Keywords : soil


THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND LIVING ORGANISMS

B. A. Mahdii; Y. F. Al Fatlawy; L. J. Sultan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 36-44
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175385

The current report dealt with the effect of pesticides on the ecosystem through their impact on soil, water, and microorganisms and their impact on human health. As well as this study dealt with the biodegradation process of pesticides and the organisms involved in this process, even some previous studies proved that Bacillus spp. And Pseudomonas sp. Bacteria is the most efficient in the biodegradation of pesticides, at the same time, other previous studies dealt with the environmental factors that affect the biodegradation process of pesticides. It proved that each of the incubation periods, pH, and temperature have different effects on biodegradation.
Most of the studies indicated that the best incubation period for biodegradation is 7-8 days, and the best pH is 7, and the best temperature at which makes the biodegradation start is 10-45 °C.

Soil fungal population study related to oil pollution along different distances from kawrgosk oil refinery of erbil-iraq

Nashmeel Saeed Khudhur; Nareen Q. Faqi Abdulla

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-15

Soil fungal population along different distances from Kawrgosk Oil Refinery was analyzed in relation to physicochemical characteristics and residual oil contents. Fourteen species belonging to twelve genera were isolated. The total number of fungi from sixteen studied sites was 243×103 cfu g-1 dry soil. Maximum fungal population 41×103 cfu g-1 dry soil was in site 6 and minimum population 2×103 cfu g-1 dry soil was in the refinery center. The most frequently isolated fungi were yeasts 96×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil with a percentage of occurrence 41.03 %, followed by Aspergillus ochraceous 43×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (18.38 %), Rhodotorula sp. 24×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (10.26 %), Penicillium spp. 23×103 cfu g-1 dry soil (9.83 %) and A. niger 12×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (5.13 %) and the least frequently isolated species was A. terreus 1×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (0.43 %). The correlation between total cfu of fungi with oil residue was negative by r value of -0.092 and its correlation with silt and clay contents, pH, total P, K, and S were also negative by r values of -0.005, -0.135, -0.290, -0.090, -0.255 and -0.227 respectively (p<0.05). The correlation between total cfu of fungi with moisture, sand, EC, total organic C and total N were positive by r-values of 0.005, 0.143, 0.355, 0.161 and 0.152 respectively.

Classification of some soils from province of Kirkuk and the statement extent of their sensitivity to desertification

F. M. Jasem; D. R. Azeez; N. J. Hindi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 122-132

This study was conducted at several soil location in Kirkuk Governorate between length lines 44° 16 and 44° 29 north and two width circle 35° 7 and 35° 46 east to determine land deterioration conditions especially soil and vegetation deterioration within this location, In addition it is characterized with variety of geomorpholical patterns and physiographic units, in addition to their use in agriculture. After choosing locations of study, detection of soil pedons their number was 6 was done. Every pedon was divided in to horizons according to some morphological characters, as a first step in determination horizons of the soil. Among these characters, are variation in soil contents of stones, Soil texture, formulation and color and the separated lines between horizons as mentioned? Then it was described morphologically according to standards of American soil survey Index and its changes. Classification was completed to a level of soil series according to classification of soil according to the formula G.T.B.P.C.D.
Geomorphologic map and displine photos were used determine the study district and locations of pedons with help of GPS instrument. Semi –detailed survey was done to cover an area advocating the free method. Key soils within the margins of the selected area were detected and they found to be 6 series with determining of their locations on soil survey map. The results of the study revealed that vegetation quality index indices of soil series of studied location were within the class very weak and they included the soil series 451CCW, 431CCW.The class weak included the soil series 432CCW, 453CCW, whereas the series 433CCW and 441CCW were within the class moderate. Results of study indicated that soil quality index of soil series of the studied location was within the class very low for series 441CCW whereas the series 432CCW, 431CCW was within the class low, whereas the series 433CCW, 451CCW were within the class moderate. Sensitivity of the district environment to desertification was described. Results showed that the most sensitive series was 443CCW, which was very sensitive and series 453CCW, 431CCW was sensitive, whereas the series 441CCW, 432CCW were within the class moderate and low sensitive respectively. The lower series sensitivity is the series 451CCW.

