Keywords : wheat


H. M. Al-fahdawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2019, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 76-86
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170537

A field experiment was conducted at Al- Sufia of Al- Ramadi city during 2012 – 2013 and 2013 – 2014 winter seasons to study growth and productivity of several variety of common wheat under the influence of levels of fertilizer DAP. The varieties (main plot) and levels of fertilizer (Sub – plots). These treatments (4×4) were input with design in RCBD at three replicates. The seeds were sown at a rate of 120 kg h-1 in the first half of December. The results showed that Abu Ghraib had the highest rate of chlorophyll, 54.0 and 53.0 SPAD, and the grain yield was 685.3 and 439.1 g/m2 and gave the best harvest index was 40.9% and 33.7% respectively. While Sham 6 gave the highest rate of flag leaf area 44.6 and 41.8 cm2 and gave cultivar IPA 99 the highest rate of dry matter per square meter of 1.8 and 1.4 kg and the superiority Al-Ezz variety of plant height rate was 120.9 and 109.7 cm in the two seasons respectively. The effect of DAP fertilizer in most of the studied qualities compared to non-addition, especially the addition of fertilizer level 200 and 300 kg h-1, given the best results, especially the production of dry matter, which reached 1.8 kg/m2 in the first planting season and 1.3 and 1.4 kg/m2 in the second planting season. The best grain yield was 657.5 and 667.0 g/m2 during the first planting season as well as 404.5 and 405.4 g / m 2 during the second planting season. conclude that all varieties have varied in their growth and production and showed a clear response to the response of fertilizer DAP, especially the level of add 200 kg/m2, which can be adopted as a level in addition to wheat plant because it is able to grow wheat varieties in this environment natural growth and give it economically.

Measurement of technical and economic efficiency and determine the economic size of wheat farms in Erbil using the data envelope analysis method (dea) in agricultural season 2014-2015

Sura Abbas jasim; Imad Ammar Al-Snbll

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2017, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 244-256
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2017.129089

This research have its importance from the strategic importance of wheat, And that different cases of area for wheat farms reflects on the economic and technical efficiency, As the area impact on production costs with respect to the use of machinery work upon which mainly in rain-fed agriculture in Erbil research topic, And research assumes the existence of at least one class of area is characterized by a high level of total efficiency estimated for the other classes , So was the study of the economic efficiency of utilization of resources as one of the goals of the economic systems to improve the economic performance of farms, In order to determine the optimal farm size within the category achieved the optimum size of the use of resources, Use the envelope method of data analysis (Data Envelopment Analysis) (DEA), Data was collected by the questionnaire and personal interviews to farmers in the sample of 222 farm is divided into five categories according to farm size , And use trends in the analysis of this data type style, first trend is using a method (DEA) on according to variable returns to scale (Variable Return to Scale) (VRS), and according to the constant of returns to scale (CRS), (Constant Return to Scale, The research concluded that where the greater size of the area categories decrease the losing in the of productive resources clearly, which goes with what came in economic theory for it with increased production volume increases the marginal productivity of land unity, Taking that pattern in wheat farmer in Erbil is the pattern of the family farm, which takes into consideration not to break up large areas, especially among members of one family to achieve economic efficiency and technical exploitation of the productive resources, especially with regard to the machinery and agricultural machinery.

Evaluation of several genotypes of wheat and triticale under rain fed conditions in Sulaimaniyah province

Mohammed Mahmoud Al-Amiry; Mohammed Owaid Al-Ubaidi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 163-171

Two field experiments were carried out in a farmer’s fields in Sulaimaniyah Governorate (Bakra Joe region) in winter season of 2014-2015. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) were used with three replicates, in order to evaluate 14 genotypes with local cultivar (Araz) as a control of Wheat (Triticum spp) and 6 genotypes of Triticale (X. Triticosecale wittmack). The study results were summarized as following: the genotypes of Wheat significantly varied in all studied traits. The genotype AL-LSSN 108 in highest average of number of grains in spike 49.77 grain spike-1 and grain yield about 4.29 ton ha-1, and the genotype AL-ESW 139 was superior in spike with 442.7 spike m-2 and average of protein percentage in grain %17.15. The genotype AL-LSSN 143 has recorded highest average of 1000-grain weight 26.73 gm. The genotypes of Triticale varied in most of studied traits where the genotype Triticale 49 was superior in number of grains in spike 47.12 grain. spike-1, weight of 1000-grain weight 31.14 gm, grain yield 5.27 ton. ha-1.

