Issue 1

Attitudes of Agricultural College Students-University of Al-anbar Toward Farming And Factors Associated With Them

I. H. Al-Saad; A. A. Al-Hadithy; A. I. Al-Awsi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

The success of development process requires the integration of its components of human and material support, and in regard to the importance of attitudes as the engine of human behavior, the present study was put to identify students attitude toward farming and its relation with some independent students variables.
Random sample of about 52.2% out of 157 students in the fourth stage in college of agriculture has been selected as being the closest to choose their future jobs.
Likert type scale has been used to measure students attitudes through 14 variant statements given five graded standards to measure the range of student's agreement for each statement to define his attitude towards farming.
The study concluded that students attitude toward farming was mostly between the high and the very high categories, and the study showed as well that there is variation in the level of averages of attitudes according to Age , Study dep. , High school graduation average and the Number of family members , but these differences were not significant at the time the study indicate the existence of a significant correlation between attitude and the Gender of student and the amount and source of family monthly income and the interest of the student follow-up of television programs and publications . The research contained number of recommendation that can be placed before the planners of agricultural policy of the country to take advantage of them and to make use of the educated and professional staff in order for the development and evolution of the agriculture section .

Seed size and Fe fertilization effects on seedling growth of wheat genotypes grown in Fe deficient calcareous soil

M. S. Dohuki; S.N Al-Niemi; S. S. Barwary

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

Greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of seed size and Fe fertilization on the early growth of wheat genotypes grown in Fe deficient clay soil which characterized by high pH and high level of calcium carbonate. Seedling of 15 wheat genotypes were grown under factorial combinations of four levels of Fe treatment and two seed size groups to evaluate the effects of seed size and Fe application on the early growth and Fe efficiency of wheat genotypes. Leaf area, chlorophyll, plant height and the shoot and root dry matter production were decreased in seedling grown from small seed size which had the low seed quality (lower seed Fe content). High Fe seed resulted better root and shoot dry matter production and root depth than high soil applied Fe. The results also demonstrated that seed Fe content can improve vegetative growth of wheat genotypes grow in Fe – deficient soil more effectively than application of Fe fertilizer to soil. A considerable variation within wheat genotypes for the ability of plant to grow and yield well when the availability of Fe is low was found.. This significant genetic variation in Fe efficiency indicated that selection for improved micronutrient efficiency is possible and will allow more efficient genotype of wheat to be developed.
Key words: seed size, iron efficiency, deficiency, calcareous soil

Effect of container , medium weight , and moisture content on aflatoxin B1 production on rice

Salim H. S. AL-warshan; O. N. AL- Hadethy

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 11-17

Laboratory experiment was carried out to evaluate three kinds of media containers for aflatoxin B1 production on rice . One liter volume flasks , one kilogram silicon bag, and 25 Cm wide ,5Cm high Petri dish ,with three media weight , 50 , 150 and 250 gram / container at three moisture content , 18% , 20% , 22%. Results showed highly significant differences ( P< 0.01 ) in amount of aflatoxin B1 concentrations between treatments , and the Petri dish was superior among treatments followed by flask while silicon bag resulted in the least of aflatoxin production at 18% of moister content for all used weights . The results also showed adverse effects of increased weight and moisture content of culture media on fungal growth and inhibition of toxin production in all treatments .

Attitudes of Agricultural Extension Agents toward Agricultural Extension Training

Adnan. I. alawssi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 8-23

The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes of the trainees toward the agricultural extension trainings which were conducted by the general foundation of agricultural co-operation and extension. Their attitudes were the practical elements of training of the trainee and trainers, training programs, method of teaching, certain explanations, actual locations, training capability available and their relation to the success of these training periods. The researcher was dependent on an informatory questionnaire to collect data. A total of (92) trainers were used and data were analyzed by (spss) statically program . This analysis was dependent on the percentages and mathematical means to describe the individual characteristics of sample and lacer scale was used to determine the attitudes of the trainees toward of training courses. Results showed that the trainee (% 82. 6) attitudes toward the training practice scaled in general form negative to neutral. Also , result showed that the trainee attitudes toward the trainers the training facilities and training material were scaled from neutral (%79. 3 ) to negative (%92 . 4) . The trainee attitudes toward the trainers and training inclusions were scaled from neutral (%91 . 3) to positive (%89. 1) while the their trends toward the capability element were negative (%48 . 9) . This study has given certain recommendations by which give arisen to the training ability.

Estimate the cost Long-run function and economies of the optimal size in wheat farms under sprinkler irrigation system Be pivotal role in the desert land – Anbar province-AL- Kahem constituency for the productive season 2009 /2010

Dahid falih hassan All Hamdani

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 24-35

The need to guide investors in the cultivation of wheat under sprinkler irrigation central role in the desert land in the province of Anber ,and determine the optimal size of the farm and the cost per unit produced under sprinkler irrigation in the adoption of ideal size , so it was the goal of the study estimate the cost long-run function economical analysis of the function. It was found that the volume of production optimization were (170950) k.g is achieved when the area bit the farm (239.8) donm and an average cost of production per kg about ( 115 ) dinars, and show that the production volume majesty for-profit (232010.850 ) k.g is achieved when the area of the farm (324.8) donms and miximution cost per kilogram to (164) dinars, and the average optimal productivity per donm (713) k.g / sq.m and also found that the farms that operate within the area of economic efficiency was ( 34) farm and constitution (85%) of the number of farms in the sample.