The effect of organic fertilize level, extract and drip discharge on the availability of nutrient and properties of Cucurbita pepo L

M. H .munajed; B. Al Khateeb Husham; K. J. Farhan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 147-161

A field experiment was carried out in a clay soil in the district of Daquq, south of Kirkuk province, to study the effect of the level of organic fertilization and emitters discharge in some properties of the soil and the growth and holds pumpkin squash. The Organic fertilizers were added with four different amounts 0, 10, 15 and 20 ton per hectares, Organic Fertilization extract with two different levels 0, 20 gm per Liter, the irrigation was supplied by using drip Irrigation System. Water was supplied with two Discharge levels 3.93 and 7.86 Lh-1.Some of the chemical properties of soil such us of N, P, and K have been calculated. Number of foots and yield have been measured as a properties of the plant and the efficiency of water use have been calculated. The results showed an increase of the concentration of N, P, and K that available within the soil at 20 ton h-1 of fertilization level, which is 23.50, 108.70, and 203.7 respectively. The concentration of N, P, and K increase in the plant, which is 2.64, 0.39, 2.32% respectively. The 20 gm per liter has a significant of N, P, and K concentration in the soil with an average of 94.55, 19.80. 170.62 mg kg-1 respectively. Similarly, this concentration has an increase of N, P, and K concentration in the plant, which record 1.97, 0.41 and 2.11%. The result have showed that the best growth of the number of fruit and a total yield ,which is 8.87 fruit per plant and 25.11 ton h-1 respectively, at 20 ton h-1 fertilization level and 20 gm per liter extract concentration. In addition, at this result, combined with best water use efficiency that is 10.60 kg per meter

Effect of soil wind erosion on natural vegetation in the east razzazah region

Ali Hussein Al-Bayati; Hussein Zedian Ali; Ali Mohamaied Raji

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 26-40

The aim of this research study the impact of wind erosion in the variety and intensity of natural vegetation in the east Razzazah region, for this reason we selected an transect with long 30km and 3km width, three locations for sampling at a distance of 0, 15 and 30km (1, 2, and 3) along the transect were selected, lost soil by wind was measured at every sampling point with World Erosion Equation (WEQ), addition to quantity and quality analysis for natural vegetation. Results of predicting erosion reached 89.5, 92.9 and 100.0 Meg. ha-1. year-1 at location 1, 2 and 3 respectively, which point to present severe erosion in the area with average 94.1 Meg. ha-1. year-1, because the higher percent for fine sand and silt also the weak structure for soil, addition to dry climate predominant with speedy wind and weak vegetation cover, all these factors have clear effect to increasing erosion quantity in the studied locations. At location 1 the perennial species reached 70% in compared to annual species 30% , higher percentage at perennial species was 21.7% for Haloxybn salicornicum Boiss but for annual species 9.9% was recorded for Diplotaxis harra Boiss, second location 2 both perennial and annuals species showed similar percentage 50%, higher percent for perennial species recorded to Atriplex halimus L. and Haloxybn salicornicum Boiss 12.9%, however the annual species Neotorularia torulesa Hedge showed higher percent 6.45%, while at 3 location the perennial species form 40% in comparison to annual species which formed 60% Haloxybn salicornicum Boiss have the higher percent 7.5% however annual species showed Neotorularia torulesa Hedge the dominant with 7.5%. The results showed clear effect for erosion intensity on distribution and density of natural vegetation in the region.

The Effect of addition different levels of organic matter for soil in some infiltration standards

Sh. M. AL-mehmdy; Zaid F. H; Omar S. Kh

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 72-79

The experiment was conducted during spring season 2016 in two type's soils textures, the first one was held in college of agriculture-Baghdad University (abu-Grhaib) which is silty clay loam, The second texture of soil was silty loam. The purpose is to study the effect addition for different levels of organic matter in some infiltration rate and basic infiltration rate, the experiment includes two factors; first factor includes two levels for organic matter, addition 20 tan. ha-1 L1, 40tan. ha.-1 L2 and control treatment L0 (without organic matter), the other factor includes two texture of soil , Silty clay loam T1 and silty loam T2, these levels of organic matter was mixed of the surface soil until the depth 0.75m before measuring the infiltration.
The results showed that values of accumulative infiltration were increased at 18.80, 23.00% by addition of highest levels of organic matter to the silty clay loam soil and silty loam soil, respectively. The values of infiltration rate were increased up to 31.97, 34.74% for the two texture of soil silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively. The values of basic infiltration rate were increased up to 18.00, 31.82% by addition of the highest level of organic matter to the two textures of soils silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively.

