Issue 4


Evaluation of Some Mid-Mesopotamian plain land Using remote sensing and GIS technologies 1- Multiplication methods

A. I. Hamad

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1-15

The area studied in this paper is situated in Abu-Ghraib, 20 Km to the nrth east of Baghdad . it is about 4299.273 ha and lies between coordinates 33o 20`35.03, 33o 20`52.28 N, and 44o 10` 47.04, 44o 16` 59.41 E. t eight bands were used in an ordering of eight bands,except the sixth,are used by turn. the wavelength of each is about (0.45-12.5 μm).
The satelite Image was classified, first according to the supervised and then to the unsupervised method of classification . an extensive survey was made for the soil. Results of land evaluation using the multiplication method showed that TW565, DM95-1 soil series were very suitable for cereals and grains crops and formed about 20,26% of the total area , and DM94 was suitable for grains and moderately suitable for cereals using multiplication method and formed about 10.35% of the total area .while DM87 series was suitable for cereals and grazing using multiplication method and formed 9.68% of the total area.and DP47 series was moderately suitable for grains , and little suitable for cereals using the multiplication method and formed about 9.52% of the total area .
Series like (MM11,DM95-2,MM9,DM45) were little suitable for cereals and grazing using the multiplication method and formed about 35.32% of the total area. Soils were classified according to soil survey staff 2006, DM87,DP47,TW565,DM94 series were classified into typic torrifluvent , MM11,DM95-2,DM95-1 series classified into vertic torrifluvent and DM45,MM9 classified into typic Haplosalids.

Classification of soil tilth for two projects in the mesopotamian plain western Iraq

Mohamad A. H. Al-Ani

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 16-29

According to the importance of soil tilth that should be determined by specialists of management and teaching was of the farm. This study was carried out determine the classes of tilth capability duo to Dickinson statistical method, for two projects as samples to fluvial soils west of Iraq.
Sime detailed soil survey map of Right-Euphrates and Al-Sqlawia were prepared, as base maps to conduct this study, where enough pedons, described and lab analyzed previonsly by formal directory in soil survey reports of each. Which were executed of projects. largest numbers of samples descriptions were collected to get a better representating statistical sample for the area in a reality of 720 sampls for Al,C1and C2 horizons . sub data included the information of soil texture, consistency at (dry, moist ) and structure of soil materials of recognized each map unit.
Results were designated on on Dickinson triangle, then classified after their tilth was descr.
Results of base map cartographic analysis of both projects showed that Aridisols soil order was established, order farms abut 46.3% and 21.1% while Entisols was forming 53.7% and 78.9% for Right-Euphrates in a moderate soil tilth while other soils in this project and Al-Sqlawia projects were weak tilth.
In the moist consistency soil tilth was 16.4% of Right– Euphrates was moderate tilth while 44.6% of Al-Saqlawia Soils were is good tilth and 11.3% moderate, then 44.1% were weak tilth.

The effect of nitrogen and boron fertilizers application on the water use efficiency by sorghum bicolor L.( moench )

Hussein A . Mohammed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 30-42

Field experiment was carried out during spring season 2008 at Muqdadiya (East of Baa,quba city), Silt clay soil complete randomized block designe in three replications were used to investigate the effect of three N levels (0, 100, 150 Kg N/ha.), Three boron levels (0 , 10 , 20 , Kg B/ha.) and two moisture levels (% 100 and % 75 of field– capacity in two times of irrigation interval, after loss of 60% and 80 % of available water to reduce the negative effect of the moisture tension on the sorghum plants (Engath variety).
The results showed that The second N level ( 100 Kg N/ha . ) decreased the negative effects of moisture tension on the efficient use of water, grainyield, biological yield and root dry weight as compared with the both of control and the high N ( 150kgN/ha. ) treatments.
The second B level ( 10 kgB/ha. ) decreased the negative effects of moisture tension on the total plant yield , and plant growth rate . However , water use efficiency in plant , mean grain yield , biological yield , vegetative dry weight , root dry weight and mean plant height increased by ( 48.49 % , 45.27 % , 33.3 % , 46.15 % , 7.30 % , 14.81 % ) respectively as compared with the control treatment .

Heterosis in yield and yield components of hybrid Tobacco cultivated in green house

F. Y. Baktash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 43-55

Full diallel crosses conducted to develop tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) hybrids using three cultivars; Corjo (A), Sumer48 (B) and Croillo (C), during 2004, at the field of Field Crops Dept., Coll. Of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad. Hybrid trail carried out during 2005 in the green house using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 parents , 6 hybrids and 2 control, Habana and cv. 48.
Significant differences were found among different genotypes in all the studied traits. The hybrid (BXC) and their reciprocal (CXB) were superior in all the characters, they produced higher dried leaves 4.64 t/ha and 4.76 t/ha, respectively. Positive and negative heterosis were found in developed hybrids. Genetic analysis revealed that the studied traits were under non additive gene action, that the average degree of dominance more than one and broad sense heritability was higher, So, It was recommended hybridization method in improving tobacco and using the hybrid (BXC).