Impact of the Agricultural Policies on Wheat Product in the Anbar province

Mishal Abid Khalaf

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 36-47

This Study aimed at measuring the economic impact of the price support policy policy of price support on wheat producer in the Anbar province ,and measuring the comparative advantage of wheat production systems and determines the cause of leakage in the support provided to them . Hence, the selection of blocks sample from 40 wheat farmers under traditional irrigation farms and 25 under sprinkler irrigation .Its form included economic aspects related to quantities and cost of inputs ,production and other related psychological estimated of causes leakage of positive effects of support prices.
Using of policy analysis matrix elements from estimated rates of quantities of inputs and outputs, according to a regular production of wheat in the province referred to. it was found that the nominal protection coefficient of wheat farmers is greater than one indicating the existence of nominal protection to product prices .as stated the effective protection coefficient values greater than one ,and largest values of nominal protection coefficient ,that indicating wheat producers are protected by the outputs and inputs alike .the effective protection coefficient to wheat producers under traditional irrigation greater than its value to production under sprinkler irrigation. It's perhaps because of state intervention in providing water to them farms.
the value of Domestic Resources cost coefficient indicating that product under sprinkler have proportion advantage than traditional irrigation .the private profit is positive and the values of criteria indicating the benefit farms from the policy of government intervention and local costs for donum it less than gross value added .the results of the analysis of leakage in varying amounts of support and in general show that the support price of the product less leak comparative than b support resource prices.

Response of Black Hamburg grape cv, ( Schiava Grossa L. ) to foliar spray with Yeast suspension, Licorice roots extract and Amino Quelant-K compound

A. F. AL-Dulaimy; Farouk Faraj Jumaa

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 48-65

نفذت التجربة في مدينة الرمادي / محافظة الانبار للموسمين 2009 و 2010 لمعرفة تاثير رش معلق الخميرة ومستخلص عرق السوس ومركب الامينوكولنت بوتاسيوم في نمو وحاصل العنب صنف Black Hamburg المربى بطريقة القمريات واجري التقليم الشتوي في منتصف كانون الثاني ولموسمي الدراسة وذلك بترك 8 قصبات اثمارية يحتوي كل منها على 15 عينا" مع ترك عدد من الدوابر التجديدية وبواقع برعمين , اضيفت عوامل الدراسة رشا" بالمستويات ( 0 ، 5 و 10 غم / لتر ) و ( 0 ، 2 و 4 غم / لتر ) و ( 0 ، 2 و 4 مل / لتر ) لكل من الخميرة ومستخلص عرق السوس ومركب الامينوكولنت بوتاسيوم على التوالي وبثلاثة مواعيد الاول قبل اسبوعين من الازهار والثاني بعد اسبوع من العقد والثالثة بعد اربعة اسابيع من الموعد الثاني, صممت المعاملات بتجربة عاملية بتصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة بثلاثة مكررات بواقع كرمة واحدة لكل وحدة تجريبية وبذلك يكون عدد الكرمات الداخلة في التجربة 81 كرمة . أظهرت النتائج ان عدد العناقيد تأثر معنويا" للموسم الثاني فقط وذلك عند الرش بالخميرة والامينوكولنت اذ حققت المعاملتان ( 10 غم/لتر خميرة و 4 مل/لتر أمينوكولنت ) اكبر عدد للعناقيد بلغ 51,19 و 50,74 عنقود/كرمة مقارنة مع المعاملتين ( 0غم/لتر خميرة و 0 مل/لتر أمينوكولنت ) اذ اعطتا اقل عدد للعناقيد 47,85 و 47,67 عنقود/كرمة ، كذلك فان معامل الخصوبة أظهر تأثره بعوامل الدراسة للموسم الثاني فقط اذ اعطت المعاملات ( 10 غم/لتر خميرة ، 4 غم/لتر عرق السوس و 4 مل/لتر أمينوكولنت ) اعلى القيم وبلغت 1,24 ، 1,20 و 1,22 , كما بينت النتائج ان معاملات البحث قد أثرت معنويا" في مساحة الورقة ومحتوى الاوراق من الكلوروفيل ومحتوى القصبات من النتروجين والكربوهيدرات .

Effect of foliar sprays of some nutrients on some vegetative and yield traits of grape cv, Black Hamburg ( Schiava Grossa L. )

A. F. AL-Dulaimy

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 66-81

This study was conducted in private vineyard in Al-Ramadi city/ Al-Anbar province during the growing seasons 2009 and 2010 to investigate the effect of spraying Yeast suspension, Licorice roots extract and Amino quelant-K on growth, yield and some other traits of grape Vitis vinifera L,cv, Black Hamburg.
Eighty one of 8 years old vine have been selected, These vines were trained as arbors training and planted on (4 m width x 20 m length) distance with 2,5 m between vines, Winter pruning was performed at the middle of January for both seasons by leaving 120 eye vine distributed on 8 canes, 15 eye in each, also two spurs were left 2 renewing buds for each.
Study factors, which were involved three concentrations of Yeast suspension (0, 5 and 10 g/l), Licorice roots extract (0, 2 and 4 g/l) and Amino quelant-K (0, 2 and 4 ml/l) were applied at three times, The totals of 27 treatments were distributed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in factorial experiment with three replicates, Each vine was considered as a single experimental unit.
Results indicated that foliar spraying with these materials was resulted in significant increment in yield in both seasons, The treatments of 10 g/l , 4 g/l and 4 ml/l of Yeast suspension, Licorice roots extract and Amino quelant-K, respectively gave the highest yield and reducing sugars in berry that were ( 32,78 ، 31,18 and 32,9 kg/vine ) and ( 26,87 ، 26,28 and 27,12 kg/vine ) in both seasons, respectively, While the reducing sugars in berry were ( 13,72 ، 13,51 and 14,04 % ) in the first season and ( 15,48 ، 15,66 and 15,80 % ) in the second season, respectively, Also, there were significant increments in cluster weight and berries size that were ( 566,2 ، 552,55 and 579,37 ) , ( 382,41 ، 378,43 and 376,87 ) in the first season , ( 523,90 ، 525,35 and 534,12 ) , ( 435,76 ، 435,89 and 441,56 ) in the second season, respectively, Also, the treatments significant increments anthocyanine pigment content accompanied with significant reduction in total acidity content.