Estimating of Pesticide Residues (Atlantis WG) in the Wheat Triticum aestivum L. Crop and the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammed; Reasan K. Shati; Abdulkareem J. Ali

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 195-203

A field experiment was carried out during the winter season 2014-2015 in the field belongs to the college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad – ALJadiriyah in order to assess pesticides residues after harvesting of wheat crop (Cultivar Iba’a 99) to find out the degradation Atlantis WG {Mesosulfuron-methyl + Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium} in soil. A concentration of 200g.hˉ¹ and 300 g.hˉ¹ of herbicide were used in addition to control line (without application). Results showed that, non -pesticides residues were found in wheat after one hour of application due to the nature of Atlantis WG since it is a systematic herbicide; that is, it needs simple time to be absorbed by the plant at which it will start distribute in every single part inside the plant. Residues of this herbicide were appeared after one week of application and then in a high concentration two weeks later. The pesticide residues were started to decreased after four weeks of application and continue vanishing after few weeks of application until it approached the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg.Lˉ¹ after 19 weeks which is much lower than the allowed concentration. In addition, the chemicals analysis results of pesticide residues in some soil samples revealed that the active ingredient of Atlantis WG (Mesosulfuron) was found in soil but in small amounts ranged between 0.0087 mg.Lˉ¹ and 0.0.99 mg.Lˉ¹ as MRLs (Maximum Residue limits) which as a result cannot effects subsequent crops in future.

Effect of spraying salicylic acid and pharmaton on growth and yield of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) in a salt affected soil

Sabeeh A. AL-Hamdany; Zakaria H.H. AL-Obaidi; Haneen Thaar Hadie

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 70-77

An experiment was carried out at Horticulture experimental station - college of Agriculture – University of Diyala during autumn season 2014 to investigate the effects of two factors: spraying salicylic acid, pharmaton and their interaction on growth and yield of cauliflower. The Experiment included 6 treatments represent between three levels of spraying salicylic acid: 0, 100, 200 mg.L-1, and two levels of spraying pharmaton 0 and 125 mg.L-1. Drip irrigation system type T-Tape was used with 40 cm distance between plants. Experiment was designed in Factorial Experiment according the R.C.B.D with three replicates and the means were compared according to L.S.D. test at the probability level 0.05. Result showed that spraying with 200 mg.L-1 salicylic acid gave a significant increase in plant height 54.9 cm, curd weight 0.89 Kg. Plant-1 , and the marketable yield 24.72 Ton.H-1 respectively compared with control treatment . Plant height, curd weight and the marketable yield weight were decreased in to 44.65 cm, 0.52 Kg. Plant-1 and 14.45 Ton. H-1 respectively. Spraying with 100 mg.L-1 salicylic acid increased curd diameter to 18.3 cm, while it was decreased in control treatment to 17.0 cm.
Spraying of pharmaton gave a significant increase in plant height, Curd diameters, curd weight and the marketable yield weight 54.1 cm, 17. 9 cm, 0.90 Kg. plant1- and 25 Ton. H1- respectively, as compared with non- spraying treatment. Plant height, curd diameter, curd weight and the marketable yield weight decreased to 47.8 cm, 17.0 cm, 0.62 Kg. Plant-1 and 17.31 Ton. H-1.
Spraying with salicylic acid 200 mg.L-1 gave a significant increase in plant height as compared with control treatment. Interaction treatment between spraying of salicylic acid 100 mg.L-1 and spraying pharmaton gave a significant increase in leaves numbers as compared with control treatment. Spraying pharmaton only gave a significant increase in curd diameters, curd weight and the marketable curds weight as compared with control treatment.