Response of Several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes for Three Seed rates

Abdul-Samad H. Noman

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 56-64

A field experiment was conducted during 2005-2006 winter season at Ramadi to study the response of five wheat genotypes to three seed rates concerning yield and its components. Factorial arrangement was use according to R.C.B.D. with three replicates. seed rates were so, 120 and 160 kg/ha and the cultivars IPA 95, IPA99, Al- Fat'h, Abu-Ghraib 3 and sham6. The results showed that seed rate (120) Kg/ ha had Highest number of grain per spike, and weight of 1000 seeds as average for all genotypes. IPA 99 achieved the highest value of number of spike/ m2, grain weight (g) and grain yield (8.96 t/ ha). A significant interaction was obtained between genotypes and seed rate since IPA 99 gave highest grain yield (9.5) t/ ha at seed rate (120) Kg/ ha.

Effect of sulphur and phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Najat H. Zeboon

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 65-80

A field experiment was carried out during Spring season (2004) in Ishaqi Research Station Company For Industrial Products Ministry of Agricultural to study the effect of sulphur and phosphorus fertilizer applications on some growth properties and seed yield of sunflower hybrid Iraq flower Split plot design with four replications was used . Phosphorus levels were (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kg P2O5/ h) as main plots whereas the sub plots were sulphur levels (600, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3000 kg S/ h).
البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستیر للباحث الأول
During the flowering and maturity stage , some of crop growth index and parameters yield components were estimated . The result were : Sulphur application influenced the plant morphological characters significantly but the phosphorus application was significant of some the plant morphological characters ( plant high , stem thickness and sunflower disk diameter ) . The interaction between the two factors influenced the dry matter of leaves and disc diameter significantly . Sulphur application increased the seed number per disc , weight of 1000 seed , plant yield and total yield characters . The sulphur level 1800 kg S / h gave the highest yield , 5.390 t / h . The behavior of phosphorus fertilizer in its effects was similar to that of sulphur except in seed number per disc , as the level 120 kg P2O5 / h gave the highest total seed yield , 6.92 t / h . The interaction significantly influenced seed number , plant yield and total yield characters . the interaction of 1200 kg S / h + 120 kg P2O5 / h gave the highest yield , 6.974 t / h .

Effect of sulphur and phosphorus fertilizer levels on quality characters of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Najat H. Zeboon

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 81-90

A field experiment was carried out during Spring season (2004) in Ishaqi Research Station Company For Industrial Products Ministry of Agricultural to study the effect of sulphur and phosphorus fertilizer levels on quality characters of sunflower hybrid Iraq flower. Split plot design with four replications was used Phosphorus levels were (0, 26, 52, 78, 104) P. h-1 as main plots whereas the sub plots were sulphur levels were (600, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3000) kg S/ h-1 sulphur levels were 2400 kg S/ h-1 gave the highest percentage of oil and protein (43.99 and 21.98) % respectively . Phosphorus also significantly influenced the characters above . The levels 104 and 78 kg P / h-1 showed the highest oil and protein percentage ( 43.40 and 21.96 ) % respectively . the interaction of 2400 kg S / h-1 + 104 kg P / h-1 was significantly influential , as it gave the highest oil and protein percentage (45.52 and 23.025) % respectively . Application of 1800 kg S / h-1 and 52 kg P / h-1 showed the highest percentage of oil and protein (2.474 , 2.820 ; 1.276 and 1.422 ) t / h respectively .The interaction between the two factors influenced the yield of oil and protein significantly. The interaction of 2400 kg S / h-1 + 52 kg P / h-1 gave the highest yield oil (2.954) t / h and the interaction of 1200 kg S / h-1 + 52 kg P/ h-1 gave the highs yield protein (1.487) t/ h .

Analysis of Yield Stability of Sunflower Genotypes By Some Statistical Models

Majid Sh. Hamdalla

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 91-102

Thirteen genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) were tested by seven statistical models to estimate yield stability. The models were; regression coefficient according to Eberhart and Russel, regression coefficient according to Perkins and Jinks ,regression coefficient according to Freeman, Perkins, ecovalence according to Wric, Shukla variance, stability index according to Bajpai and Probhakaran, and coefficient of variation according to Francis and Kannenberg. The objectives of this study were to compare these models and to study their relationship to yields stability. It was found that all models located same genotypes as a stable except rgrassion coefficient according to Freeman and Perkins. The stable genotypes were Kws, Allstar, Aqmar, and Zahrat Al-iraq, whereas the unstable genotypes were Carlos, Florasol, and Shimows. In spite of that, we cannot recommend Kws and Allstar genotypes because of low yielding, but, Aqmar, and Zahrat Al-iraq were the best genotypes according to their yield and stability. Selecting genotypes based on yield or stability alone is ineffective, therefore, integrating yield and stability will display good criteria for yield trials.

