Volume 20, Issue 1, Spring 2022


EFFECT OF MELATONIN IMPLANTS AND NUTRITIONAL RESTRICTION ON SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LOCAL MALE LAMBS

B. N. Al-Obeidi; A. R. Mansoor

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.174994

This experiment was conducted in the sheep farm of Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, during the period of 17/10/2021 to 9/1/2022. Sixteen local male lambs were chosen between 5-6 months of age and 35.31 ± 3.72 kg of average body weight. The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of melatonin implants and nutritional restriction on some blood biochemical parameters of local male lambs. The experimental period lasted for 69 days, the experiment involved two phases, feed restriction phase (42 days), and realimentation phase (27 days). Lambs were randomly distributed into four equal groups with four lambs of each. During the restriction phase, first group (T1) was used as a control and feed ad libitum. The second group (T2) was feed ad libitum and treated with two implants of melatonin (36mg) subcutaneously at the base of the ear. The third group (T3) was feed restriction 75% of ad libitum intake. The fourth group (T4) was feed restriction 75% of ad libitum intake and treated with two implants of melatonin subcutaneously at the base of the ear. Blood samples were collected from all treated groups at day 0, 42 and 69 for the measurement the level of glucose, total protein, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the plasma. The results restricted feeding, with or without melatonin, did not affect significantly on blood biochemical parameters, while it was observed that the restricted feeding with or without melatonin significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde. It was concluded from this experiment that feeding local male lambs at a level of 75% of ad libitum  with or without melatonin implants for 42 days followed by realimentation for 27 days improved oxidative status in male lambs.

EFFECT OF ADDING VITAMIN D3 AND VARIOUS PARTICLE SIZE OF OYSTER SHELL TO DIETS IN CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D3 CONCENTRATION, EGG SHELL AND BONE BREAKING FORCE IN LAYING HENS

A. M. Rashed; A. A. Yousif

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 13-23
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.174995

This study was conducted in the poultry farm belong to Department of Animal Production at College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, from 20/7/2021 to 15/10/2021, to show the role of vitamin D3 and multi particle size of oyster shells to providing the needed calcium for laying hens in order to manufacture the eggshell throughout the hours of the day and its impact on shell quality and bone health.one hundred-eight Lohman Brown laying hens, 43 weeks of age, were distributed randomly to nine treatments, four replicates for each treatment and three hens for each replicate. The experimental treatments were as follows: T1/ control diet without any additives, T2/ calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell size less than 1 mm + vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T3/ calcium source 50% limestone +50% oyster shell size 1-2 mm + vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T4/ calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell size 2-3 mm + vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T5/ calcium source 50% Limestone + 50% oyster shell size 3–5 mm + Vitamin D3 4000 IU kg-1, T6/ Calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell size less than 1 mm + Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1, T7 / Calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell 1-2 mm +Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1, T8 Calcium source 50% limestone + 50% oyster shell 2-3 mm + Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1, T9/ Calcium source 50% limestone +50% oyster shell size 3-5mm + Vitamin D3 8000 IU kg-1. The results showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in levels of calcium in blood plasma for fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth treatments. The results indicated a Significant increase (P≤0.05) in level of vitamin D3 in blood plasma for the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth treatments. The results showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in tibia bone breaking strength and Calcium content in tibia bone for the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth treatments. The results of eggshell breaking force trait indicated significant increase (P≤0.05) for fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth treatments.