Seed size and Fe fertilization effects on seedling growth of wheat genotypes grown in Fe deficient calcareous soil

M. S. Dohuki; S.N Al-Niemi; S. S. Barwary

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

Greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of seed size and Fe fertilization on the early growth of wheat genotypes grown in Fe deficient clay soil which characterized by high pH and high level of calcium carbonate. Seedling of 15 wheat genotypes were grown under factorial combinations of four levels of Fe treatment and two seed size groups to evaluate the effects of seed size and Fe application on the early growth and Fe efficiency of wheat genotypes. Leaf area, chlorophyll, plant height and the shoot and root dry matter production were decreased in seedling grown from small seed size which had the low seed quality (lower seed Fe content). High Fe seed resulted better root and shoot dry matter production and root depth than high soil applied Fe. The results also demonstrated that seed Fe content can improve vegetative growth of wheat genotypes grow in Fe – deficient soil more effectively than application of Fe fertilizer to soil. A considerable variation within wheat genotypes for the ability of plant to grow and yield well when the availability of Fe is low was found.. This significant genetic variation in Fe efficiency indicated that selection for improved micronutrient efficiency is possible and will allow more efficient genotype of wheat to be developed.
Key words: seed size, iron efficiency, deficiency, calcareous soil

Effect of Organic fertilizer and Mineral fertilizer on some properties of Soil , growth and Onion ( Allium cepa L.) yield.

Hassan Bardan Aswad

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 269-278

This experiment was conducted in loamy soil at farm Al-qaim region 400 Km west of Baghdad – Iraq to study the effect of organic matter (Fertilizer manure) instead of mineral fertilizer on growth and yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.) using six treatment (control & 72 + 240 Kg P +N /hr as super phosphate + urea & 8 ton/ hr organic manure & 10 ton/hr organic manure & 36 +120 Kg P + N /hr with 8 ton organic manure/hr and 36 + 120 Kg P + N /hr with 10 ton organic manure/hr). The results were indicated that the treatment (36 + 120 Kg P + N /hr with 8 ton organic manure /hr ) and (36 + 120 Kg P + N / hr with 10 ton Organic fertilizer/hr) the best percentage of germination , plant height , Leaves number , Blub volume , average of five blubs wieght ,and gave heigh rate of dry yield 26.20 ton/hr. on other hand the best results were obtained by using organic manure with or with out mineral fertilizers reduced bulk density , penetration resistance and increase Organic matter soil content, N and, P availability which were 1.33g/cm3 , 1.33 Kg / cm2 , 8.3 g / Kg , 85.4 mg / Kg , and 18.3 recepectivly and which tend on the percentage of N and P in the leaves of plant effective by this treatments.

Effect of freezing and thawing on water stable aggregates of reclamated soil

K. H. Al-Bakri

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 73-78

أجریت هذه الدراسة على نماذج تربة غیر مثارة ((Undisturbed من مشروع حلة- کفل الزراعی والمستصلح 20 کم جنوب محافظة بابل من حقل فی الجهة الشرقیة من المشروع کان مزروعا بمحصول الحنطة فی الموسم الماضی ولعمقین (0 – 5 و 5 – 10 سم) من سطح التربة. أجریت علیها دورة واحدة، دورتان وثلاث دورات تجمید وإذابة لدراسة تأثیر ذلک على ثباتیة مجامیع التربة حجم (0.3 و 0.125 مم) . بینت النتائج عدم وجود اختلافات بین العمقین وانخفاض معنوی بتأثیر دورات التجمید والاذابة ولکلا الحجمین ، وکانت نسبة الانخفاض 29.4–33.4% و15.8-28.3 % لحجم 0.3 مم و 0.125 مم على التوالی.

