Keywords : Maize


THE DIFFERENCE IN THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZER COMBINATIONS ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD INDICATORS OF MAIZE ZEA MAYS L.

M. A. Jumah; W. A. Al-Joboory

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 138-148
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175653

A field experiment was conducted in Anbar governorate, northwest city of Ramadi in Zankora district during the autumn season of 2019. Seven fertilizer treatments were included (T1 = recommended application of chemical fertilizer, T2 = 50% of recommended + effective micro -organisms, T3= 25% of the recommendation + effective micro-organisms, T4= 50% the recommended + Humic acid, T5= 25% recommended + Humic acid, T6= combination of 50% recommended + micro-organisms+ Humic acid, and finally T7= 25% of recommended + micro-organisms + Humic acid). The experiment was applied using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D). obtained results presented the possibility of using micro-organism fertilizers and Humic acid as an alternative of chemical ones when the amount of chemical fertilizer was reduced by 50%, where, T6 treatment almost gave the same values of growth indicators and production in compression with fully amount applied as mineral fertilizer (T1). Treatment of T6 was significantly superior to all treatments except T1, by showing values of 264.87 cm, 5746 cm2, 373.9 g. plant-1, 84.92 g, 10.55 Mg ha-1 of plant height, leaf area, dry weight, 300 grain weight and total grain weight respectively.

GROWTH RESPONSE AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L) INOCULATED WITH DIFFERENT MYCORRHIZAL INOCULUMS

D. J. Mohammed; A. O. Mohammad; O. A. Fattah

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2022, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 24-35
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2022.175061

Using mycorrhizal inoculum in sustainable agriculture attracted immense attention in recent years for improving plant growth, and water uptake. A plastic pot experiment was carried out at the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimani, during June to Juley 2020 to study the effect of different mycorrhizal inoculum (Glomus mosseae, Glomus geosporum and a commercial inoculum INOQ Agri) on growth responses and water use efficiency (WUE) of two maize varieties (GLORIA and SY Miami). The root colonization percentage for GLORIA and SY Miami were (5, 83.33, 88.33, 88.33) % (3.33, 86.67, 78.33, 85) % for control, G. mosseae, G. geosporum, and INOQ Agri, respectively. Inoculated plants showed significantly better growth and water use efficiency compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The best plant heights were in INGQ Agri plants (91.33, 90.67) cm in both GLORIA and SY Miami respectively. Highest shoot biomass (49.83, 44.50) g pot-1 and root biomass (16.17, 15.67) g pot-1 were found in INGQ Agri inoculant in both GLORIA and SY Miami respectively. The heights concentration of N,P and K  were in INOQ Agri (1.53%, 0.61% and 0.14%) for GLORIA and (1.48%, 0.56% and 0.14%) for SY Miami  respectively, Mycorrhizal inoculation also improved (WUE)  in maize plants the average increasing percentage were (34.92%, 19.3%) for  GLORIA and SY Miami cultivars respectively.

EFFECT INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS OF (MAIZE AND MANGBEAN) ON YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS AND QUALITY CHARACTERS OF MAIZE CROP

H. M. Al-fahdawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 240-252
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170536

A field experiment was conducted in the (Juwaba) Arund area of Ramadi city in the spring and autumn seasons 2017. To study the effect of intercropping systems and maize varieties on the yield and its components and the quality characters of maize crop, maize varieties (booth 106, 5018, 5012 and French cultivar) were used. The experiment was carried out according to the design of (RCBD) and in the order of the split plot, cultivar wear arranged in Maine poke the main plots and the secondary plots occupies (the intercropping systems). The results showed that the intercropping system 1: 2 was superior in number of ears per plant which gave 1.48 and 1.70 ear in the spring and autumn seasons respectively, also it was superior in the average of 500 grains weight in the spring season by giving 155.4 gm, also the same system in the grain yield in the autumn season by giving 10.96-ton ha-1. While the cultivars, The French cultivar was superior in spring season in seed yield which gave the highest value 7.99 ton ha-1, while the cultivar 5018 was superior in the autumn season by giving the highest grain yield was 11.48 ton ha-1, while the qualitative characters, sole crop for maize was excellence in the percentage of oil on the rest of the farming systems in the autumn season only gave higher mean about 4.74% ,while the intercropping system 1:2 exceeded the in percentage of protein in seeds about 10.32% in spring and autumn seasons.