Effect of foliar Humic acid application and Mulching of soil on character of Growth and Yield of strawberry Fragaria ananassa D.

Rasmy M.H. Aldulaimy; Osama K.I. Alsinbol

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 82-96

The experiment was conducted in Alamria-Fallujah at Anbar proviance during spring season of 2010-2011 to study the effect of foliar application with humic acid and soil mulching and their interaction on some features of vegetative and rooting growth and yield of strawberry Rubygem &Fern variety. The foliar application of humic acid with 0, 1,2and4 ml/L where tow minds mulching with straw , black plastic in addition to control treatment without mulching were used. Factorial experiment with Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD in three replicates .The best result in total leaves area/plant, the percent of fruit set and total yield and root content of dry matter were obtained in Fern which get (1879.9cm2,, 62.83%, 166.08gm and 41.87gm)respectively. Mulching soil also had a significant effect on plant growth and yield and the treatment mulching straw the best result in mention characters which get (1592.3cm2, 40.92gm, 68.48%, 168.04gm) respectively. Foliar application with humic acid had a significant effect on average total leaves area/plant, root content of dry matter, the percent of fruit set and yield/plant which get (1968.2cm2, 44.42gm, 67.09%, 189.19gm) respectively. The interaction between mulching and foliar application had a significant effect in both varieties all mention of features.


Haytham M. Alabdaly

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 97-106

The experiment was conducted in 2009 / 2010 in the college of Agriculture – Anbar univ. Field in order to study the effect of foliar application treatments of putrecine and Thiamine at (0 ,50 and 100) ppm as a singl or dual applicate on vegilative and flowering growth , croms and cormels yield and chemical compostion of Gladiolus plants var white snow prince .
The experiment was sitted up in a completely Randomized design (CRD) with three replicates,better results showed in plantes those foliar spraying with 100 ppm from each Putrcine and Thiamine together which gave plant hight 159.57 cm , 12.33 leaves/plant , 22.87g as a mean of fresh weight of vegetative growth and 3.84g as a dry weight of vegetative growth , lenghth of spike 120.4 cm , number of florets per spike 13.3 florets , fresh weight of corm 21g , diameter of corm 11 cm , fresh weight of cormels 3.55 , number of cormels 29.68 comrel / plant , chlorophyll a content 0.671 mg / 100 g and 0.392 mg / 100 g chlorophyll b content , total carotinoides 0.895 mg / 100 g , 3.03 mg/ 100 g total phenols , total soluble sugar 5.6 mg / 100 g and percentage of macro element 13% N , 0.28% P and 0.32% K .

Effect of Brassinolide ,Cytokinin and Auxins on In Vitro propagation of Citrus Rootstock (Swingle Citrumelo)

M. S. Hamad; S. K . ALchalabi; M . T. AL jubori

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 107-116

Astudy on in vitro micropropagation of a citrus Rootstock (Swingle Citrumelo)Was Conducted at the tissue culture lab.located in postgraduate building /Collage of Agric./Uni.of Baghdad from September 2010 till August 2011. single nodal segment or terminal shoots were explanted on MS medium supplemented with som plant growth regulators( Brassinolide ,Cytokinin and Auxins ). The aims of the study were increasing number of length shoots ; rooting and plantlet acclimatization.
Results showed that 3% of NaOCl was the best for explant disinfestation only 10% of explants were contaminated although 4.5 or6.0 %of NaOCl gave 100% disiafestation ، the concentration were poisonous.
Single nodal segments responded better than terminal shoots. in the establishment stage. MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg / L BA + 0.4mg / L IAA was superior on shoot multiplication ( 11.10 shoots / explant) . While MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg / L NAA + 0.048 mg / L BL. Was more effective on root number 9.44 roots / explant. Most plantlets 95% were acclimatized when They were cultured on soil consisted of 1 : 1 sand : peatmoss.

Effect of use high concentrations of urea as a foliar nutrition in some physiological aspects and characteristics of the fruits of eggplant Solanum melongena L.

S. S. Saleem Al-Saeedi; H. F. Abdul Fatah; R. M. Hamad

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 117-127

The field experiment had been conducted in the Lath-house in the college of Agricaltur , Anbar University by planting Solanum melongena L. Black beauty during agricultural season of 2010. Seedlings were distributed randomly according to complete randomized design (CRD) . The four concentrations of urea dissolved in distill water . The levels of urea were control (N0) ; 0.5 g/L(N1) ;1 g/L(N2) ; 8gm/L (N3) . Eggplants were sprayed by urea concentrations four times starting 40 days after transplanting .Results showed that the N2 and N1 treatments had the highest fruit weight (216.54g) and (200.25g) respectively .Both are significant differs in comparison with control treatment (159.18g) . Length of the fruits N2 showed the highest 11.56 cm which was upgraded to level of significant in comparison with control treatment (10.64 cm). As to the diameter of the fruit ,treatment N2 showed the highest value of diameter is (5.79 cm) with significant elevation in value in comparison with control treatment value (5.28cm). As concerning the physiological study N2 treatment had the highest rate of total chlorophyll (5.53mg/g) with significant differences in comparison with control and N3 treatment 4.30 mg/g and 3.43 mg/g at rate respectively Result also showed control to have the lowest ratio of nitrogen percentage in leafs (3.76%) in comparison to its value recorded by N3 treatment (3.95%) and with significant difference. Obviously result showed that spraying eggplant with urea of 0.5 g/L(DW) and 1 g/L(DW) concentration was suitable once to have the highest quality and quantity yield of fruits and the best physiological condition to plant.