Comparison in performance effect between local designed cultivator and mold cultivator in some performance parameters and some physical properties of soil

S. K. Al-Saryfi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 79-99

نفذت التجربة فی تربة مزیجیة طینیة غرینیة وفق تصمیم القطاعات الکاملةالمعشاة,بنظام الالواح المنشقة – المنشقة وتضمن البحث دراسة تاثیر ألتیء حراثة ( محراث القص التحتی المصمم محلیا والمحراث المطرحی تحت مستویین من رطوبة التربة (18% و 20% ) وثلاث سرع للجرار (2.011 و 4.360 و5.430) کم/ساعة فی بعض مؤشرات الاداء وصفات التربة الفیزیائیة . اشارات النتائج الى ان زیادة السرعة العملیة للجرار من 2.011 الى 4.360 ثم الى 5.430 کم/ساعة ادى الى زیادة کل من النسبة المئویة للانزلاق ، الانتاجیة العملیة للجرار ، الکثافة الظاهریة للتربة ، مقاومة التربة للاختراق ، حجم التربة المثار ، بینما انخفضت بزیادة السرعة العملیة للجرار کل من استهلاک الوقود , معامل استغلال الزمن, المسامیة الکلیة للتربة. اما انخفاض رطوبة التربة من 20% الى18% ادى الى زیادة کل من النسبة المئویة للانزلاق ، استهلاک الوقود ، الکثافة الظاهریة للتربة ، مقاومة التربة للاختراق .بینما انخفضت کل من الانتاجیة العملیة للجرار , معامل استغلال الزمن . وتشیر النتائج الى تفوق الة الحراثة بمحراث القص التحتی المصمم محلیا على الة الحراثة با لمحراث المطرحی بکافة الصفات المدروسة .

Test of reliability for soil map at area from mid- Mesopotamian plain

Salah M. F. Al-Juraysi; M. K. Al-Rawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 22-31

Analysis Data for one map soil was made. whish has four-map unit at semi-Detail survey at project lie at (20 K. M. North– West of Baghdad). The study aimed to test the reliability of soil map by quality criteria. Uniformity criterion (RI) and purity method are used .data of physical and chemical properties which have relation with soil classification were studied. (Sand %, Clay %, Salt, ESP, CEC, Gypsum, Lime and Organic matter). The study showed the (ECe, ESP, Gypsum and Organic matter) given more variability within soil map unit. The study also showed that purity was 44.18% in first. While it was 47.15% after redraw map unit (similarity of more than %75 between soil unit and dominant taxonomic unit) according to Similarity method suggested by Al- Juraysi (2003).

Effect of soil mulching on growth and yield of broad bean and some properties of soil

N. A. Katab; I. K. Hamza; Y. K. Hamza

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 8-12

*University of Al-Anbar / College of Agriculture
** Commission of technical education

Abstract
The field experiment was conducted during winter season in 2005/ 2006 to study the effect of soil mulching using plastic and plant residual mulching on soil water consumption and growth of broad bean plant and some soil properties.
The results showed that, the use of mulching caused a significant increase in water holding capacity of soil and the emergence rate and decrease soil salinity. Further more, the total yield and growth pod yield for broad bean crop were increased comparatively with control treatment, a considerable saving 25% in the quanitiy of water used for irrigation was achieved under soil mulching. Water use efficiency also increased about 50% by using soil mulching.

Effect of different tillage systems in gypsiferous soil on yield of wheat under center pivot sprinkler irrigation system

I. K. Al-Hadithi; Y. K. Hamza; G. H. Al-Niemi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Three experiment was conducted in Al- Anbar governorate during winter season 2001 to study the effect of three types plows to cultivate the soils (gypsiferous soils) and its effect on yield of wheat under center pivot sprinkler irrigation system.
It have been reached that, Exclusion of using the the moldboard plow in gypsiferous soils, it can be reliable on using of disc harrow under sprinkler irrigation system , and also using of rotary plow type under local conditions of these soils.

EFFECT Of PHOSPHOGYPSUM ADDITION ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CALCAREOUS CLAY SOIL AND BARLEY GROWTH Hordeum Vulgare L.

T. S. Saleem; H. F. Al-Azawi; A. A. Al-Dabbegh

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 13-19

A field experiment was conducted for two seasions respectively according to complete randomized design (CRD). At Al-Wehda research station, 30 km south of Baghdad in the alluvial calcareous soil classified as Vertic torrifluvent to study the effect of phosphogypsum addition with five levels ranged between 50-1050 kg/ donum in addition to control treatment on some physical parameters of soil which closely related to soil structure were mean weight diameter, modulus of repture and saturated hydraulic conductivity in addition to some Barley yield parameters which was number of seeds in spike, weight of one hundred seed, amount of seeds in one meter square area, percentage of protein in hay and in seed respectively.
Results of this study showed significant difference in all studied soil and crop parameters only the modulus of repture at first season and percentage of protein in the seeds, but take increased these parameters at second season in comparison with first season.
Results of this study advocates preliminary use of phosphogypsum as soil amendment However, more studies on other parameters and high causiousness of pollution of soil – water –plant system are needed.

