Response of growth and yields of three sunflower genotypes (Helianthus annuus L .) to arrangement system of plants in farm
ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 49-73
AbstractA factorial experiment was conducted in R.C.B.D. in a clay-loam texure soil at the experimental farm, college of agriculture, university of AL –anbar, Iraq in spring seasons of 2002 and 2004. In order to study the growth response and seed yields and quality of the three sunflower genotypes (Euroflower,Flamme and Akmar) to the planting distances between hills were (20 , 30 and 40 )cm and the number of plants per hill was (1, 2plants ). The results of both years could be summarized as follows .
Flamme genotype was significantly superior (P < 0.05 ) in most characters of growth , yields and harvest index in both years, and gave high yield of seeds (10.19 ton /ha) as an average for the two years compared to Akmar genotype (6.12 ton / ha ) and Euro flower (6.46 ton / ha ). Oil yields were (3.82, 2.31 and 2.41 )ton /ha for the three genotypes respectively .
Decreasing distance between hills caused significant increase in the plant height, leaf area index ,dry matter yield , seed yield and harvest index in both years, Oil percentage and oil yields in the first year , and the value of the above characters reached the highest at 20 cm distance between hills . This distance was superior in seed and oil yields with the percent 38.33 and 54.09 % for the first character as an average for both seasons, For the second character the average was 43.02 and 62.56 % as compared with 30 and 40 cm distance among hills respectively, while a reverse results was obtained for leaf area , head diameter , number of seeds per head and weight of 1000 seeds for both years of study .
when planting two plants in a hill; the yields of seed increased about 70% as an average for both years and oil yields to about 54% as compared with planting one plant per hill, the harvest index which had no effect, while oil percent had increased significantly with planting one plant in the hill .
The interaction among genotypes , hill space and number of plants in a hill had significantly effected (P It was concluded that there was a positive increase in seed and oil yield by reducing the distance of planting and increasing the plants per a hill (increasing the plant density) for all genotypes. Flamme genotype was the most efficient in using its physiological and genotypical ability under the conditions of study ; it gave higher seed and oil yields when planted in a distance of 20 cm between each two hills with of two plants per hill (200000 plant/hac.).
- Article View: 189
- PDF Download: 96