Effect of surge and continuous irrigation method on some of the infiltration characteristics and ratio of water provision in the broad furrow

A. I. Alabaied

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 128-143

A field experiment was conducted in a sandy loam soil containing 16.60% gypsum, to study the effect surge irrigation and continuous irrigation on some infiltration characteristics and on the ratio of water saving in broad furrow irrigation . Complete randomizing design ,with three replicates per treatment was used in this study ,and the important results were decreasing in the advance time water front in the case of continuous irrigation with significant differences with the passage of time from the first irrigation where it was 2.68 minutes and even tenth irrigation where became 2.43 minutes. and increased the time of advance phase with significant differences also in the case of surge irrigation with the passage of time from the first irrigation where it was 2.60 minutes ,and even eighth irrigation reaching 3.2 minutes . the total time for irrigation and the amount of water added are the least with significant differences in the case of surge irrigation until the eighth irrigation. providing high water when we follow the method of surge irrigation from the first irrigation, reaching 8.90% then decreased with time to 3.34%at the eighth irrigation with significant differences , and it is lack of irrigation in the ninth and tenth, and low rates infiltration in the case of surge irrigation during the time of irrigation reaching 18.66cm.h-1 compared with 20.26 cm.h-1 in the case of continuous irrigation ,but without significant differences. resulted in the passage of time with repeat irrigation to reduce the rates of infiltration with significant differences in both irrigation method for following .increase the rate of the advance pace of the water front with significant differences in both the second and third surge ,reaching 3.91 m.minutes-1 and 4.05 m.minutes-1 respectively ,compared with 2.62 m.minutes-1 of the first surge, and this is in the case of surge irrigation.
Results of this work indicate that the method of surge irrigation is also suitable for the broad furrow irrigation ,and this achieved through the saving of irrigation water ,for this we recommend using it when planting crops that are more successful in this type of furrow .

Study of the Urease enzyme activity and the some effect factors on urea hydrolyses in some agriculture soils in Ramadia

Jammal S. H Al-Kabbaisia

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 144-155

The research has been carried out to study the existence, distribution and identified the isolated of urea hydrolysis bacteria and produced the urease from 30 samples have been collected from 6 regions agricultural soils felids between Ramadia and Heat city on the two sides of Euphrates river ( Gzeria and Zngora).3 regions for each Gzeria and Zngora that wheat and vegetable agriculture uses and wild, in the period march to July 2010. The samples were analyzed and limited 20 samples are positive for urea hydrolysis. The urease enzyme activity was also investigated, 5 isolates are belong to good urea hydrolysis bacteria have been selected and identified. The effects of some factors such as the temperatures, different concentrations of urea and different ratios of CaSO4.
The results were as follows; The area of study was about 8000 ha., most soils’ had sandy loom texture , calcareous (CaCO3 18 – 23%), variation in gypsum content (2.53 – 14.12%), organic content (0.23 – 0.92%), soil salinity for agriculture fields (3.13 – 3.50 ds.m-1) but the wild soils increase to 4.52 ds.m-1. Urea applied was almost totally hydrolyzed to ammonia in all soils tested with 30 days and the best urease activity recorded 75, 80 µg urea.g.h-1 in the vegetable agriculture uses for Gzeria and Zngora soils alternately. Two bacterial isolates P. fluorescens GV2, Sp. urea ZV2 have achieved the best urease activity 8.40 ,7.99 mg.NH3 Lˉ1.hˉ1, Results have shown that the best activity of urea hydrolysis and Urease producing bacteria P. fluorescens GV2 and B.subtilisZB4 8.45 ,8.32 mg.NH3 Lˉ1.hˉ1 were at 38c˚ temperatures alternately. The isolates activity rate increased with increasing the urea concentration in the medium from 300to 900 mg urea Lˉ1. The highest rate was 62 mg NH3 Lˉ1. hˉ1 with 900 mg urea.Lˉ1 concentration by Sp. ureae ZV2. While the results have shown a decrease in the activity of isolates in hydrolyseis urea when using increased amounts of gypsum after 5%, the hydrolyze rate was 0.0 NH3 Lˉ1.hˉ1 for the B.subtilisZB4 at 10% gypsum and gradually decreased with increasing the amount of gypsum in the medium to reach 0.0 mg.NH3 Lˉ1.hˉ1 when using 15% of gypsum with Ur. pasteuri ZW4.

Study of vegetation and water covers changes in the district of Ramadi by using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems( GIS) technologies.

Mashal Mahmood Fayaadh Al-jumaily

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 156-173

This research aims at monitoring changes in vegetation and water covers in the district of Ramadi, for the period 1990 - 2010, by using the technologies of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).The researcher made use of three Satellite images for three years1990-2001 -2010 of the types TM, ETM +, for winter seasons of these years.
For the purpose of land cover classification, several steps have been carried out namely: A field work has been done to identify the type of land cover, for many locations of the area under study , and determine its coordinates using a (GPS). Application of Supervised Classification was applied to the search area, as well as the equation of manual vegetation NDVI was used to detect changes in vegetation cover and its density.
The results indicate that ; the area of water cover was 636 km ² in 1990, decreased to 463 km ² in 2001, and then to 355 km ² in 2010. The vegetation cover has been an area of 282 km ² in 1990, increased to 387 km ² in the year 2001, while becoming an area of 327 km ² in 2010.This was the result of the conditions of foreign occupation of Iraq and the drought conditions of the the region.