Changes in some soil physical properties and plant growth as affected by again rotating the paper residue in soil

Wathib S.S. Alnuaymy

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2007, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 20-30

A field experiment in Haditha city (240 km west Baghdad) achieved, the objective of this research to test application levels from the residue paper when again rotating the residue paper in soil in some soil physical properties and its effect in growth and yield of Okra.. The residue paper applies to soil with 0%, 0.75%, 1.5% and 3% from weight dry soil. The treatment distributed on the experimental unites by randomized complete block design in three replicated. Mean weight diameter bulk density, resistance of soil penetration, water infiltration, seed emergence, and the space afforded for the okra plant, and the yield for green pods ware measured, the important results can be summarized as follows:
1- The residue paper increase in mean weight diameter that is increased with all application levels compared with control and on, and increasing a large size aggregate can be stability in water. Also resistance of soil penetration decreased with all levels. On the other hand .All treatments study increased accumulative infiltration as compared with control.
3- There was an increasing in seed emergence as compared with control and All treatments study increased the radius cover by vegetative for the okra plant. Whereas significant increasing the yield for green pods by 75.8%, 45.6% and 57.5% for levels 0.75%, 1.5% and 3% from the residue paper respectively.

Growth and development of roots of Zea mays in columns different soil texture treated with a conditioner

M. K. Abbas

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2007, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 12-19

The aim of this research is to know effect of adding a corn cobs after fermentation in soil on the growth and development of root part of zea mays in soil columns having two soils differ in their texture, one was sandy and the other was silt clay. The soil was put in plastic pots and five zea mays seeds were added in each pot and after seed growth, one plant was left in each pot. Weight of vegetative growth and dry roots. The interval between measured and the other was fifteen days.
The result showed that in the soil treated with the conditioner the percentage of pores increased while the values of bulk density and resistance to penetration decreased that reflected on the vegetative and root growth of zea mays plant, it was 175.16 g the end growth season in the soil columu and 170.11 g in the soil columu in the weight of vegetative growth, while the dry weight of root (28.74, 27.32) g in each pot respectively. Comparing with soil columus treated with the conditioner, there was un similar increase. It was (183.82, 195.65) g in dry vegetative growth and (31.75, 35.27) g/ pot as dry root growth respectively.
It may be said that there was clear effected of addition of corn cobs as a conditioner of root growth followed by positive vegetative growth during growth season which may be reflected yield of zea mays.

The role of Phosphogypsum applied to soil partly affected with salinity on yield and growth of corn (zea mays)

Joboory; W. M. AL

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2007, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 10-15

This trial was cared out in plastic pots to investigate the role of Phosphogypsum applied to soil partly affected with salinity on yield and growth of corn.
The Phosphogypsum was added to soil partly salinity with the following percentage: 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5%. The pots were arranged in (CRD) with three replicate.
The result revealed that a signification increase plant height and the dry weight of corn with increase in applied Phosphogypsum. In addition signification increases in the available Phosphor in soil after agriculture for all levels except the fourth level. Increase in Phosphor, Sulfate and redaction in Chloride in plant were found with the increase of Phosphogypsum application.

Distribution of Iron Oxides forms and their relation to B horizons development and soil – land scape from Al-Gaara depression

M. K. Ibrahiem AL-Rawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2006, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 62-75

Field and Labrotary investigation of four soil series at different londscape positions (Foot slope–Teo slope). From east to west in AL Gaara depression area, were made to determine the change in various forms of Iron oxides (Total, free and amorphous).
(active Iron ratio (amorphous Iron / free Iron) and crystallinity ratio (free Iron – amorphous Iron / total Iron). Their genetic criteria were used to show the effect of landscape position on the amount and distribution of Iron forms.
The result showed that the active Iron ratio increased in soil series teo slope at (143SCE, 132SCE) followed by soil series at foot slope (122SCE, 142SCE) where as the crystallinity ratio showed the difference due to informs of iron oxides bettwen haemitite iron which in creased with moisture content of soil and Geothite iron which increased with dry condition of soil.
Topographic location and slope position forms effected on insitue pedogenic process. Their effects due to from Fluctuation in annual soil moisture drought period and internal soil drainge. furthermore results showed Negative and positive correlation. bettwen forms of iron oxides and their forms with some soil properties.