Comparing between the performance of mobile drip irrigation and surface irrigation on some soil Physical properties and yield of wheat Triticum aestivum L.

Mustafa S. Abd AL- Gabbar; Abd Al-Whhab I. Al-Abaied

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 56-71

Field experiment was conducted in a silty loam soil at Al-anbar University, College of Agriculture, in Ramadi during fall season 2013-2014 to study the Compared to the performance of mobile drip irrigation and continuous surface irrigation in some physical properties of the soil (moisture distribution curves and hydro saturated conductivity and infiltration average). The study included two main factors: mobile drip irrigation and Continuous surface irrigation. The lay out of the study was according to RCBD with three replicates. The moisture distribution was studied for the treatments during three stages from plant growth stages between 0 - 0.40 m in horizon and vertical directions from the drippers and depth 0 - 0.40 m in Beginning, middle and end of the board bar Continuous surface irrigation .The moisture curves were blotted by surfer software; some of the physical properties for the treatments, As well as some of growth and productivity of the crop wheat.
The moisture content was increased at source of dripping and decreased away from the dripper horizontally and vertically after ending irrigation process, The treatment of drip irrigation reduced the vertical & horizontal distribution of water in soil as compared with the surface irrigation. mobile drip irrigation caused density values rate reduction as it reached to 1.38 in comparison with 1.44 Mgm.m-3 for continuous surface irrigation, and increase soil porosity to 0.45 in comparison with 0.4treatmentsrespectivel. The irrigation system had a vital role in hydro saturated conductivity, however the mobile drip irrigation had led to significant increase in this average, the highest average was 9.18 at the mobile drip irrigation comparing to 8.15 for Continuous surface irrigation The mobile drip irrigation had a role in average increase of infiltration which gave 9.4 and 8.6 for continuous surface irrigation treatments. It was significantly increased productivity in the treatment of mobile drip irrigation if reached 5.360 ton. ha-¹ compared with 4.230 ton. ha-¹ in continuous surface irrigation.

Estimating of Pesticide Residues (Atlantis WG) in the Wheat Triticum aestivum L. Crop and the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammed; Reasan K. Shati; Abdulkareem J. Ali

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 195-203

A field experiment was carried out during the winter season 2014-2015 in the field belongs to the college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad – ALJadiriyah in order to assess pesticides residues after harvesting of wheat crop (Cultivar Iba’a 99) to find out the degradation Atlantis WG {Mesosulfuron-methyl + Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium} in soil. A concentration of 200g.hˉ¹ and 300 g.hˉ¹ of herbicide were used in addition to control line (without application). Results showed that, non -pesticides residues were found in wheat after one hour of application due to the nature of Atlantis WG since it is a systematic herbicide; that is, it needs simple time to be absorbed by the plant at which it will start distribute in every single part inside the plant. Residues of this herbicide were appeared after one week of application and then in a high concentration two weeks later. The pesticide residues were started to decreased after four weeks of application and continue vanishing after few weeks of application until it approached the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg.Lˉ¹ after 19 weeks which is much lower than the allowed concentration. In addition, the chemicals analysis results of pesticide residues in some soil samples revealed that the active ingredient of Atlantis WG (Mesosulfuron) was found in soil but in small amounts ranged between 0.0087 mg.Lˉ¹ and 0.0.99 mg.Lˉ¹ as MRLs (Maximum Residue limits) which as a result cannot effects subsequent crops in future.

