Volume 19, Issue 1, Spring 2021


USING OF MOLYBDENUM TO IMPROVE SOME OF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MITIGATION INDUCED DROUGHT DAMAGE BY PEG-6000 IN MUNG BEAN SEEDLINGS (VIGNARADIATE L.)

H. M. Al-Ubaidy; M. Ismail; A. H. Abdulmajeed; Mohammed Al-Issawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-19
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175729

A laboratory experiment was carried out in seed technology lab in department of field crop sciences/ College of Agriculture-University of Anbar in order to study effect of molybdenum in priming mung bean seeds (cv Local) under effect of induced drought by using PEG-6000. Four Mo concentrations were used 0, 15, 30, 45 mg L-1 while PEG-6000 was also used to get water stress of 0, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2 bar in medium of seed germination. The experiment was laid out RCBD with four replications for each treatments. The important results of the study showed that Mo application with concentration of 45 mg L-1 improved germination and growth of mung bean characteristics including plumule length (5.41 cm) and xylem dimensions in radical (2 mm2), Plumule epidermis (2.5 mm2) and xylem in plumule (3.5 mm2). However, the application of 15 mg L-1 improved radical length (6.47 cm), Radical epidermis (5 mm2), radical xylem dimensions (3.5 mm2) and phloem in plumule (3.5 mm2). It can be concluded from this study that the increase in water stress led to reduction in lab performance of germination and growth of mung bean seedlings, while the application of Mo enhanced it through the activation of some growth characteristics therefore it can be recommended using Mo in order to support growth and production of different crops.

BEE POLLEN, DESCRIPTION, COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL AND THERAPEUTIC ADVANTAGES

M. A. Salman; L. S. Mohammed; Sh. A. Saewan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 20-30
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175730

The importance of this study Included obtaining a comprehensive definition of the pollen that honey bees collect from plants and their nutritional importance through it contains: proteins, essential amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids, Enzymes, vitamins, minerals, phenols, flavonoids, Pigments and sterols, And its therapeutic importance, it has many uses as it is a bioactive product that has benefited people in many areas, as it contains antioxidants and antibacterial materials, as it has been used in into nutritional, medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Many studies dealing with pollen in the world aimed at identifying its components and studying the disparity between them, according to the variation in the region, plant type, climate, seasons and types of bees, as well as from the nutritional and therapeutic, and included in products related to cosmetics. Thus, some of the related studies are summarized in this review.

REEVALUATION OF KAOLINITE OCCURRENCE IN SOME TORRIFLUVENTS IRAQI SOIL

R. A. Al-Tamimi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175731

Clay fraction of Torrifluvents Iraqi soils contained different clay mineral groups. Usually, samples with limited number of clay minerals, can be defined mainly by x-ray diffraction analysis. Whereas poly-mineralized soil needs additional techniques to clarify its mineral composition accurately. Kaolinite which is characterized by reflection peaks at 7.2 Aº and (3.55-3.57 Aº), are normally overlapped with those of chlorite peaks. This work was carried out to reevaluate the occurrence of kaolinite in some Iraqi soils with the presence of chlorites. Clay fractions from four Torrifluvents Iraqi soils were used in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis with different heat treatments is referred to the presence of kaolinite and soil chlorite. Intercalation with dimethylsulfoxide, after saturation with Li (Li-DMSO) showed the presence of a peak at 11.3 Aº, which confirmed the presence of trace amount of kaolinite. However, the continuous occurrence of the peaks at 7.2 and 14.4 Aº are referred to the presence of chlorites. Reduction the intensity of 7.2 Aº peaks by heating at temperature below 500o C confirmed the presence of soil chlorite which overlap with kaolinite. There was no difference among the four soils with regard to the presence of soil chlorite and kaolinite.

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS OF TWO SESAME VARIETIES (SESAMUM INDICUM L.)

E. Ismail

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 38-54
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175972

 A field experiment was carried out in the district of Tarmiyah / Baghdad governorate to study the effect Levels of two types of organic fertilizer sheep manure, poultry manure on the growth, yield and oil traits of two sesame varieties Sesamum indicum L. for the Sammer season 2020. The experiment was applied according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with Split Plot System, using two varieties of sesame (Ishtar and Babel) and two types of organic fertilizer (sheep manure, poultry manure) with four levels for each of them are (0, 6, 8 and 12 tons. ha-1), where the best was recorded. The significant superiority of Babel variety in the interferences with the fertilizer level (12 tons. ha-1) for the two types of organic fertilizers mentioned in the traits of each of the plant height, the number of branches in the plant and the percentage of ash, whose mean was (171.54, 183.17 cm and 6.98, 8.41 branches. plant-1 and 4.06, 3.73%) respectively. While the superiority was the best the most significant among the Ishtar variety by interferences with the level (12 tons. ha-1) for the two types of organic fertilizers in the traits of each of the number of capsules per plant (136.13 and 145.24 capsule. plant-1), respectively, the number of seeds per capsule (66.98 and 70.12 seed. capsule-1), respectively, and the weight of 1000 seeds (4.54 and 5.40 gm) respectively and total seed yield (2.69 and 2.81 tons.  ha-1), respectively, and oil percentage (57.39 and 60.03%) respectively.