Digital Analysis for vegetation cover Intensity and Soil Desertification Studies in Hssiabah AL-Sharkiah

Ahmed M. M. AL- Kubiasi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2005, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

Six photomorphic units were isolated from an landsat- Image with TM sensore for Hssiabah Al-Sharkiah region (15 km East of Ramdi city) and their locations were determind on the ground to clearfy importance of spectral indices for desertification studies.
Soil samples were taken for physical and chemical properties analysis. Other informations about vegetation cover intensity and type were also registered.
Reflectance intensity in TM2, TM3, TM4 and TM5 for each photomorphic unit were used to calcaulate Brightness, soil – Adjusted vegetation, Redness and Normalized Defference Infrared Indices.
Indices proved their importance to identified and isolation bare soil from vegetation covered soil and they enabal us to explore soil degradation and desertification when they accomplained with field visting.

THE EFFECT OF ADDITION SOME ORGANIC MATTERS IN BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION OF AGRICULTURAL SULFER AT DEFFERENT LEVELS OF SOIL COMPACTION I: THE VARIATION IN SOME SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

A. H. Al-Bayat; A. N. Yousef; Ali Abas

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2005, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 32-49

This study was conducted to evaluate the interactive effect of different levels of agricultural sulfur, organic matter source and compaction on the biological oxidation of sulfur, through studying the variation in some soil chemical properties during different incubation periods.
A factorial experiment was conducted according to a complete randomization design with three replicates. to know the effect of three agricultural sulfur levels (0 , 1 , 2) gm so.kg-1soil (S0 , S1 , S2) respectively, with three organic matter treatments those without organic matter addition, dried alfalfa and cow manure which added in one level 6 gm c.kg-1soil (C0 , C1 , C2) respectively . and soil compacted to reach three levels of bulk density 1.25 , 1.35 and 1.45 Mg.m-3 (B1 , B2 , B3) respectively. All the treatments was incubated at 28  2 C0 for 15 , 30 and 45 days (T1 , T2 , T3) respectively with maintenance the soil moisture content for all treatments at about 50% of the available water by weight methods through every incubation period. Some chemical properties was evaluated which included electrical conductivity (ECe), soil reaction (pH) and amount of available sulfate and phosphorus in the soil.
The results obtained from this study could be summarized as follows :
1- The addition of sulfur significantly increased ECe, SO4= and available P in the soil with supremacy S2 in decreasing soil pH.
2- Addition of organic matter (C1 , C2) caused an increments in the average of all examined parameters except the pH which was decreased significantly. But C1 showed higher effected than C2.
3- The soil compaction levels B2 showed significantly higher effects in compared with B1 and B3.
4- The interaction between S, C and B treatments showed the highest effects on tested parameters after 30 days of incubation at S2C1B2 treatment.

THE EFFECT OF GYPSUM CONTENT IN UPPER HORIZONS OF SOIL ON WHEAT PRODUCTIVITY UNDER A CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM

K. AL. Hadithi; A. A. Abed; H. H. Khaleifa; Sh. M. Hassin; Y. Hamdi; A. Frayh

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2003, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2003.175077

 
A Field experiment was conducted in winter season 2001 – 2002 to study the effect of gypsum content in soil on wheat productivity under center pivot sprinkler irrigation system, and in different sites of the field with gypsum content ranged between 160 to 330 gm. Kg-1. Results indicated that there was a significant reverse relationship between gypsum content in soil and wheat productivity with correlation coefficient 0.889. The content of gypsum 260 gm .Kg-1 was critical value between the high and low values of productivity. Highly, productivity for wheat was achieved in sites where the gypsum content was less than 260gm .Kg –1, and the productivity decreased about 50% when the gypsum content was more than that value.