Evaluate the effectiveness of the weed herbicide Atlantis WG for some varieties of wheat which be approved in Iraq and associated weed and its impact on the economic quotient

Ahmed. T. Mohammed; Reasan K. Shati; Abdulkareem J. Al

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 183-194

A field experiment was carried out during the season 2014-2015 in the Field belongs to the college of Agriculture, Baghdad University – Jadiriyah in order to assess the effectiveness of the herbicide Atlantis WG which used to control weed wheat. Six varieties of wheat were used, namely, (Iba’a 99, Abu Ghraib 3, Fateh, Rasheed, Tahadi and Iraq). A concentration of 200 g.hˉ¹ and 300 g.hˉ¹ of herbicide was used including control line (without application). Results of the experiment revealed that, Atlantis has high efficiency in manage wheat weeds in which the density of weeds after 90 days of the application was respectively reduced as, 179.7, 67.4 plant.mˉ² for the two concentrations 200, 300 g.hˉ¹ respectively above in comparison to that of the control group which amounted of 427.7 plant.mˉ².
Consequently, the outcomes of wheat were increased from 4.892 tans.hˉ¹ to 5.345 and 6.076 tans.hˉ¹ for the two previously mentioned concentration with percentages of 8 and 16 % respectively. Iba’a 99 class has achieved significantly the highest average with 5.860 tans.hˉ¹ of wheat cereals, which exceed class Abu Ghraib 3 with amount of 5.678 tans.hˉ¹. Such results may be attributed to the genetic variation of nature for wheat classes as well as Iba’a class has wide distance of the flag leave with 1000 grain. All of these factors may contribute to the variation of wheat class's response to the application of the herbicide. All these classes of wheat were positively responded to Atlantis WG during the application.

The Effect of herbicides and Agriculture spacing, on yield components of wheat Triticum aestivum L. and on accompanied weeds

Senan A. AL. Salmane; Adel H. A.-Alghafoor; Naofal A. Sabre

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 227-236

A field experiment was conducted at the farmer field near Ramadi city /Al-Anbar governorate during the growing season of 2007-2008 to investigate the effect of herbicides and row spacing on weeds accompanied with wheat and on growth characteristics , grain yield and yield components of wheat . The factorial experiment was carried out according to RCBD design with three replication . Two herbicides were included Pyroxsulam and Chevalier at rate of 0.3 L. ha-1, 0.3 kg ha-1 respectively. The bread wheat was planting at three row spacing 15, 20, 25 cm. Results showed great effect of herbicides in controlling weeds. The dry weight of weeds decreased in a percentages of 98.9% and 98.5% with Pyroxsulam and Chevalier respectively as compared with the weedy plots. While the grain yield of wheat increased in the same herbicides treatments. There was non significant deference between herbicides and hand weeding in almost all of the studied characters. The row spacing of 15 cm caused significant reduction in the dry weights of weed with 17. 36 gm.m-2 as compared with 20 and 25 cm with 19.71and 25.03 gm. m-2 respectively. However, row spacing of 25 cm was superior in number of spike. m-2, weight of 1000 grain and wheat yield which reached to 36.6 cm2, 406.04 spike . m-2, 46.6 gm and 5.3 t. ha-1 respectively. The results also showed the positive interaction between the herbicides and row spacing in decreasing the dry matter of weed that grown with the crop. The treatment of 25cm row spacing with Chevalier application gave grain yield of 6.36 t/ha with an increase percentage reached to 57.7% compared to 2.69 t. ha-1 recorded for the same raw spacing with no herbicide application .

Genetic variation and analysis of path coefficient of some traits of wheat under three plant densities

Omar H. Al-Rawi; Hadil Sabbar; Mohammed H. Al-Issawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 254-264
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2015.120026