The use of organic plants wastes and mineral materials in treatment of saline water and it application in irrigation

I.A. Assaffii; A.A. Al-Hadethi; Y.K. Hamza

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 174-184

This study was conducted at college of Agriculture – university of Anbar during fall season 2010 to study possibility of using some organic wastes and mineral materials in treatment of saline soils and it application in irrigation. This study including laboratory experiment which design to determine the best treatment of saline water by using different plant organic wastes and mineral materials (calcite and gypsum). Four sources of plant organic wastes which included: shimblan plant, cob of corn, wheat straw, sunflower steems for the total decomposition. All organic wastes were mixed with the mineral materials (20% calcite and gypsum). Saline water was added with dilution ratio of 1:10 , 1:20 , 1:30 , 1:40 and 1:50. The EC , pH and SAR at the extract were measured. Results of this studded showed

1. The best contribution of organic wastes in decreasing value of EC of saline water were by cob of corn and wheat straw while sunflower steems and shimblan showed no contribution in this respect under the conditions of this study.
2.Using organic wastes resulted in decrease in pH values in all treatments.
3. SAR values were different with different types of organic wastes the rating of decline were cob of corn, wheat straw, sunflower steem and shimblan.

Isolating Urease producing Bacteria from Different ecological Sources and Studying Some Factors Influencing its Activity

Aamal D. Abood; Idham A. Abed; Ahmed M. Turky

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 185-197

The present research paper has been carried out to isolate and determine urea degenerating and urease producing bacteria from different sources including agriculture soils, animal yards, river water and health drainage from varies locations in Anbar province and patients divresis samples of Ramad Educational Hospital. Also, it tries to study the effect of temperatures,(CaCO3) ,(CaSO4) and Nickel on the rate of the activity of urea degenerating bacteria, Isolates producing Urease enzyme have been identified as belonging to urea degenerating bacteria with a dominant rate of 58.3% in all isolates. Five bacterial isolates have been elected as the most efficient in urea degenerating, namely; Bacillus KS4, Ochrobactor anthropi RM30, Raoultella planticola WR43, Enterobacter cloacae Rw47 and Proteus mirabilis U70. Results have shown that the best activity of urea degenerating and Urease producing bacteria was at 35 and 40 c˚ temperatures. The activity decreased when incubated at 15 and 50 c˚ temperatures and stopped when incubated at 60 c˚. The activity rate of isolates increased when increasing the percentage of gypsum in the medium to 4 and 5%, while the activity in degenerating urea compound decreased when using increasing amounts of gypsum above 1%. When using 5% of gypsum, the activity of isolates severely decreased. The use of 0.01% of Ni in the medium has led to increasing the isolates activity,whereas their activity decreased at 0.02% of Ni.

Preparation of Gelatin from Bones, Legs, Heads and Skins of Spent Hens 2- Study its Functional Properties ))

K. J. Mohammed; M. F. A. AL.Baghdadi; W. I. Kurdi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 198-212

Gelatin had been processed from bones, heads. legs and skin which got from spent hens. The samples were cleared, cut and getting rid of oil by boiling then the removal of mineral salts was done by6% hydrochloric acid for 24 hours . After that samples were soaked in diluted base (0.2N NaOH ) for 18 hours and wash with water. The process of extracting was done by damp heating in an electric oven at various temperatures 65 , 75 and 85 Celeries with both time periods 10 and 20 hours. After that, the process of clarification , filtration and drying the gelatin solutions were mille red, filtrated and dried, then they grinded and filling. The functional properties had been studied and the results referred to the following
- Processed gelatin had good functional properties and near to the commercial gelatin , hence it had highly percentage of solubilility ( 95.29 – 96.95 % ).
-The processed gelatin had best ability to make foam ( 176.6 ml ) for head gelatine and ( 157.6 ml ) for leg gelatin , and also had best foam stability after 5 minutes .
- The processed gelatin had good ability to absorb water and oil , hence the absorbed water ranged from( 2.67- 7.83) ml water / gm gelatin and the amount of absorbed oil ranged between(1.02 – 2.58) ml oil / gm gelatin.
- Processed gelatin had good viscosity compared with the commercial gelatin , the total of viscosity were ( 1.229 centi poise ) ,as well as types gelatin processed had good ability of emulsion with high stability. The gelatin processed have good gelation in ( 2 – 3 % ) concentration.
- The powder color graded from transparent color to brown. In sensory evaluation, all the prepared samples of gelatinous desert gained the degree of very acceptable ( 81 , 82 , 83 and 83.5 ) for the desert prepared from the gelatin of head , legs , bones and the skins ,respectively. .

The effect of magnetically treated water on the total protein and some enzymes in the muscle of Cyprinus carpio L.

A. A. Thaker; A. S.Faris; F. jassim

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 213-222

The fish Cyprinus carpio L.(24-25gm) were exposed to the water magnetically treated with different magnetic intensities (750, 1500, 3000) Gauss, for a period of 8 days.
The muscle was used to follow the changes in the total proteins and electrophoresis proteins, as well as the activity of some enzymes (Alkaline phosphates, Aspartate transaminase, Alanin transaminase and Acid phosphates) using spectrophotometric methods. The electrophoresis method was also used to follow up the effects on the Esterase bands which stained by α-naphthyl acetate .
The results showed an increase in the activities of the enzymes in the muscle when exposing the fish to the magnetized water. The number and intensity of electrophoresis esterase bands didn’t change.