Effect of spacecing and planting dates in growth and yield of Ammi Visnaga L.

F. Y. Baktash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 103-108

Fadel Y. Baktash , Shrook M. K. Saad Al-Deen and Basheer A. Abraheem
Dpet. Crop Science- College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad

Abstract
This experiment was undertaken in field of Dept. Crop Science –College of agriculture –university of Baghdad in year 2007-2008 in this experiment split plot design with RCBD of three replicates was used. To study effect spaces and planting dates in some of vegetative and fruits traits Ammi Visnaga.L There were three dates used (1/11,15/11and1/12) in main plot on three densities (20,30an40 cm) in sub plot .Analysis of variance appear decrease of high plant in 40cm ,and gave 101.6cm .the first date gave highest of high plant (133.8cm).The space (40 cm ) gave dry weight (108.5 gm/plant).the first date gave highest of dry weight (143.0gm/plant). The highest number of flower/plant were (37.0 flower/plant) in (40 cm).the space (30cm) gave highest of yield plant (16.84gm/plant ). The first date gave( 24.71gm/plant).The best interaction between spaces and dates plant (fist date with 30 cm)produce. (28.84 gm/plant).we recommended to this plant in the first of November and space 30 cm in moderate region of Iraq.

Effect of Plant growth regulators and planting dates on seed yield fixed and Volatile oil in Nigella sativa L.

Shrook. M. K. Saad Al-Deen

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 109-117

The aim of this study in to determine the influence of growth regulators and date of planting on the qualitative and quantitative fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa L. A field experiment was conducted during the season of 2003/2004 at the farm of field crops Department, College of Agriculture University of Baghdad,. The trial was carried out by using the randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) in a split plot arrangement, of three replicates and 200000 plant/ha Density. The experiment included three planting dates 1/11, 15/11 and 1/12/2003 in the main plot and spray of water and three growth regulators : coconut milk , Gibberellic Acid ( GA3) and Ethiphon ( 100000 µ/ml , 100 mgm /ml and 1000 mg/ml respectively ) in the sub plot .Traits of seeds plant and studied; the fixed oil was evaluated by continuous extraction and the essential oil by water distillation. All growth regulators led to increase the seeds. Fixed oil and essential oil due to the yield kg/ha of the increase coconut milk , GA3 and Ethiphon respectively as compared with water spray . The effect of coconut milk, GA3, Ethiphon on the quantity yield of seeds, fixed oil+ essential oil, 666.4, 629.3, 596.0 and 434.8 kg/ha, 140.3, 117.6, 120.7 and 72.4 kg/ha. And the essential oil yield 1.84, 1.57, 1.17 and 1.19 Liter/ha respectively. Results showed increase in plant yield, fixed and essential oil yield and fixed oil percentage when compare water spray with the three growth regulators, GA3 only increase seed weight, Coconut milk increase oil percentage while GA3 and Ethiphon decrease it. The date of Planting influenced most of the treats significantly the plant yield. The first date of Planting on (1/11) Gave the highest values of seed yield and highest yield and percentage of fixed and essential oil 684.9 kg/ha, 140.1 kg/ha, and 2.4 L/ha respectively .While planting on (1/12) gave the lowest values 471.1 kg/ha and 0.61 L/ha respectively. Combination coconut milk and planting on (1/11) gave highest seed yield 858.6 kg/ha , fixed oil yield and percentage 210.00 kg/ha and essential oil yield 2.91 L/ha .

Biological effect of microwave radiation in Sorghum halepense

Basheer A. Abraheem

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 118-123

This experiment was undertaken in the greenhouse of the Dept. of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Univ. of Baghdad. Rhizomes of Sorghum halepense was cut units pieces of 5 buds each. The rhizomes was depths (5,10,15,20) cm and four times exposure to oven microwave radiation(0,2,4,6, min) .The results showed the effect of microwave radiation to kill rhizome buds. It showed an increased killing tissue when exposure increased in time. The time 6 min gave lower mean of live bud (3.33%) as compared to control which was (51.11%). The live bud was increased when depth of planting increased. The depth 20 cm gave higher percentage of live bud (22.50%). The depth 5 cm gave lower level of live bud (17.78%). The time 6 min at the depth 5 cm gave no live bud. The treatment of 2 min exposure to microwave radiation showed an increase in the length of shoot (15.07% cm) an compared to the control treatment ( 3.26 cm).