A field experiment was conducted in a farmer field in Alneaamia region/Fullujah/Anbar governorate, during the winter season 2012-2013. Seed of four cultivars of durum wheat (Abu-Gariab, Aliraq, Tahady and Alezz) was planting under three planting rates (100, 130 and 160 kg.ha-1). Split plot arrangements in RCBD design were used. The objective of this study was to determine the more effective traits in grain yield, which were considered it as a selection index to improve grain yield in wheat. The result of analysis of variance showed that there is a highly significant difference for all studied traits for all planting rate. The value of genetic variance was highly than environment variance for all traits and it was increase with increase of planting rates exception of leaf area which was decrease of its genetic variance with increase of planting rate. Number of spick.m-2 gave highly broad sense heritability (0.956) for planting rate (130 kg.ha-1) and number of grain.Spike-1 (0.902) for planting rate (160 kg.ha-1).
The value of standard coefficient variance and genetic, phenotypic covariance was contrast with planting rate, there is highly value of its in grain yield and number of grain.spike-1. There is positive genetic, phenotypic and environment correlation concern between yield and number of spick and number of grain and there is a negative correlation between yield and leaf area and weight of 1000 kernel at planting rates (130 and 160 kg.ha-1) while there is a positive and highly correlation of environment between yield and number of grain.spike-1 and weight of 1000 kernel at the three planting rate. The path coefficient analysis showed are the number of spick have a highly direct positive effected (1.339, 1.273 and 0.776) at the three planting rate respectively, as well as the total of effects (0.982, 1.095 and 0.965). The number of grain spick-1 gave highly positive indirect effects (1.365) among number of spick at 130 kg.ha-1

Response of two Wheat Cultivars ( Ipa 99 and Dor 29) to Spray by Iron and Zinc

Jawad Taha Mhmood; Hameed Kalf Al Salmani; Mohammed Sallal AL. Temmi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2014, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 81-89

To study the effect of spraying concentrations of Iron and Zinc on some yield components of two varieties of wheat ( Ipa 99 and Dor 29). Factoral Field experiment was conducted at Field of crop production Sciences, College of Agriculture – university of Baghdad, at silty clay loam soil. Requirements of N, P and K fertilizers were added. Concentrations of Fe ( 0, 50 and 100) mgFe.L-1 and ( 0, 50 and 100) mgZn.L-1 were sprayed at three stages of plant growth ( vegetative growth, boating and flowering stages). Randomized complete block design was used at three replicates. Results showed that:
All concentrations of iron and zinc were significantly increased all studied
, weight of 1000 grain, biological yield 1-parameters which were number of grain.spikeed high of those parameters of Ipa produc 2Zn2and grain yield. Interaction treatment Feweight of 1-variety except weight of 1000 garain and grain yield, ( 47.3) grain.spike 1-and grain yield (4.91) t.ha 1-1000 grain ( 46.00) gm, biological yield ( 13.39) t.ha( 46.8) gm, (12.5) 1-.5) grain. spikerespectively, While Dor 29 variety produced ( 43. Ipa variety superior on Dor 29 variety in all respectively 1-and (5.33) t.ha 1-t.haproperties except grain.

Impact of the Agricultural Policies on Wheat Product in the Anbar province

Mishal Abid Khalaf

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 36-47

This Study aimed at measuring the economic impact of the price support policy policy of price support on wheat producer in the Anbar province ,and measuring the comparative advantage of wheat production systems and determines the cause of leakage in the support provided to them . Hence, the selection of blocks sample from 40 wheat farmers under traditional irrigation farms and 25 under sprinkler irrigation .Its form included economic aspects related to quantities and cost of inputs ,production and other related psychological estimated of causes leakage of positive effects of support prices.
Using of policy analysis matrix elements from estimated rates of quantities of inputs and outputs, according to a regular production of wheat in the province referred to. it was found that the nominal protection coefficient of wheat farmers is greater than one indicating the existence of nominal protection to product prices .as stated the effective protection coefficient values greater than one ,and largest values of nominal protection coefficient ,that indicating wheat producers are protected by the outputs and inputs alike .the effective protection coefficient to wheat producers under traditional irrigation greater than its value to production under sprinkler irrigation. It's perhaps because of state intervention in providing water to them farms.
the value of Domestic Resources cost coefficient indicating that product under sprinkler have proportion advantage than traditional irrigation .the private profit is positive and the values of criteria indicating the benefit farms from the policy of government intervention and local costs for donum it less than gross value added .the results of the analysis of leakage in varying amounts of support and in general show that the support price of the product less leak comparative than b support resource prices.

