. A randomized completely block design was used to achieve this experiment with three replications for each genotype. The results of this study showed that recently introduced genotypes and planted for the second season sequentially in the western parts of Iraq of which promising genotypes to be nominated for other plant breeding programs beside they can be registered after planting them for other seasons to ensure their stability in terms of growth and production under such conditions. The seeds of genotypes varied in their content of Mo and N and this indicates their variation in growth and production as well as metabolism processes in the plant. Also, this was confirmed the variation in the activity of NR enzyme which in turn depends on Mo and assimilates N in the plant. It is worth mentioning that the activity of this enzyme was superior in genotype 29 which also was superior in yield (ton ha-1). Genotype 31 was superior by giving the highest average of yield over most introduced genotypes as well as registered ones. It can be recommended to use genotypes with high yields to be used in plant breeding programs.

SPATIAL PREDICTION OF THE CONTENT OF CARBONATE MINERALS AND GYPSUM AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE FORMATION OF HEAT ISLANDS USING THERMAL IMAGING

S. M. Al-Juraysi; Q. K. Al-Obeidi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 329-342
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.176223

The study area was chosen to the south of a Haditha lake. It is located between longitudes 41º 42 '02 "and 42º 27 03" E, and between longitude 34º 02 24 "and 34º 32 08" N, Western desert region at borders of Al-Anbar Governorate in the lower valley unit. It occupies an area of 186240 ha., Thermal units were isolated using the thermal image and 6 pedon were determined, which were accessed using a GARMIN GPS device, based on the Landsat8 satellite image captured on 7/25/2019, use the coefficient. The correlation and the simple linear regression equation between the temperature and each of the lime and gypsum in the soil for the surface horizon. The values for both lime and gypsum were projected using temperature, and the values of the image's pixels were converted into quantitative values for the content of lime and gypsum. The results showed that the study area included five thermal ranges, which included water bodies with an area of 50,300 hectares with a rate of 21.26%, whose temperature ranged from 26-43 degrees Celsius, and land areas with an area of 186,240 hectares, with a rate 78.74%, it was classified into four classes, as the first class occupied an area of 4618.75 hectares with a rate 2.48% of the study area, as it a temperature of 43-46 degrees Celsius, the second class, which had a temperature of 46-49 degrees Celsius, it occupied an area of 78909.89 hectares, equivalent to 42.37% of the study area. The third class had a temperature of 49-52 degrees Celsius and occupied an area of 39873.98 hectares, with a rate of 21.41% of the study area, and the fourth class, which recorded a temperature of 52-55 degrees Celsius, occupying an area of 62837.38 hectares, with 33.74% of the study area.
The Spatial prediction values for lime and gypsum were 380 g/kg and 375 g/kg, respectively. The area of Spatial Completion calcareous soils with a content of more than 225 g/kg was about 68517.7 hectares, with 36.79%, while the area of gypsum soils with a content of more than 150 g/kg was about 78595.9 hectares, with 42.21% of the study area.

USING THE LINEAR PROGRAMMING METHOD IN PRODUCTION PLANNING FOR AL-AMEEN FACTORY FOR THE YEAR 2017

M. N. Hassan; F. J. Yassin

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 217-227
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175994

The food industry is one of the basic and important industries, as it contributes effectively to securing food for people, and it has great economic importance as it is one of the main pillars of food security. This study came to highlight the importance of using modern quantitative methods, including the linear programming method, in planning the optimal production of the Al-Amin factory for the year 2017 and reaching the optimal combination of products that achieve the largest amount of profit margin for the factory, by building a linear model using the Simplex method for its ability to deal with A large number of variables and seeks to achieve the highest return by using WinQSB application program to measure and analyze results. . A number of conclusions were reached, the most important of which is that the factory lacks an accurate scientific method for planning its production, as it depends on scientific experience and on previous annual plans. The use of the linear programming method in the factory resulted in the preparation of an optimal production plan, as the optimal production plan was able to achieve An increase in the total amount of actual production by (19.47%), and the study recommended the adoption of scientific methods in production planning.