Effect of tillers on yield and its components for Maize

A. M. Dahi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 124-131

An experiment was applied at the Field Crop research Station of State Board for agricultural Research during Autumn seasons of 2006 and 2007. To investigate the effects of tillering capacity in yield and its components in maize. Six genotypes are used in the study (Bahooth 106syn.,IPA 5012 syn., Rabe syn., Masera syn.,3003 tribal hybrid and A5xR5 single hybrid). RCBD design with four replications in factorial experiment was used. The results revealed that ears number per plant didn't affect by tillers or without in the first season, but in the second season genotypes without tillers gave higher ears number per plant (1.1) ears genotypes without tillers gave a higher values for grains number per row, number of rows per ear, grains and weight of 100 grains in two seasons. Grains yield.ha-1 was increased significantly at without tillers in two seasons (6.06 – 4.74)ton.ha-1 abut 27.57% and 36.99% for first and second season respectively. We can be conclude there were negative effect for tillers in yield and its components, also to increase maize productivity should be produce tillerless genotypes.

Response of Three Sorghum Genotypes for Three of Nitrogen Fertilizer

Ahmed Ch. A

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 132-139

Afield experiment was conducted during spring seasone 2008. In Ramadi to study the response of three sorghum genotypes to three leveles of nitrogen fertilizer. Factorial arrangement was use according to R.C.B.D. with three replicates. The level of nitrogen fertilizer were so, (75, 150& 225)kg/N/ha. The cultivars (Kafir, Rabeh, Inqath). The results showed that the cultivar inkath gave highest grain yield (4.91)T/ha. The level of nitrogen fertilizer (225)kg/n/ha gave the highest value of early flowering, leaf area, 1000kernd weight and grain yield. There was a significant interaction between genotypes and nitrogen levels on the grain yield, the cultivar Inkath gave (5.62)T/ha at level nitrogen (225)kg/N/ha.

The Effect of Genotypes and the Time of Planting on the growth of the roots and grain yield for Vigna Mungol

Ahmed Ch. A

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 140-146

An experiment was performed during summer seasons of (2007) at Al-sofia stage in Ramadi City. The study was about three genotypes of maug bean they are: (VC6089, VC6173, VC6144) the local genotype with five planting date they are:( 1st June, 15th June, 1st July, 15th July and 1st Aug.) with factorial experiment in Randomized complete block design. Below are the important results which are gained. The local genotype surpassed the others with: The height of the root and the yield of seeds of one plant with the other types. The genotype VC6089 surpassed in the number of the branches in root.
The plants which are planted at 15th July Surpassed the others in height of the root (cm), number of the branches in root and the yield of seeds per plant (9.1gm) with other dates.

Effect of soil and foliar application of fertilizer on the medical compounds of tow fenugreek seeds cultivars

Sadik K. Sadik

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 147-157

This study was conducted on Department of Horticulture, collage of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to investigated the effect of soil and foliar fertilizer application on fenugreek seeds content of medical compounds.
The experiment was adapted using Split plot Design with three replicates for each treatment except the tow cultivars of fenugreek, Iraqi and Yemeni as plots while N, P, K, in four level for each of them as sub plots and the foliar application of Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Co as sub- sub plots. The application of P were done before planting. N and K were divided into tow groups, the first addition was at planting and the second addition was after 75 days from planting. The foliar application of the nutrients were applied after 45 days from planting and the second sprays were done after one month from the first spray.
200 gm of seeds were taken for each treatment for both seasons and extraction of these seeds were done to investigate the effect of the experimental treatments in the medical compounds of these seeds.
The experimental results shows that the treatment with third level of NPK and tow foliar spray, with nutrient significantly superior than other treatment on oil content as compared with the control, with the ratio of 40 and 37.5% for the Iraqi and Yamni cultivars respectively. Treatment the plants with the second level of PNK and the tow foliar application with the nutrients significantly gave the highest Mucilage compound and with a percentage of 50% and 60% as compared with the control for the Iraqi and Yamni cultivars respectively.
The extraction and diagnosis of fenugreek seeds using HPLC shows that treating fenugreek plants with the second level of NPK and tow foliar spray with nutrients significantly gave the highest Alkaloids content which increased by a percentage of 61% and 67% for Yamni cultivar and 67% and 65% for Iraqi cultivar on compared with the control. The same treatment significantly superior than the control in the asteroid sapponin with a percentage of 56% 50% for the Yamni and Iraqi cultivars for both season.

Effect of Spraying Nitrogen, Potassium and Calcium on Quality Characterizes and Fruit Cracking of Muskmelon cv. Ismaily (Cucumis melo L.)