GROWTH RESPONSE AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L) INOCULATED WITH DIFFERENT MYCORRHIZAL INOCULUMS

D. J. Mohammed; A. O. Mohammad; O. A. Fattah

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 24-35
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175061

Using mycorrhizal inoculum in sustainable agriculture attracted immense attention in recent years for improving plant growth, and water uptake. A plastic pot experiment was carried out at the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimani, during June to Juley 2020 to study the effect of different mycorrhizal inoculum (Glomus mosseae, Glomus geosporum and a commercial inoculum INOQ Agri) on growth responses and water use efficiency (WUE) of two maize varieties (GLORIA and SY Miami). The root colonization percentage for GLORIA and SY Miami were (5, 83.33, 88.33, 88.33) % (3.33, 86.67, 78.33, 85) % for control, G. mosseae, G. geosporum, and INOQ Agri, respectively. Inoculated plants showed significantly better growth and water use efficiency compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The best plant heights were in INGQ Agri plants (91.33, 90.67) cm in both GLORIA and SY Miami respectively. Highest shoot biomass (49.83, 44.50) g pot-1 and root biomass (16.17, 15.67) g pot-1 were found in INGQ Agri inoculant in both GLORIA and SY Miami respectively. The heights concentration of N,P and K  were in INOQ Agri (1.53%, 0.61% and 0.14%) for GLORIA and (1.48%, 0.56% and 0.14%) for SY Miami  respectively, Mycorrhizal inoculation also improved (WUE)  in maize plants the average increasing percentage were (34.92%, 19.3%) for  GLORIA and SY Miami cultivars respectively.

THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND LIVING ORGANISMS

B. A. Mahdii; Y. F. Al Fatlawy; L. J. Sultan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 36-44
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175385

The current report dealt with the effect of pesticides on the ecosystem through their impact on soil, water, and microorganisms and their impact on human health. As well as this study dealt with the biodegradation process of pesticides and the organisms involved in this process, even some previous studies proved that Bacillus spp. And Pseudomonas sp. Bacteria is the most efficient in the biodegradation of pesticides, at the same time, other previous studies dealt with the environmental factors that affect the biodegradation process of pesticides. It proved that each of the incubation periods, pH, and temperature have different effects on biodegradation.
Most of the studies indicated that the best incubation period for biodegradation is 7-8 days, and the best pH is 7, and the best temperature at which makes the biodegradation start is 10-45 °C.

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW ISOLATE OF CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS IN IRAQ

M. S. Al-Jumaily; N. S. Alkuwaiti

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 45-58
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175421

This study was initiated to isolate and characterize Cucumber mosaic virus based on serological, biological, and molecular approaches. Leaf samples were collected from symptomatic cucumber plants grown in protected fields at Plant protection Dept., College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, the University of Baghdad at Al-Jhdryaa and used for biological assays. ELISA using CMV specific commercial kit was used to detect the virus in collected samples. RT-PCR using CMV specific primer set targeting CP gene was used to confirm CMV infection. DNA fragments amplified were sequenced and analyzed using computer software packages. Bioassays showed Vigna unguiculata exhibited necrotic local lesions when inoculated with cucumber samples. ELISA indicated that the cucumber sample was CMV infected scoring 2.907 highest absorbance at 405 nm. RT-PCR using CMV-F/ CMV-R primer set could amplify the targeted ~500  bp DNA fragments from cucumber samples only. Sequence analyses confirmed the detection when CMV isolated shared 95 and 91% maximum nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) sequence identities with the equivalent gene bank sequences of CMV CP from India, Japan, China, and USA. Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree, concentrated from partial CP gene nt and aa sequence, confirmed the relatedness when gouged CMV isolated to other CMV sequences suggesting a common origin.  These findings confirmed the symptomatic cucumber sample collected from the protected culture was CMV infected.

DETERMINING THE PERCENTAGES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM THE LEAVES OF EACH OF OLIVES, PROSOPIS JULIFLORA, AND MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN(LALA ABBAS) USING DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS AND PERFORMING FT-IR ANALYSIS OF THESE EXTRACTS

A. A. Khalaf; M. M. Daher; M. H. Al-Mohammedi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 59-71
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175423

Plant extracts are one of the important topics that researchers have been interested in in all periods, with their great importance and their entry into a variety of fields. The aim of this research is to identify the percentages of plant extracts obtained from the leaves of each of the olives, Prosopis juliflora and Mirabilis jalapa Linn (Lala Abbas), as the leaves of the plants were extracted by two different methods: extraction using the Soxhlet device and extraction by the maceration process. The results showed that the extraction method by Soxhlet device gave higher percentages than the maceration extraction method for plant extracts in all the samples used, and that the extraction yield of Prosopis juliflora leaves, which amounted to (15.58%) was higher than the rest of the extracts obtained in this research. The results showed that in terms of infrared spectra analysis, there is a high convergence of all the prepared extracts through the appearance of some effective functional groups such as (hydroxyl group OH, carbonyl group C-O and others).