Effect of urea and superphosphats fertilizer and it's thier interaction in some chemical properties of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

Sabah S. Al-Ani; Abbas J. Al-Saedi; Suha D. Twaij

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 16-23

An experiment was carried out by using post in kalar horticulture Station / Sulaimania province on soil taked from once region sields during growing season of 2008-2009. The objective was to study adding increasing levels of urea fertilizer which is ( 0.0, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80 ) gm /Pot and superphosphate fertilizer which is ( 0.0, 0.24, 0.48 ) gm / pot in some chemical properties of grain for wheat I P A 95. This experiment was carried out by completely randomized design (C. R. D) with three replications.
Results in dictated of clear increase in all the studied characteristics (concentration for each nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium and carbohydrate percentage with increasing levels of fertilizers).

The Economic Using of Fertilizers on the Wheat Production

Imad A. Al-Sonbul

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 323-331

This research aims studding the optimal economic using for varieties levels of nitrogen and sulfuric fertilizers added in field experiment on breads Wheat (class Abu Graib 3) during two seasons respectively at Baghdad University. Application of (60 kg N and 400 kg Sulfur) per hectare resulted the optimal combination with maximize profit which difference from the combination technicians choose (180 kg N and 1200 kg Sulfur) per hectare.
Another aim to this research to be application stretch for the econometric researches, include all the crops, agricultural food products and for the agricultural production resources to raise the level of technical field and the agricultural experimental and researches centrals.

Economic Analysis of Production Costs Function of Wheat in Al-Anbar Province For 2005-2006 Planting Season

H. R Al-Dolaymi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 405-413

Terms of Production costs unseen analyzed for Wheat in AL-Anbar Province for the 2005-2006 agricultural Season .The Study Showed that the proportion percents of family lobar was higher than the rental labor which wane 10 and 1.4% respectively from the total costs of the entire farmers adoption on agriculture as a principle source of income because of the shortage in employment opportunity as a result of occupation conditions. This study also was indicated that the pattern of tenure in the province cans the individual property. This was among the factors which helped in increasing the production because the farmer had freedom in adoption of recent technology.
Through the amah sis of production costs terms, it has been shown that the variable costs constitute the higher percentage which was 72.3% of the total costs and the manure was at the beginning which was 26% .

Combining ability and gene action in wheat

H. J. Al-Dulaimi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 100-109

نفذت تجربة حقلیة فی حقول منطقة الصوفیة على الضفة الیمنى لنهر الفرات فی مدینة الرمادی/ مرکز محافظة الأنبار استخدمت فی البحث ستة أصناف من حنطة الخبز. أدخلت فی تضریبات تبادلیة باتجاه واحد فی الموسم الشتوی 2005 لإنتاج 15 هجینا فردیا. زرعت حبوب الإباء وتضریباتها النصف تبادلیة فی الموسم الشتوی 2006 وفق تصمیم القطاعات الکاملة المعشاة بثلاثة مکررات. بهدف تقدیر قوة الهجین وتأثیرات المقدرة العامة والخاصة على الاتحاد والفعل الجینی. أظهرت النتائج بان التضریب (إباء 95 × سالی) أعطى أعلى قوة هجین فی کل من حاصل حبوب النبات وعدد السنابل/ م2 وعدد حبوب السنبلة بلغت 11.39 %, 12.34 %, 19.47 % بالتتابع. کان تباین المقدرة الاتحادیة العامة والخاصة عالی المعنویة فی جمیع الصفات المدروسة باستثناء عدد حبوب السنبلة التی کانت فیها المقدرة الاتحادیة العامة والخاصة معنویة. کان الصنف 95 IPA هو أفضل الأصناف من حیث المقدرة الاتحادیة العامة لحاصل الحبوب, بینما کان أفضل التضریبات من حیث المقدرة الاتحادیة الخاصة هو (إباء 95 × سالی) فی حاصل حبوب النبات وعدد حبوب السنبلة وعدد السنابل/ م2. کانت النسبة بین تباین المقدرة العامة GCA)) والخاصة (SCA) على الاتحاد اقل من واحد لجمیع الصفات المدروسة عدا عدد السنابل /م2 یدل ذلک على إن هناک فعلا جینیا سیادیا یتحکم فی وراثتها عدا عدد السنابل /م2 یتحکم فی وراثتها الفعل الجینی ألمضیف. کانت قیم التباین الوراثی السیادی اکبر من قیم التباین المضیف لجمیع الصفات المدروسة باستثناء عدد السنابل /م2 . انعکس ذلک على انخفاض قیم نسبة التوریث بالمفهوم الضیق وزیادة معدل درجة السیادة عن واحد لجمیع الصفات المدروسة باستثناء عدد السنابل/ م2. یمکن الاستفادة من التولیفات الجدیدة فی إنتاج هجن فردیة ذات مقدرة اتحادیة خاصة لإنتاج حاصل عال, لان معظم صفاتها کانت تحت تأثیر السیادة والسیادة الفائقة.