Sadik K. Sadik

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 158-171

An experiments were conducted at the field of the Dep. of Hort. Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad, during the spring season of 2007 and 2008, to study the effect of spraying some nutrient elements(N, K, Ca) on some quantity characterizes and fruit cracking of muskmelon cv. Ismaily.
Spraying urea (46%N) (0, 3000) mg N/L, potassium sulphate (41%K) (0, 2500, 5000) mg K/L. and Calcium chelated (9% Ca) (400, 800) mg Ca/L.
The plant were sprayed twice at fruit set and 15 days after the first spray. R.C.B.D. as factorial experiment was adapted with three replicate.
The results could be summarized as follows:
1. Muskmelon fruit cracking was appeared at netting formation in maturation and full ripe.
2. Spraying of urea (3000 mg N/L) was reduced total fruit cracking to (21.30, 24.60%) for the two seasons respectively. While caused on increased T.S.S , total sugar and dray matter for the seasons of 2008 to (7.04, 6.65 and 8.08%) compared with control(6.82, 6.43 and 7.77%) respectively.
3. Spraying of K2SO4 (5000 mg/L) reduced fruit cracking (21.3, 23.0%) and T.S.S (7.86, 6.81) compared with control (28.4, 29.9%) and 7.93, 6.90%) for the two seasons respectively. While concentration of K2S04 (2500 mg/L) superior on increased T.S.S (8.23, 7.07%) and total sugar (7.71, 6.68%) compared with control (7.93, 6.90%) and (7.48, 6.57%) for the two seasons respectively.
4. The concentration of calcium (400 mg/L) superior on reduced total fruit cracking (19.8, 22.1%) compared with control (28.4, 30.2%) for two seasons respectively. While concentration of calcium (800 mg/L) superior on increased T.S.S (8.49, 7.30%) and total sugar(7.97, 6.85%) compared with control for the two seasons respectively.

Use of Manure and Whey qualities and their impact on quality and amino acid and nitrate of the Potato

Fadel H. Al-Sahaf

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 172-188

An experiment was carried out in the experimental field of Horticulture Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad for two seasons (spring 2007 and spring 2008) to produce potato by organic fertilization. In spring 2007 season, class A seed tubers while in spring 2008 season, class Elite of the cv. Desiree potato was used. Two experiment were designed, first was the use three sources of organic fertilizers (Poultry, cattle and sheep manure)in addition to conventional mineral fertilizer and no fertilization (control) treatment. In second experiment, cattle manure fertilizer in addition to whey were used. Poultry manure at 10% dominated in tuber quality characteristics where great at percent of dry matter (18.6 and 17.6%),starch (12.5 and11.7%)and total soluble solids was found for both seasons respectively. Poultry manure treatment at 10% in creased tuber content of the amino acids including Glutamic acid (1.667 and 1.663), Aspargine (0.781 and 0.778), Alanine (0.881 and0.878), Arginine (0.996 and 0.993),Cysteine (0.351 and 0.349) and Histidine (0.463 and0.460mg/100g) for the two season respectively. Treatment of 10% poultry manure lowered nitrate percent in tubers 0.09 and 0.10 % for the two seasons respectively .Treatment of 15% cattle manure with whey also reduced nitrate percent to 01.and 011% for the two seasons respectively, whereas it was 0.20%,0.21% for mineral fertilizered potato and0.16%.0.17% for control of plant to the two seasons respectively.

Study the effect of cross pollination on physical fruit characteristics of Apple (Malus pumila Mill) CV. Anna

Jabbar H. A

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 189-198

This study was conducted in local orchard, Abu-Ghraib district for 2006 season while the second season was carried out in local orchard-Falluja district 60 Km western Baghdad to study the effect of cross pollination on physical characteristics for Apple fruits CV. Anna, pollen grains were used from the cultivars (Aujami, Sharabi, Hajari, Magrabi and Fatimi). The average fruit weight was increased when open pollination carried out for the season 2006 to 119.92 gm and 146.59 gm when Anna cultivar pollinated with Sharabi cultivar in 2007 season, while the average fruit weight was decreased to 100.76 gm when self pollination was carried out during 2006 season.The average fruit size was significantly increased when open pollination used in 2006 season upto 185.00 cm3and to 181.66 cm3 when hand pollination between Anna and Magrabi cultivars during 2007 season, while the fruit size decreased when self pollination used to 133.33 cm3 during the first season and 155.00 cm3 when Anna cultivar pollinated with Aujami cultivar during second season.The highest average fruit length(7.36cm) was recorded when the open pollination was carried out during 2006 season. the crossing between Anna and Hajari cultivars gave the highest average fruit length during 2007 season upto 7.26 cm,while the lowest average fruit length of 6.73 cm was recorded when open pollination carried out during second season.Hand pollination of Anna cultivar with Sharabi cultivar resulted in the highest fruit diameter of 6.40 cm and 6.70 cm for both seasons respectively, while self pollination reduced fruit diameter to 5.96 cm during 2006 season.The highest average number of seeds 7.00 seed was found due to hand pollination between Anna and Fatimi cultivars during 2006 season, while the lowest of seeds per fruit 2.33 seed due to the self pollination for the same season. The crossing between Anna and Aujami cultivars gave 7.73 seeds per fruit in 2007 season, while the open pollination gave 3.33 seeds per fruit per fruit during the same season.