THE EFFECT OF BINARY INTERFERENCE BETWEEN MAGNETIZED WATER AND BIO-FERTILIZATION IN THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF EGGPLANT Solanum Mebongena L PLANTED UNDER TUNNELS

H. J. Mohammed; Y. M. Abed; T. Dalia; A. J. Mohammed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 55-68
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175973

Field experiment was conducted in fields Department of Research and Studies –Horticulture in the district of Abu Ghraib of the province of Baghdad, During the agricultural season 2017. Experiment was carried Split plot design with R.C.B.D. with three replicates, to aim determination of the effect of binary interference between magnetized water and bio-fertilization in the qualities of growth (Plant height, Fruit length, Fruit diameter, Fruit weight, Number of fruits) and yield of Eggplant planted under tunnels. The experimental parameters included three magnetized intensities (0 ,600 ,1200) Gs, and two levels of bio-fertilization level 1 without adding (control) and the second level contaminated seeds with bio-fertilizer. The results showed a significant effect for magnetic water used in the experiment in the row the length of the plant, as it reached highest value 86.83cm when using magnetized water with magnetic intensity of 1200 Gs and the lowest values reached 81.00 cm when control treatment. The results also showed significant increases in the remaining growth and yield characteristics when using magnetized water. The use of bio-fertilization has a significant effect on the plant height reaching its highest values 88.11cm when using bio-fertilization and its lowest values reached 81.76cm without the use of bio-fertilization this result was consistent with the studied characteristics. As well as the binary interference between magnetized water and bio-fertilization have a significant effect on all studied characteristics.                                                                                                  

THE USE OF AZOTOBACTER AND AZOSPIRILLUM AS A CATALYST FOR COEXISTENCE OF ZUCCHINI SQUASH WITH SALINITY

R. A. AL-Hadithi; A. A. Al-Rawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 69-83
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.175974

Chroococcum and A. brasilense bacteria were isolated and identified from the root and the surrounding area of Arundo donax andCladium marisas plants growing in different areas in Ramadi city in order to be used in pollinating the seeds of zucchini squash plant. A pot experiment was carried out in the spring season on 16 ⁄ 3 ⁄ 2019 in one of the fields of the College of Agriculture - University of Anbar, by following the design of complete randomized sectors RCBD. It included two factors of salinity of irrigation water and four levels of S0, S1, S2 and S3 (1.3, 3, 5 and 7 dSm-1) and the factor of adding the bacterial isolates of Azotobacter L1 and Azospirillum L2 and their two mixtures L3, and without adding the L0 inoculum in order to study the effect of bacterial pollination on some growth characteristics of squash plants irrigated with different salinity water levels. The results showed a decrease in plant height, number of leaves and dry weight of the shoots from 53.48 cm, 33.00 leaf-1, 25.97 gm-1 at the S0 level, to 26.95 cm, 14.08 g-leaf-1, and 12.41 g-leaf-1 at the S3 level. The treatment of the two isolates mixture L3 achieved a significant increase in plant height, number of leaves and dry weight, and it was 55.53 cm, 44.00 leaf-1 and 28.33 g-leaf-1 compared with the comparison treatment at the S0 level. The salinity of irrigation water caused an increase in the nitrogen concentration in the vegetative parts of the plant from 1.77% to 2.07%, and caused a decrease in the concentration of phosphorus and potassium from 0.63 and 2.37% to 0.21 and 0.56%. The concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium significantly increased in the vegetative parts of the plant when the bacterial inoculation treatments were obtained, and the treatment L3 recorded the highest values and reached 2.75% N at the level of salinity of S3 and gave the highest value for the concentration of phosphorus and potassium, which were 0.75 and 2.87%, respectively, at the S0 level. 

EVALUATION THE EFFICACY OF SOME ANTIOXIDANT AND SECONDARY METABOLISM PRODUCTS OF TRICHODERMA SPP IN GROWTH AND PATHOGENICITY OF HENDERSONULA TOLUROIDEA THE PATHOGEN OF EUCALYPTUS TREES SCATTERED IN DIFFERENT LOCATION IN ANBAR GOVERNORATE

S. N. Musa; S. S. El-Din Selim

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 84-95
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2030.175977

The study aimed to isolate the pathogen of eucalyptus trees scattered in various locations of Anbar University and some of the groves of the city of Ramadi and the surrounding areas that were marked by signs of wilting stems and branches that showed soot deposits. The effect of Trichoderma spp fungi isolated 10 days, 15 days, and 20 days from cuddling was tested, as examination results showed non-inhibiting ratios for both collection dates 10 days and 15 days. The percentages were 0% for both previous collection dates. The results of collection dates after 20 days of the higher vaccine gave an effect in Inhibiting the growth of pathogenic mushrooms H. toluroidea  As the percentage of inhibition reached 73%  the result showed to examine the effect of mixing between products of secondary metabolism of the fungus Trichoderma spp isolated after 20 days from brood and some of the antioxidants, which reached the percentage of inhibition of the growth of pathogenic fungi 100% and 70% and 69% when mixing treatments for secondary metabolites Trichoderma spp. Has hydroquinone, vitamin E and ammonium tartrate, respectively..

EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS FIBROLYTIC ENZYMES ON PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL MALE GOATS

S. S. Khalifa; S. Sh. Khalaf

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 96-105
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.176226

The study was carried out at the Ruminant Researches Station, Department of Livestock Research, and Section of Agricultural Research, in the district of Abu Ghraib / Baghdad.  The objective of this study was to assess the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) (Safizym®- France) on the performance of local male goats. The study included two experiments: Experiment 2 (Nutritional Trail), the experiment was conducted during the period from 22 May 2017 to 17 July 2017. Eighteen males of local goats aged 4-5 months were used in this experiment. The animals were randomly assigned to three equal groups (6 animals/group). The first group (control) without enzyme, the second group (T1) treated with the EFE of 500g/ton of concentrate feed, the third group (T2) treated with the EFE of 1000g/ ton of concentrate feed. Experiment 2 (Digestion Trail), The digestion trail continued for a week during the period from 22 July 2017 until 28 July 2017. In this trail, nine local male goats were used. Three males from each group from experiment 1 were selected and submitted to the same previous treatments. The results showed no significant differences in body weight among the treatments during the duration of the experiment as well as between the weeks within the same treatment as a result of treatment with EFE of 500 g/ ton and 1000 g/ ton of concentrate feed. There were no significant effect on dry matter intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. The results of the second experiment showed no significant effect of the treatment with EFE in the digestion coefficient of all nutrients as well as the total digestible nutrients.

STUDYING THE EFFECT OF ADDING SWEET POTATO FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL AND RHEDOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME PRODUCTS

S. S. Yaseen; Y. I. Al-Hadidy; H. M. Salih

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 106-113
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.176243

This study was conducted in the laboratories of the College of Agriculture, Tikrit University / Department of Food Science, and at the Tikrit Mill. In this study, spelled flour was replaced with sweet potato flour with replacement rates 5, 10 and 15%. And the results showed the following: A noticeable decrease in the moisture content of the compound flour samples compared to the standard control sample. It also showed a decrease in the protein content. This decrease was most intense when the replacement ratios increased, in the highest level of decrease was recorded at the replacement rate of 15%. The results also showed a significant increase in the content of ash and fats compared to the standard sample of the control, while the concentration of 15% recorded the highest value of absorbance in the theological properties when measuring with a farinograph device. The same is the case for amylograph, Whereas, the higher the replacement rates, the higher the degree of gelatinization and the degree of viscosity, and it is clear from this study that 15% is the best percentage in terms of the theological properties of the product.

EFFECT OF REARING TYPE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF LOCAL GOATS IN THE SULAYMANIYAH REGION

Z. A. Mohammed; Ch. A. Omar; H. M. Husien; S. S. Shawkat

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2021, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 114-130
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2021.176263

This study was conducted in two different areas in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate / Kurdistan Region of Iraq, in spring 2021. Thirty-six adult local goats (18 does + 18 bucks) and different colors of goats (black, brown and white), aged 1.5-2 years by using two types of rearing, OG: Open grazing (for this system Qaiwan area was used, Mountainous logic), the animal in the group open grazing deepening on natural grazing for all days. IS: Intensive system (for this system Arbat area was used, not a mountain logic), the animal in the group intensive system depending on traditional feeding regime. The purpose of this study was to see how different husbandries affected some blood and hormone parameters. Moreover, blackbuck goat’s, (WBCs), L%, MCHC, and MCV were significant differences (p<0.05) for OG, and MO%, N%, N/L, Hb and HCT for IS, brown goat’s, L% and MO% for OG, and (WBCs), N/L and MCHC for IS, white goat’s, (WBCs), L%, Hb and HCT for IS and MCHC for OG. Black doe goat’s, N%, E%, B%, N/L, RBC, Hb, and MCV were significant differences (p<0.05) for OG, and (WBCs), L%, MO%, MCHC and MCH for IS, brown goat’s, N%, E%, N/L and MCV for OG, and L%, RBC, MCHC and MCH for IS, white goat’s, (WBCs), L%, N%, Hb and MCHC for OG and N/L and RBC for IS, whereas other parameters were not significant. Cholesterol level in both sexes of (black and white) and brown doe goats were significant differences (p<0.05) for IS, brown buck goats was not significant. The total protein level in both sexes of black goats and brown doe goats were significantly different (p<0.05) for IS, while brown buck and white doe for OG. Glucose concentration was significantly different (p<0.05) in both sexes of three-color in OG, except brown doe, was for IS. Cortisol levels, in both sexes, were significant differences (p<0.05), (black and white buck) and (brown and white doe) goats for IS, whereas brown buck and white doe for OG. Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) levels in buck goats were not significant, while white and brown doe were significant differences (p<0.05) for OG, black doe for IS.