The bioactivity and nutritional roles of some mineral and nutritive constituents of hazelnut Corylus avellana and walnut Juglans regia

Qais Ahmed Ibraheem; Wissam S. Ulaiwi; Eanas S. Mahddi; Arwa M.Khaleel

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 223-234

Two genuses of imported nuts (Turkish Hazelnut and Uzbek Walnut) were examined for their nutritional and mineral contents. It was found that the percentages on dry weight basis of total ash, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, crude fiber, total phenolic compounds, free phenolic compounds, tannins(g/100g) and ascorbic acid (mg/100g) for the hazelnut were 1.92, 14.45, 56.22, 15.89, 3.84, 7.90, 9.57, 9.57, 0.00 and 5.80 respectively, and for the walnut were 1.85, 14.28, 61.72, 12.94, 2.96, 5.85, 9.23, 9.23, 0.00 and 1.12 respectively. The minerals Ca. K and Na were determined using Eppendrof flame photometer and the recorded values for the Hazelnut were 1375.50, 6122.90 and 34.90 µg/g respectively, and for the walnut were 825.00, 5220,00 and 18.80 µg/g, respectively. A colorimetric method was used for determining phosphorus using ammonium-vandate-molybdate as indicator and the values for hazelnut and walnut were 3260.00 and 4000.00 µg/g, respectively. The minerals Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co ,S, I, Cr and Se were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and were found to be 1763.60,59.30, 38.80, 23.90, 16.72, 0.11, 0.40, 0.00, 0.28 and 0.03 µg/g for the Hazelnut, respectively , and for the Walnut were 1580.00 , 28.50, 26.42, 25.50, 13.10, 3.11, 0.38, , 0.23, 0.00 and 0.04 µg/g, respectively .The Minerals Ni, Cd and Pb were found as trace elements gave amounts less than 0.03 µg/g.

Use Lactobacillus acidophilus to production therapeutic drink from fortified soft cheese whey

Ali Ameen Yaseen; Nedhal Mohamed Saleh; Asmaa S.Ahmaed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 235-244

The Study pointed to Possibility using Lactobacillus acidophilus to ferment the soft cheese's whey to produce therapeutic drink, after adding 10% of different fruits juice added to fortification and to obtain a good test for the final product. Also the study pointed to the role of fruit juices to increase the whey's acidity before the inoculation from 0.28 to 0.52 , 0.62 , 0.62 and 0.54 in the whey fortified by juice of muskmelon, grape, orange and pineapple respectively. In addition the study pointed out that the average of growth bacteria was slowly in the first hours after the inoculation and then it became faster were recorded and higher numbers of bacteria after 24 hours of inoculation at 37oc 119×107, 133×107, 108×107 and 125×107 c.f.u. /ml in the whey fortified with juices of muskmelon, grape, orange and pineapple respectively. The study pointed to bacteria's ability to increase the acidity to 0.63, 0.72, 0.80 and 0.60 in the whey fortified with juices of muskmelon grape, orange and pineapple respectively, it was shown that the bacteria kept its survivality under cool storage at 8o.


Suhad M.A. AL-Fahdawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 245-256

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Department of Field Crop Science , College of Agriculture , during spring and summer season of 2005 to investigate the efficacy of some commercial formulation of Trifluralin namely, Agrotrifluran, Califort 48 EC, Flural, Trifluralin and Trifluralin 48 EC to control sunflower‘s weed. Herbicides used with three application rates 2000, 2400 and 2800 cm3.ha 1. Results revealed that herbicides affect broad and narrow leaved weeds by inhibition of their dry weight by 100% and also reduced the dry weight of Johnson grass by 12.1% , 14.7% , 14.7% , 12.4%, and 17.1%respectively in spring season. Herbicides Califort 48 EC and Trifluralin 48 EC reduced dry weight of Johnson grass in summer season by 14.6% and16.3% respectively according to weedy treatment. Application of these formulations have improved all investigated characters of sunflower plant. All herbicides caused increasing the height plant by 143.4, 140.8, 141.4, 142.9and144.3 cm respectively in spring season and by 143.8, 141.4,142.7,143.3 and145.4 cm in summer season while the weedy treatment gave lowest value of height plant. Herbecides caused increasing diameter by 21.9 - 24.0% in spring season and 28.1-28.8% in summer season. Trifluralin 48 EC and Flural 48EC gave the highest number of seed in plate in two seasons 1228.4, 1218.3, 1249.9 and 1243.6 seed/plate respectively. The herbicides Agrotrifluran, Califort 48 EC, Flural, Trifluralin and Trifluralin 48 EC gave high value of yield by 4.1, 4.0,3.9, 4.1,4.1ton/ha-1 respectively in spring season while in summer caused increasing of yield by 4.3, 4.3 ,4.1 ,4.2 and 4.3 respectively according to the weedy treatment.

Response of growth, yield and quality of soybean (Glycine max (L.) merr) to some agronomic techniques

A. F. Ramadan; B. H. Abduallah; F. H. Meckhlif

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 257-272

A field experiment was conducted on silty clay loam soil at Alkarmah– Al-Anbar province during summer season of 2009. The objective was to investigate the effect of three factors in vegetative, root growth, yield and quality of soybean Glycine max L. CV Forrest sowing method (furrow and lines sowing) weeding (twice weeding, once weeding and without weeding) and sowing dates (22 April, 1 June and 11 June). RCBD was used to arranged treatments in split– split plot system with three replicates.
Results were as followed:
1. Furrow sowing was significantly superior compared with lines sowing in all studied traits.
2. During the growing season, twice weeding was the best treatment compared with once weeding treatment and the control (without weeding) in most of the studied traits except for internode length rate which the control showed its higher value.
3. The sowing date of April 22 gave the highest means in all studied traits against the other sowing dates, 1 and 11 May.
It could be concluded that the best results had been achieved by furrow sowing compained with twice weeding during the growing season and the sowing date of April 22.