Effect of unigreen nutrient and potasum spray on growth and leafs nutrients content of potato

Fadel H. Al-Sahaf

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 199-210

Two experiments were conducted during spring and fall seasons of 2005, using potato tubers of Desiree cultivar in the field of Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad. A randomized complete block design was used to investigate the effect of foliar fertilizers, Unigreen (contain macro and micro elements) 2.5 g /L and solu potash (contains 50% K2O) 3.0 g /L. The first was sprayed at the vegetative stage, tuber initiation stage and at tubers bulking and enlargement stage. The second was sprayed at tubers bulking and enlargement stage. Solutions of these fertilizers were sprayed individually or mixed with each other at different stages of growth. The experiment consisted of 13 treatments arranged randomly in 3 replicates. Samples were taken from the leaves to test their nutrient contents and the vegetative characters were studied before harvest. Potato plants grown in spring treated with Unigreen at three stages gave taller plants (59.13 cm/ plant), higher percentages of N and P in leaves (2.79 and 0.44%). While Potato plants grown in fall season treated with Unigreen at three stage and solu potash gave taller plants (80.67cm) and higher percentages of N, P and K in leaves (3.97, 0.50 and 4.84% respectively). Plant at this treatment show higher number of stems per plant in spring and fall seasons (4.33 and 3.00 stem/ plant)and higher number of leaves per plant in spring (72.57 leaf/ plant) and higher dry weight of plant in spring and fall seasons (52.17 and 47.19 g / plant respectively) and higher percentages of K in leaves in spring. Higher content of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu was found in the vegetative parts of these plants for both seasons.

Comparing of seven genotypes of dry peas (Pisum sativum L.) under rainfeed agriculture and supplementary irrigation

Adnan N. Matlob

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 211-217

This study was conducted to compare 7 genotypes of dry peas under dry rainfield with supplementary irrigation at Rabea Agricultural Research Station– Nineva during 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 growing seasons.
The results showed that genotype Syrian Local Aleppo-1 gave the highest plant height and number of lateral branches. The genotype P397-4 gave the highest pod / plant , number of seed / pod and highest yield of dry seeds (638.8 kg. / Do.) for an average of two growing seasons . While the genotype spring Pea 3 gave the lowest dry seed yield per unit area (431.9 kg./ Do.) for an average of two growing seasons.

Effect of some summer pruning treatments on the growth and yield quantity and quality of grape cultivar Cardinal

Rajaa A. Kadhum

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 218-234

This study was carried out during the two seasons of 2003 and 2004 at the Experimental Research Farm, Fazan. This study aimed to investigate the effect of some summer prunning on the growth and yield quantity and quality of grape vine cultivar Cardinal. Grape vines were planted in 1991 and trained by Bilateral Cordon System and using mixd pruning by leaving 90 node/ vine distributed as 7 node/ cane and 7 Renewal spurs having 2 node/ cane. This study was carried out within randomized complete block design using 4 treatments of summer pruning; i-e. Pinching, lateral shoots removal and sterile shoot removal in addition to the control treatment (no prunning). Results of the study illustrated that sterile shoot removal yielded the highest percentage of fertility of Cardinal cultivar, in the first season. However, in the second season all type pruning had a significant effects on fertility compared to the control. Lateral shoots removal as well as pinching had the highest significant values of fruit setting and quantity of the yield compared to the sterile shoot removal and control treatments, in both seasons. All summer prunning treatments significantly improved the quality of the yield compared to the control treatment in the two seasons.

Comparison for the effect of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic in fertility, hatchability of White Leghorn hens

S. Zangana; Bushra

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 235-246

The present experiment aimed to study the effect of diet supplementation with probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on fertility, hatchability and chicks produced of White Leghorn (WL) laying hens.
Alocally prepared probiotic were used and each gram of this probiotic contain at least 1010 Colony Forming Units of Bifidobacterium and L. actibacillus bacteria and contain 108 CFU from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Aspergillus niger fungal respectivally . The Prebiotic were used in this study consist a non starch oligosaccharide of S.cerevisiae yeast after crashing of cell wall .The symbiotic were used in this study prepared by mixed un equael amount from probiotic (Iraqi probiotic) and prebiotic. Atotal of 180 laying hens and 24 cockes WL , 16 weeks old were randomly allocated into foure treatment groups. Hens in T1 group were fed a standerd laying diet and used as control group .Hen in T2,T3 and T4 were fed diet supplement with 5 Kg/ton of probiotic , prebiotic and symbiotic respectively .The experiment was conducted in poultry farm at Agriculture College –University of Baghdad for the period from 27th May 2005 to first of Jully 2006 .Egg production were inter hatchery at age 45 , 49 and 53 week throughout of the experimental period.
Feed supplementation with Probiotic ,Prebiotic and Synbiotic were significantly improved (P<0.01) hatchability , fertility , chicks produced from hen and feed conversion (g / chick) as compared with control.