Estimation of combining ability and genetic variance using the half diallel cross in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

S. A. Faiath

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 59-70

College of Education for women University of Al-Anbar

Six genotypes of wheat were crossed in half diallel. The grains of parents and (F1) crosses were sown using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replications. The studied characters were: number of days from planting to 50% flowering, number of days from planting to maturity, spike length/ cm, fertility%, number of spiklet/ spike, number of flowers per spike, and yield of single plant per gram, the parents (Tamooz, Alkaeed, Ipa (99), Sham (6), saber beg, Abu-graib) and it's F1 crosses differed significantly for all characters, The parents were generally combined in desirable direction for several characters, while the specific combining ability was significant only for number of days from planting to 50% flowering and to maturity characters respectively, Variance of specific combining abilities was more than variance of general combining abilities for number of days to flowering and to maturity and for yield of single plant characters while variance of general combining ability more than variance of specific combining abilities for spike length, fertility, number of flowers per spike, and number of spiklet per spike characters.
The additive gene action was more affective from the dominance gene action for all characters which were studied except yield of single plant/ gm, The narrow- sense heritability values were ranged between 52.77% for spike length/ cm to 91.73% for number of days from planting to maturity while the broad sense of heritability values were ranged between 10.67% and 76.61% for single plant yield/ gm and number of flowers/ spike, respectively, The average degree of dominance was higher than one for number of days to 50% flowering and to maturity and single plant yield characters, which revealed over dominance but less than one for another characters such as spike length, fertility, number of flowers/spike and number of spiklet per spike, which revealed dominance, with additive gene action.

Effect of Zinc Fertilization in Yield Components of Two Wheat Cultivars

A. A. Al-Hadethi; G. Alqwaz; R. S. Abbas

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 20-28

Two field experiments were carried out to study the effect of zinc fertilization in yield components of two wheat cultivars, bread wheat cv. Abu-Ghraib 3 and durum wheat cv. Doar 85.
البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستیر للباحث الثالث
In the first experiment Zinc was applied to the soil, Zinc levels were 4.0 and 8.0 kg Zn.ha-1 and control treatment (without Zinc). The Zinc was added from two sources, inorganic (ZnSO4.7H2O) and organic (Zn-DTPA). In the second experiment Zinc was applied as a foliar application. Zinc levels were 0.4 and 0.8 kg Zn.ha-1 and control treatment (spraying with water only). The results showed that number of spike / m2, weight of 1000 seed and number of seed / spike increased significantly when Zinc were added at 8.0 kg Zn ha-1 as a soil addition and 0.8 kg Zn ha-1 as a foliar addition compared to control treatment. The rate of increases by soil application of 8.0 kg Zn ha-1 of spike / m2, weight of 1000 seed and number of seed / spike were 21.8 and 28.8, 6.6 and 7.4, 22.0 and 10.6 for two wheat cultivars, bread wheat cv. Abu-Ghraib 3 and durum wheat cv. Doar 85 respectively. Also, the same components increased significantly by foliar application of 0.8 kg Zn ha-1. The rates of increasing were 13.4 and 15.7, 13.4 and 15.7, 17.6 and 13.7 for two wheat cultivars, bread wheat cv. Abu-Ghraib 3 and durum wheat cv. Doar 85 respectively. In general, soil addition of zinc resulted in higher increases in yield components compared to foliar addition of zinc.