RESPONSE OF GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATO FOR SPRAYING WITH BOTANICAL EXTRACTS AND CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

S. M. Ahmed; R. S. Ibrahim; G. K. Abbas; A. K. Suhail; H. S. Hussain

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 72-84
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175424

Two experiments were conducted in a plastic house at AL-Latifia Research Station, Agricultural Research Directorate, Plant Breeding and Improvement Center during the spring season of 2018 to study the response of growth and productivity of tomatoes for spraying with botanical extracts (Roselle and Fenugreek) with concentrations (0,2,4g.L-1 and fertilization experience included (chemical fertilizer recommendation, poultry residues, humic acid liquid, and powder).  Two Experiments' within Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) were adopted. The first experiment results showed the superiority of the treatment of spraying with Roselle extract (4 g.L-1) significantly of increasing the leaf area, the content of chlorophyll, and the number of fruit 327.10 dcm2 47.88   SPAD and51.89 respectively, while were 221.40 dcm2,39.90   SPAD and 40.57 respectively in the control treatment. And there is a non-significant influence of the source of botanical extracts on the weight and size of fruits, Moreover, the treatment of spraying with Roselle extract (2 g.L-1) showed a significant increase in the plant yield and total yield of 6.02, 3765.00 kg respectively compared with control treatment 3.90, 2465.00 kg respectively. While the second experiment results showed, that the treatment of chemical fertilizer showed significant increase in the plant yield and total yield which were 8.63 and 5392.00 kg respectively, and non-difference significantly with the treatment of manure of poultry, which was 8.61 and 5383.00 kg respectively compared with the treatment of control that was 4.69 and 2929.00 kg respectively

THE IMPACT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL LEGISLATION AND WHEAT FARMERS' COMMITMENT TO IT IN WASIT GOVERNORATE

N. A. Alsaho; A. D. Kassar; M. K. Mohammed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 85-98
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175490

The research aimed to analyze the results of the application of some agricultural legislation and laws and the degree of commitment of wheat farmers, in addition to knowing the role of agricultural legislation in supporting agricultural policy in Iraq and knowing the degree of its success. A questionnaire was used for a sample of 247 farmers in Wasit Governorate, and they were asked with a set of 26 questions.   The results showed that a Likert scale was used. The results showed that with regard to the question of not providing agricultural loans, 80.3% of farmers considered it an important issue. As for the questions of weak support for production inputs prices and weak support for final output prices, their answers were largely similar with the word “agree” with 88.79 and 87.72% of the sample answers. The research concluded double the amount of government support provided to production requirements for the cultivation of the wheat crop, in addition to that it does not achieve the farmer's goal in reducing production costs, The contribution of this support is weak in relation to the total costs of production requirements. The research also concluded that despite the state setting the purchase price of the crop at prices that exceed international prices for it, it was not sufficiently remunerative compared to the high production costs in Iraq. The research recommended the need to tighten control for the purpose of preventing farmers from violating the imposed government legislation in order to regulate production and develop the agricultural sector, as well as work to improve the reality of agricultural crop production, especially the wheat crop, by providing government support for the use of modern technologies to raise the level of production and then achieve greater returns for farmers.

STUDYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE RESIDUES OF SOME PLANT SOURES AND IDENTIFY THE CONTENT OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS

A. H. Kareem; E. Z. Naji

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 99-110
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175489

This study was conducted in the laboratories of the College of the Agriculture / University of Tikrit and the College of the Science / University of Anbar during the period from 1/11/2020 to 1/9/2021 the aim is to study the chemical composition of the peels of some different fruits of plants, which were (eggplant, watermelon, pumpkin, orange, pomelo, and pomegranate). Fruits The results  of  the chemical composition of the peels of the fruits used showed the percentage of moisture, ash, fat, fiber, protein, and carbohydrates reached 7.14, 5.9, 2.56, 14.91, 11.43, 59.06% 10.29, 11.2, 3.08, 29.87, 11.81, 33.33%, 6.89, 6.7, 5.40, 15.60, 8.48, 56.93%, 11.23, 5.15, 10.62, 13.41, 5.74, 52.85% 9.19, 6.7, 5.99, 15.40, 8.48, 54.24% 10.56, 2.2, 1.89, 15.87, 4.37, 65.11%, the peels of eggplant, watermelon, pumpkin, orange, pomelo and pomegranate fruits  respectively. The content of the phenols in the peels of the fruits under study showed the presence of several types, with the peels of pumpkin, pomegranate, eggplant and pomelo distinguished by a high content of gallic acid, with percentages 40.697, 39.117, 36.519, 32.748%, respectively, followed by Apigenin, as pumpkin peels were characterized by the highest content It reached 23.179 %, compared with pomegranate 21.009%, eggplant 19.554%, watermelon 16.078%, pumpkin 15.380%, and orange 2.433%. The lowest was Catching, with percentages 6.133, 0.083,9.003, and 0.737,5.183 and 6.664% for the peels eggplant, watermelon, pumpkin, orange, pomelo, and pomegranate fruits, respectively, and the rest of the types of phenols range between these percentages.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SALMONELLA SPP FROM CHICKEN MEAT IN KURDISTAN REGION

J. N. Abdulrahman

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 111-119
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175492

Salmonella is a bacterial diseases that caused by many strains of salmonella. Salmonellosis is a disease occur in human and chicken, salmonellosis in poultry sometimes causes economic losses, also international trade can be affected if the salmonella presents in poultry products or poultry meat as in this case the infection can transmit to humans. Salmonella is a considered the most important and serious pathogen of bacteria that responsible of food borne infection all over the world. In Kurdistan region, Erbil city the common shapes of poultry are broilers and backyard. This study was done to inform the impact of salmonella epidemic chicken and the prevalence of salmonella's genetic types and serotypes among broilers and raw meat of chickens in Kurdistan, Iraq. Samples were collected from about fifty broiler chickens that suffered from diarrhea, fifty raw chickens meat and "30" patients that had diarrhea and signs of food poisoning. The serological identification of salmonella after isolation was "58.33%" salmonella enteritidis and "41.66%" salmonella typhimurium. Serotype salmonella enteritidis antigenic formula has "O" somatic antigen "1, 9, 12" and flagellar antigen "H", while the serotype salmonella typhimurium had the "O" somatic antigen "1, 4". The main infection source of humans includes; meat products that comes from consumption of contaminated meat of chicken. Scientifically, the control programs of impact of salmonella control are based on general procedures of hygiene on the campylobacter prevalence at the holding in broiler flocks and at the end of the process of slaughter on the broiler meat.

MEASURING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT CROP PRODUCERS IN DESERT AREAS WHO ADOPT PIVOT IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY AND WHO DO NOT ADOPT FOR THE SEASON 2020-2021

M. M. Saleh; O. K. Jbara

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 120-137
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175493