Effect of supplementation enzymes to laying hen diet containing local canola meal on some qualitative traits of egg

Ahmed A. Al-Douri

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 247-253

The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of supplemention enzymes ( ROKSAZYME )200 g /ton . to deits contain local canola meal (CM), (15, %20 ) in laying diets.A total of 72 ISA-Brown strain hens 30 weeks old were used .The experiment period was 88 days. Hens were randomly assigned to six replicates (3 hens /replicate).
All birds were fed Iso caloric and Iso nitrogenous diets that contain different levels of CM,
Results of Supplementation ROKSAZYME diet contain canola meal showed no significant differences (P<0.05) in weight of shell, yolk, albumin, fatty acids ratio and level of cholesterol.

Additions Effect of Vitamins A and E and Vaccination by Eimeria maxima Vaccine locally Produced on clinical signs, lesion score and Performance of broilers

Adel A. Al-Hamadani

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 254-269

The aim of this research was study immunoeficiency of Eimeria maxima irradiated oocysts which attenuated by Gamma irradiation 200 gray through the vaccination of the birds with 8000 attenuated oocysts/ ml/ chick and the roles of vitamins A and E in improvement of immune response and birds performance. Two hundred and ten day– old Lohmann male birds were used in this experiment divided into 7 treatment with 2 replicate each replicate consist 15 birds. At tenth days of the age the birds were treated as follows: First treatment T1 were non vaccinated and non challenged, second treatment T2 were non vaccinated, third treatment T3 were vaccinated only, fourth treatment T4 were vaccinated and gave Vitamin A, fifth treatment T5 were Vaccinated and gave Vitamin E, sixth treatment T6 were vaccinated and gave Vitamin A and E combined and in the seventh treatment T7 were gave 8000 viable oocyst/ ml/ chick. The birds in treatment T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 were challenged at thirty eight days of age with 40000 viable oocysts Eimeria maxima/ ml/ chick. Clinical signs, lesion score, body weight, feed conversion efficiency, mortality rate and feed consumptions were recorded one week after vaccination, one day before challenge and one week after challenge. Results showed that vaccination of birds with Eimeria maxime vaccine locally produced and the addition of vitamins A or E in as much (6-300) mg/ kg feed respectively singular or combined in the feed were gave significant (p<0.05) reduced in clinical signs, lesion score and significant (p<0.05) improvement in body weight, feed conversion efficiency, mortality rate and feed consumptions after challenge test.

The prediction for some carcass traits and body measurements from the birth weight and slaughter weight in Awassi sheep

Hatem H. Saleh

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 270-276

The aim of this study is the prediction for some carcass traits and body measurements of the birth weight and slaughter weight on 32 Awassi sheep. This investigate was conducted at the Sheep farm Department of Animal Science/ College of Agriculture – Baghdad University. The statistical analysis system (SAS) was used to analysis of data.
It became clear that regression of carcass length on birth weight was highly significant (P<0.01), the coefficient was 0.527cm kg, the regression of chest circumference was significant (P<0.05) on birth weight, the coefficients was 0.887 cm kg with limit coefficient (R2 (0.69 cmkg.
The regression of carcass weight, body length, body height and leg length was not significant on birth weight. Results shows that the regression of hot carcass weight, carcass length, body length and height on front of shoulder blade , chest circumference and thigh length on live body weight at slaughtering was highly significant and its coefficients were 0.055 kgkg , 4.092 cmkg, 5.778 cmkg , 7.229 cmkg, 4.371cmkg and 3.022 respectively, with limit coefficients were 0.77, 0.89, 0.91, 0.68, 0.73 and 0.45 respectively, the highly regression of body length on body weight at slaughter ( 0.91) is reflex that body length explained 91% from weight at slaughter and this equivalence is consider the most strict from all used relations of prediction purpose. Results shows there is a positive relation factor and significant (P<0.01) between birth weight whoever carcass length and chest circumference, it was 0.31 and 0.37 respectively, results show also presence positive relation with highly significant between animal weight at slaughter and most of studied characters.

Some factors affecting total milk yield and service per conception and estimated breeding value with sex ratio of Holstein Friesian cows in central Iraq

Garabed A. Baghdasar

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 277-289

A total of 2718 records belong to 1126 Holstein Friesian cows which divided to 911 cows in Al-Nasr station for dairy cattle and 215 cows in Al-Ishaky station for the period of 1994-2003 which they are daughters of 28 bulls in Abu-Ghraib Artificial Insemination Center . Total milk yield (TMY), service per conception (S/C), and sex ratio (SR) were studied.



البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستیر للباحث الثانی
The overall mean ± SE for TMY and S/C were 3774.11 ± 28.80 kg and 2.02 ± 0.03 insemination respectively. TMY was highly significant affected by herd , parity , season and year of calving , while age at first calving showed no significant effect on production. S/C was affected significantly (P 0.01) for all factors which mentioned previously. The statistical analysis showed a lack of significant differences between male and female births, with the mean ratio of 53.1 : 46.9 for 3033 births in two stations , but for the bull No. 543 (SR) was 67.8 : 32.2 (P 0.01).
The breeding value for bulls which used A.I. center for TMY ranged between – 590 to 539.1 kg and for S/C ranged between – 0.384 to 0.450 insemination.