Response of Two Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Cultivars to Potassium fertilizer and Distance Between Rows

B. H. Abdullah; S. N. Ali; H. A. Ajaj

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 273-296

A field experiment was carried out in clay loam soil during spring and autumn seasons , 2008 to study three levels of K fertilizer ( 0 , 70 and 140 Kg / ha ) and three distances between raws ( 50 , 60 and 70 cm ) on growth and yield of two sorghum cultivars (Ankath and Rabih). A split–split plots design was used according to R.C.B.D. with three replicates. Cultivars was assigned as main plots and plant distance as sup plots , while the sub–sub plots were K fertilizer levels.
Results showed a significant difference between the two cultivars in a day from sowing to 50% of flowering , leaf area , leaf area index, 500 grains weight, grains no. head-1 and harvest index . increased rows distance from 50 to 70 cm caused
earliness of flowering , increased leaf area at in monsoon, leaf K% , grain no. head-1 , 500 grain weight and harvest index (24.56 , 30. 28%) for each season. 50 cm was superior in leaf area index , biological yield and grain yield(7.19 , 10.52 t.ha-1) for each season respectively. Increase of potassium level lead to be earlier flowering and significant increase in all agronomic and yield traits . The potassium level of 140 kg.ha-1 gave the highest grain yield and harvest index of 6.88 and 10.32 t.ha-1 , and 24.47 and 31.11%, for each season respectively. It could be
concluded that grain yield could be increased by using the distance that applied in Iraqi agronomy of 20 X 70 cm, where as, the increase about it 25.92 and30.68% , for each season respectively. Land, production, water management and reduced weeds growth , also could be used , if this distance properly applied.

Evaluation Hybrids for Introduced Forage Crops for Al-Hareef Sowing

A.S.Mahdi; M.G.M.Saee; K.A.Salman

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 297-307

A field experiment was carried out during a successive growing season of 2007 and 2008 at Abu-Ghriab, Experimental Research Station,State Board for Agricultural Research, Baghdad , Iraq. Using a Randomize Complete Block Design , to evaluate the performance of six forage hybrids , belong to different forage field crops ( Sorghum , Sudan grass and Millet ).
The results indicated the exceeding two hybrids Superdan-2 (sudan grass) and Sweet jumbo(sorghum) superiority in total green yield ( 66.85 , 66.1 , 66.48 , 66.51 , 65.81and 66.16 t/ha . ) ، total dry matter (9.84, 9.64 , 9.74 , 9.55 ,10.02 and 9.79 t/ha.) and total dry leaf yield ( 5.25, 5.15, 5.2 , 5.11 , 5.41 , and 5.26 t/ha), Nutrifeed (millet) gave the highest dry leaf/stem ratio: 54.53% , 54.29% then sweet jumbo ( 53.7% , 53.56%) and Superdan 2 (53.42% , 53.28%) for the first and second cuts for the two seasons 2008 and 2009 respectively. Nutrifeed , Superdan-2 and Sweet were resistance to loading and leaf rust and have the highest protein percentage ( 16-22% , 12-18% , and 12-18 %) respectively. And could be used for making high quality hay and silage.

Response of Soybean yield and it's Components to Foliar Fertilization with some Micronutrients

H. M. Salih

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 308-316

Field experiment was undertaken in Al-Ishaki Experiment Station (60 Km .north of Baghdad) during the summer season of 2005 and 2006 to study the effect of foliar fertilization of soybean (Lee-74) by 0.015% of each Fe,Zn and Mn (as sulfates) applied in single and in all possible combinations of these three elements on soybean seed yield and its components.
The results showed that foliar fertilization of soybean grown in calcareous soil by Fe,Zn and Mn in single and in all possible combination among these elements had significantly increased number of buds/plant ,weight of 100seed(gm), seed yield(gm)/plant, the seed yield Kg/ha. and had insignificant effect on seed number/bud in both seasons. It was noticed clearly that, the treatments involved Zn applied in single or in combination with Fe or Mn or both of them had the most effect in increasing the seed yield and its components in both seasons. The percents increases in seed yield of soybean by foliar application of Zn, Zn+Fe, Zn+Mn and Zn+Fe+Mn were 14.8%, 16.0%, 15.6% and 22.2% in season of 2005 and 13.2%, 15.6%, 20.3% and 25.4% for season of 2006 respectively. The nutrient productivity of applied single Fe,Zn and Mn were 0.94 , 1.44 and 0.70 Kg. seed/g nutrient for 2005 season and 0.85, 1.51 and 0.77 Kg seed /g nutrient for 2006 season respectively.


Malath A. M. Hamed; Ala A. ALjbouri

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 317-330

A field experiment was conducted at the experiment of farm, College of Agriculture. Baghdad University, during 2010 to study the effects of GA3 concentrations (0, 50, 150, 250 mg. l-1) on some growth traits of soybean seed. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used in split plot arrangement with three replicates. A laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of treating the seed produced with GA3 (0, 50, 150, 250 mg. l-1) on the seed vigour and viability. The measured characters were standard germination test , accelerated aging test, and field emergence percentage. Gibberellic acid affected all studied traits. The concentration 150 mg-1 GA3 gave significant increase in the plant height, leaf area, number of pods, and total seed yield. The cultivars Differed in all studied traits. Lee74 cultivar gave a significant increase in the number of branch , number of pods, 100 seed weight, and total seed yield. The Interaction 150 mg-1 GA3 with cultivar Lee74 were superior in increasing in the number of pods, 100 seed weight, and total seed yield. Seeds treated with 150 mg-1 GA3 was superior in standard germination test , accelerated aging test and field emergence ( 90% , 85% and 56.67%) , respectively. Cultivar IPA comparison to other cultivars, was superior in giving higher percentage of standard germination test , accelerated aging test and field emergence , (88.75% , 81.25% and 52.42), respectively. Interaction of 150 mg-1 GA3 with cultivar IPA showed significant superiority in standard germination test , accelerated aging test and field emergence percentage.