The aimed of research was to make a comparison of the economic efficiency of wheat crop producers in the desert areas of Karbala governorate for adopters of pivot irrigation technology and those who do not adopt by measuring the economic efficiency and its components (technical and allocative) using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Through the quantities and prices of resources and estimation of the surplus and deficit quantities of the resources used to actually produce the wheat crop and the quantities achieved for efficiency and by focusing on the irrigation water resource and based on field data for a random sample. The sample size for wheat producers in the pivot irrigation system was (100) farmers out of (571) farmers in Ain Al-Tamr district according to the agricultural plan of the Karbala Agriculture directorate with a sample of wheat crop producers in the tourist irrigation system (100) farmers Out of (178) farmers in Al-Hur district  according to the agricultural plan of the Karbala agriculture directorate through direct interviews with farmers, By analyzing the data envelopment of the research sample, it was found that the farms under the pivot irrigation system achieved full technical efficiency and the stability of the return to scale by 22% of the total sample, while the farms under the pivot irrigation system achieved a percentage of 0.5% This indicates the importance of the pivot sprinkler irrigation technique in reducing the resources used to achieve complete technical efficiency, and the most important of these resources is the irrigation water resource. The average allocative efficiency was (0.82) and economic efficiency (0.72) in the center pivot irrigation system, Due to the good exploitation of the resources used in production, these farms can become more efficient if the support of modern technologies in agricultural production is increased, which reduces production costs and raises the level of allocative and economic efficiency, By estimating the size of the economic resources and the amount of surplus or deficit of resources to produce the wheat crop for the research sample, It was found that there are surplus quantities of productive resources used in the production of the wheat crop (cultivated areas, seeds, dab fertilizer, urea fertilizer, pesticides, irrigation water, mechanized work) under the tourist irrigation system compared to the farms operating under the pivot irrigation system.

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZER COMBINATIONS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD INDICATORS OF MAIZE ZEA MAYS L.

M. A. Jumah; W. A. Al-Joboory

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 138-148
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175653

A field experiment was conducted in Anbar governorate, northwest city of Ramadi in Zankora district during the autumn season of 2019. Seven fertilizer treatments were included (T1 = recommended application of chemical fertilizer, T2 = 50% of recommended + effective micro -organisms, T3= 25% of the recommendation + effective micro-organisms, T4= 50% the recommended + Humic acid, T5= 25% recommended + Humic acid, T6= combination of 50% recommended + micro-organisms+ Humic acid, and finally T7= 25% of recommended + micro-organisms + Humic acid). The experiment was applied using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D). obtained results presented the possibility of using micro-organism fertilizers and Humic acid as an alternative of chemical ones when the amount of chemical fertilizer was reduced by 50%, where, T6 treatment almost gave the same values of growth indicators and production in compression with fully amount applied as mineral fertilizer (T1). Treatment of T6 was significantly superior to all treatments except T1, by showing values of 264.87 cm, 5746 cm2, 373.9 g. plant-1, 84.92 g, 10.55 Mg ha-1 of plant height, leaf area, dry weight, 300 grain weight and total grain weight respectively.

MEASURING THE ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT FARMERS UNDER SPRINKLER IRRIGATION IN ANBAR GOVERNORATE FOR THE YEAR 2020

S. Adnan; M. A Al-Dawoudi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 104-119
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175491

The wheat crop in many countries of the world has faced fluctuations in production despite its importance, which affects the production of those countries that want to achieve self-sufficiency in the wheat crop, including Iraq. Therefore, it was important to search for technical means and methods used to increase local production in the face of an increasing population, coupled with increasing productivity and reducing production costs. The research aimed to measure technical efficiency and capacity efficiency in light of the change and stability of capacity returns and to measure economic efficiency with its components (technical efficiency and specialized efficiency).
And estimating the volume of resources that achieved the economic efficiency of wheat farms in Anbar Governorate (Al-Ramadi), and measuring the technical efficiency and economic efficiency of the farms of the study sample, which included factors (area- quantity of seeds- quantity of fertilizers- quantity of control resources and pesticides - family work and automated work). Depending  on the data envelope analysis method. The results showed that the technical efficiency of the farms of the study sample in light of the stability of the capacity return and the change in the capacity return amounted to more than (26%), it is noted that the farms that achieved full technical efficiency reached (46%), and therefore (6%) of the farms achieved efficiency Technical and specialized, which means that it is economically efficient.