Isolation of a dapttable or tolerant rhizobium and test its growth and survival in different salt concentration

Salah H. Mannoush

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 290-296

The objective of this study was to test the ability of thirty one Rhizobium isolates which selected from the root nodules of peanut, lup, vicia fab, mumber and alfalfa to surive in four concentration of sodium chloride in teast lead tract mamnitol broth 5%, 10%, 15% and 25%. The study also include the ability of four local Rhizobium isolates to growth and survive in YEM with three sodium chloride concentration 0.002% (control), 1%, 5% for five period, zero, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 day after incubation. The results showed that these isolates differ in their tolerance to the different concentration of NaCl which adoled to YEM belonging to the host plants. Generally the viable cells of these four Rhizobium isolates decrease with the increasing of NaCl to 1% and 5% in broth media.
The results showed that the effect of time of incubation depend on the properties of the isolate for expnple local isolate number (1) showed the hight tolerant to 25% concentration of NaCl on broth media while it affected more with the increasing of incubation time and it differed with the local isolate number 23 which was less affected with incubation time and this may due to the difference in physiological properties of these isolates and its ability to adopt to the height salt concentration.

Effect of drying temperature on the activity of vital gluten extracted from local wheat variety Noor

Afaf A. Ayoub

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 297-302

This investigation was carried out to determine the optimum temperature required for drying Wheat Gluten and preserve proteins vitality.
Three teste were adopted to assess Gluten vitality. The precipitation index was performed with Sodium Dodycel Sulfate(SDS). Values were 26.3 for flour (A1),31.0 for flour fortified with 2% gluten dried at 40C (A2),and 25.3 for flour fortified with 2% gluten dried at50C (A3). The flour rheology was evaluated with Farinograph values of water absorption of flour were found to be 81.2% for flour (A1),83.3% for flour fortified with 2% gluten dried at 40C (A2), and81% for flour fortified with 2% gluten dried at50C (A3). The baking test values were 73.836 for flour (A1),82.52 for flour fortified with 2% gluten dried at 40C (A2),and 72.092 for flour fortified with 2% glutendriedat 50C (A3).
These tests revealed significant improvements (p<0.05) in gluten vitality for samples dried at 40C as compared with other samples. This may explain the importunes of drying temperature in keeping gluten vitality recovered from wheat.

Influence of the two herbicides Gesagard and Triflan application on some cotton pests in Abu–Ghraib region, Baghdad

Abdul-Sttar A. Ali

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 303-309

Field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the herbicides Gesagard (Prometrin) and Triflan (Trifluralin) on some insect pests and mites infesting cotton in Abu – Ghraib during the growing season of 2002. Results showed that the use of herbicides or hand weeding had relatively similar effect on whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genn. Population which was the most dominating species over other sucking insect pests. While the highest population densities of the thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind. and the leafhopper Asymmetrasca decedents (Poali) were respectively 1.8 and 0.8 individuals/5 leaves recorded on cotton plant of Triflan treatment .Results have also indicated the presence of the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. on cotton plants of all treatments . The lowest mean of population density was 3.1 individuals/5 leaves recorded for Gesagard treatment followed by hand weeding with mean of 5 individuals /5 leaves. while the highest mean was 11.8 individuals /5 leaves recorded on plants in the control treatment. As for the bollworms , results showed that the spiny bollworm Earias insulana Boisd. was the dominating species , however, infestation was relatively low and variable on all treatments . Means of infestation percentages for Gesagard and Triflan were 6 and 7.1% respectively .While infestation percentage for the control treatment was 7.3 % .Therefore ,the variation of infestation on the different treatments may indicate no direct effect of the herbicides used in this experiment on insect pests or spider mites in cotton fields. The use of herbicides or hand weeding would have indirect effect on these pests through their influence on cotton plants to improve tolerance and defenses mechanisms against pest infestation.

The use of some Nematocides for the control of local strain of root- knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato in Abu- Ghrib, Baghdad

Ali. H. Alwan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 310-315

Five Nematicides; Oxamyl (vydate), Ethopropos (Mocap), Carbofuran (Furadan), Phenamiphos (Nemacur), Telon, were tested in the field to explore their effectiveness against root – knot nematodes: Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chit wood on tomato. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the percentage of infection between the nematicides and the control treatment, in the incidence of root- knot disease on tomato. However, there were significant differences in root – gall index ,the hight of the plants and tomato production between the nematicides and the control treatments. the nematicide ranged according to their effectiveness as fallows: Oxamyl, Ethopropos, Carbofuran, Phenamiphos ,Telon .The product of the nematicides treatments were 31.24 , 28.30, 27.55 , 21.00 ,24.45 kg/ treatment respectively. Therefore, the nematicides oxamyl, Ethopropos, Carbofuran, could be used in the control mangments against Root-knot nematodes M. javanica in the field.