Effect of different tillage systems in gypsiferous soil on yield of wheat under center pivot sprinkler irrigation system

I. K. Al-Hadithi; Y. K. Hamza; G. H. Al-Niemi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Three experiment was conducted in Al- Anbar governorate during winter season 2001 to study the effect of three types plows to cultivate the soils (gypsiferous soils) and its effect on yield of wheat under center pivot sprinkler irrigation system.
It have been reached that, Exclusion of using the the moldboard plow in gypsiferous soils, it can be reliable on using of disc harrow under sprinkler irrigation system , and also using of rotary plow type under local conditions of these soils.

Genetic parameters and path analysis in bread wheat as effected by seeding rates

H. J. Hamadi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 74-90

A field experiment was conducted at the farm AL Sofia place in Ramadi during 2004–2005 and 2005–2006, seasons. Arandomized complete block design in a split plot design with eight varieties (IPA 95, IPA 99, Abu-Ghraib3, Al-fateh, sale, shaam6, Tamoz3, Al-Rashed) as main plots and three sedding rates (100, 150 and 200 kg/ ha) as sub plots with three replication. Genotypic, phenotypic variances and coefficient of variability, broad sence heritability percentage, genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficient and other characters were estimated. path coefficient analysis carried out to partition the genotypic correlation coefficient to the direct and Indirect effects. The results showed that genotypic, phenotypic variances and coefficients of variability were varied with seeding rates. Genotypic variances more than Ecological variances for all characters in two seasones.
Phenotypic correlation coefficients was more than genotypic correlation coefficient for number of spikes/ m2, number of grain/ spikes and spike length for two seasones. The higher values for broad sence heritability appeared in biological grain/ spike (99.9, 99.8) for two seasones.
Path analysis revealed that biological grain for all seeding rates and two seasones obtained highest direct to grain yield, while length spike had the most positive direct and indirect effects. It was cocluded that biological grain could be used as selection index for the improvement of grain yield in bread wheat.

Wheat Grain Farmers Desire To The Use Of Central Pivot Irrigation (A survey study in Al- Saqlawia region)

A. I. Al-Awsi; I. H. Al-Saad; A. H. Lafta

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 343-352

Because of the farmers Psychological important and their effects on the farmer's responses and responsibilities for any new methods of farming, the aim of this study was to know the desires of farmers toward the use of central pivot irrigation in the Al –Saqlawia , its relates personal changes of farmers .
A random sample of (5%) out of (1000) farmers was chosen to be (50) farmers under research, A tetrahedral scale included (20) different items was used from which anyone can conclude the desire of farmers to using this new technology in irrigation , Another similar scale were used to figure out some of the independent variables such as (the farmers technical suitability level , their acceptance to any new technology, All data were collected in one lay out sheet and sometime personal interviews were done.
Results indicated that the degree of their desires and ranged from (10-48) degree with an average of (27.6) degree, These impressions of the farmers took a medium range that might get increased, In other words (76%) of farmers had positive desires toward the new technology of irrigation. Results also indicated a significant and positive linear relationship do all mentioned variables, The level of the suitable technology for farmers was good and there was an increased desire to accept using the new techniques, Some recommendations are also included in this research that may help in developing extensional programs related to agricultural techniques.

Controlling of Covered Smut on Wheat by Iraqi Sulfur Foam

M. S. Hassan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2006, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 253-256

A study was conducted in Neneva and Sulaimaniya, using sulfur foam, by – product of sulfur refineries to control covered smut disease of wheat caused by Tiltetia foetida, T.caries. Results showed that Foam at rate of 30-40 gm/kg. Seeds were effective with rate of infection in Neneva 36.79, 34.08, 10 % respectively while it reached 27.73, 22.73, 16.50 % in Sulaimaniya respectively, but it did not as effective as Dithane S – 60, the fungicide commonly used in Iraq. Foam had not negative significant effect on seed germination and plant Length in the field, Treatment with Foam significantly increase the yield by rate of 40%.