Induce resistance in tomato plants against Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) by Pseudomonas fluorescens

Farah A. Abdul - Jabbar

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 331-339

s fluorescens This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of Pseudomona
to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) infection.Tomato seeds were surface sterilized by sodium hypochlorite (1%).Twenty seeds were soaked in Pseudomonas fluorescens suspension at 5 × 109 CFU/ml for 24 hrs anthor 20 seeds were soaked in( KB)broth for 24 hrs.The treated seeds were sown in plastic pots with 15× 10cm dimension (sterilized with ethanol )containing steril mix soil (2seeds /pot).Also non treated seeds were sown in the same soil for foliage spraying with bacterial suspension. The pots were maintained in muslin protected cages under green house condition.The plants were ToMV- inoculated at 2 primary leaves. The virus multiplication was followed by formation of local lesions on Nicotiana glutinosa .Reuslts showed that treated seeds with bacterial suspension at 5× 109 CFU/ml inhibited ToMVmultiplication by 90.30 %after 15 day of virus inoculation,2 spots were appeared on half leaf Nicotiana glutinosa inoculated by extract from treated plants compared with 26 spots on the half leaf inoculated by extract from infected plants.Similar results were obtained when the plants foliage was sprayed by the bacterial suspension (88.8%inhibition)at 5× 108CFU/ml.

Response of Weed in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Field to the Residues of Some Herblcides Used on Autumn Corn (Zea mays L.)

D.S. Alkatabi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 340-348

A field trial was conducted in Northern Haronia Muqdadiah – Dialah , to investigate the response of weeds in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) field to the residues of some herbicides used on autumn corn (Zea mays L.) Autumn corn was treated with following treatments : premergence and post emergence application of isoxafluatol , postemeergence application of prosulfuron, preemergence application of Lumax , and preemergence application of atrazine . weedy and weed free treatments were also included . Data on injury , density , and percentage of control of weeds of broad bean
were recorded at 1, 2 , 3and 6 weks after sowing and at harvest time of broad bean . The results revealed that the residue of the herbicides had a significant effect on density and percentage of weed control of broad bean at 2 and 3 weeks after the sowing and at harvest time of broad bean . Next to harvest time of broad bean no significant injury on weed plants emerged in the same plots of the different treatments were observed at the next summer or autumn season.It was concluded that the residue of the high rates of Lumax ,atrazine and Prosulfuron had a significant effect on weed control of broad bean especially at 2 or 3 weeks after sowing.

Effect of extract and powder of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis ( Dehnh) on some biological aspects of potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella ( Zeller ) in laboratory

Khalid Imeiri; Muqdad Ali

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 349-358

The research was conducted by using the ethanolic extract and powder of Eucalyptus leeves to evaluate their effect on some biological aspects of potato tuber moth in the laboratory . Results showed the important role of Eucalyptus extracts on potato tuber moth , the ethanolic extract of Eucalypt leeves prolonged the period of egg development which increased to 7.33 days by using 10000 ppm while the egg hatching percentage was decreased to 71 % at the same dose of extract , Adult emergence was decreased to74.67% and females fecundity decreased to 57.33 egg. Pupae treated with 10 % powder resulted in prolonged development period which reached to 15.33 days . Potato tubers treted with extract decreased number of egg on tubers by females to10.33 egg at 10000 ppm . There was also a clear effect for the ethanolic extract in larvae growth , percentage of number of first instar larva decreased by 91.3 % , and third instar larva decreased by 61 % when using 10000 ppm of ethanolic extract . These results indicated the possibility of using the natural materials of plants which are safe, cheep and active for pest control .

Effect of Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Steinernema carpocapsa on adult wax moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Mohammed Abdul Jalile; Hassnen Taher Kareem

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 359-370

A laboratory study was conducted in the college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to explain the impact of the pathogens, Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin), and Stenernema carpocapsa ( isolated from soil ) on adult wax moth Galleria mellonella. Results showed that B.bassiana have had the heighest impact on adults (females) treatment (male treated with female treated), reached an age of 5 days when treated with 265.1×10 5 spores. The lowest number of eggs was 96/female observed with B.thuringiensis (treated male with treated female) treatment compared with other test treatments. Results also showed that the bacterium, B.thuringiensis and the nematode S. carpocapsa caused the highest impact than fungal treatment on the second generation ,with an average of female age of (0.0) days and a 100 percentage of no hatching for both treatments (male treated with female treated).

Some botanical and chemical methods to control Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis nerii Boyer

Z.A. AL-Ghadban

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 371-376

A laboratory trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of some plants extracts against two different aphid species.Evaluation included carnation (fruit and flowers) and neem (seeds) at rate of 2 1.5 ,1 and 2 ml/L respectively.The insecticides , Neemrich10% Ec and Dinomite50% w.p were used as control treatments.
Results showed that hexane exctrat of carnation gave a high activity against the two species of aphid (Aphis gossypii , Aphis nerii) reached to100 , 96.6 , 93.3% and 96.6, 93.3, 83.3 at concentrations of 2, 1.5 , 1 ml/L for the two species respectively, results also showed that the mortaliti percentages for Neemrich and Dinomite and hexanal extract of neem seeds was 100% for Aphis gossypii after the same time of treatment while it was 93.3 , 100 , 100% mortality percentage respectively for Aphis nerii.