EFFECT OF ADDING SAP، CERATOPHYLLUM and WATER LEVELS IN SOME WATER PARAMETERS AND CONSUMPTION USE FOR MAIZE CROP

S. M. Salih; A. I. Al-Abaied

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 196-209
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170530

A field experiment was conducted for the autumn season 2018 to evaluate the effectiveness of Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) and Ceratophyllum powder and there effect on the sandy water parameters of sandy loam and water consumption of maize,where the coefficients containing different weight concentrations were distributed from SAP (0.4%, 0.2% and 4%) of Ceratophyllum powder, and irrigation at three levels (in the net irrigation requirement,125% of the net irrigation requirement, 150% of the net irrigation requirement) and the most important results were obtained: The water consumption of I1 (526) mm, while the amount of water added (502) mm and a decrease of 4.56% This reduced the role of both SAP and Ceratophyllum powder in increasing soil water retention capacity and improving its physical properties. The highest water consumption (ETc) of I3 was 789 mm. season-1 and decreased to 658 and 526 mm at I2 and I1 irrigation coefficients respectively, due to differences in the amount of water added and prepared in soil. There was a decrease in saturated water conductivity values with an increase in the level of addition of SAP and Ceratophyllum powder. The highest value of saturated water was 0.16 cm.min-1 for the treatment of I1O1, while the value of water delivery was less than 0.4% of SAP powder. Cm min-1 for the I3P2 transaction. The base infiltration values decreased with the addition of the addition of SAP and the Ceratophyllum powder, with the highest value of the basal treatment rate of 8.4 cm min-1 for the treatment of I1O1, while the base tip value was added by adding 0.4% of the SAP powder to the treatment I3P2 1.2 cm min-1.

EFFECT OF INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS OF ( MAIZE AND MANGBEAN) ON GROWTH, YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF MUNG BEAN CROP

N. A. Sabri; M. A. Abed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2019, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 62-75
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170535

A field experiment was conducted in (juwaba) Arural area of Ramadi city in the spring and autumn seasons 2017. To study the effect of intercropping systems and maize varieties on the yield and its components of mung bean crop, maize varieties ( bhooth 106, 5018, 5012 and French cultivar ) were used. The experiment was carried out according to the design of (RCBD) and in the order of the split plot, cultivars were arranged in main plote the main plots and the secondary plots occupies (the intercropping systems). The results showed that the characters of growth and yield of the mungbean increased whenever the density of the maize crop grown with it increased, The system of intercropping 1:2 gave the highest values with a significant difference in the height of plant which gave 54.98 cm in the spring and autumn seasons compared to the more densities treatments of the maize crop, It also was superior in leaf area in the autumn season by giving 4447 cm2,the number of branches per plant in the autumn season which gave 15.66 branch.plant-1 and also gave The highest number of pods in the plant 17.62 pods.plant-1 in the autumn season In terms of grain yield, which is the most important indicator, the intercropping system 1:1 was the best which gave the highest value 1177 kg.ha-1.The effect of maize cultivars in the growth and yield of the mungbean was different according maize cultivars. The yield of the mungbean which cultivated with the French cultivar gave the highest yield 1280 kg.ha-1 in the spring season. while the yield of mungbean that cultivated with 5012 cultivar gave 1138kg.ha-1, There were significant differences between the interaction treatments in most of the studied characters.

THE INTERACTED EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM IN SOME NUTRIENTS ABSORPTION BY MAIZE(ZEA MAYS L.)

R. M. Fahimi; W. M. Abdulateef

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2018, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1101-1111
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170567

A field experiment was carried out in Al- Saqlawyah – Fallujah /Anbar Governorate during Fall season of 2017 in order to study three levels of water stress Depletion of 25% , 50% and 75% of available water and application of phosphorus and potassium levels in increasing availability nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium in soil and their absorbance by maize . The Farm was divided into three replication according to split plots arrangement in RCBD where water stress treatments Occupied the min plots. While fertilizers levels occupied the sub plots in the sub plots in three replications. The field experiment included giving the whole recommended amount of required fertilizers, the same recommended amount and adding phosphorus, Potassium only and adding phosphorus and potassium together. The results showed: The treatment of adding phosphorus and potassium to the recommended amount was superior in availability of Nitrogen in soil, while the treatment of adding phosphorus only our the recommended amount in the availability of Phosphorus in soil. The treatment of adding potassium to the recommended amount was superior in the availability of potassium in soil. The treatment of depletion 75% of available water gave the highest average of element availability in soil. The treatment of adding phosphorus and potassium our recommended amount was superior in Nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium absorption in vegetative part of plant. While treatment of 25% depletion of available water gave the highest average of absorbance of Nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium in vegetative part of plant. Generally, the application of fertilizers enhanced the performance of plant under water stress.

ANALYSIS OF GENETIC FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MAIZE USING HALF DIALLEL CROSSES

A.A. Abed; H. J. Hammadi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2018, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 1033-1043
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170562

Six inbreed lines of maize were used in this study Entered in half–diallel cross program according to a method of griffing. the seeds of parents and crosses were grown in a randomized completely block design R.C.B.D with three replicate, to study the heterosis, combining ability and gene action for the number of days to silking, number of ears per plant, rows number per ear, kernels number per raw, 300 kernels weight and grain yield per plant. Results of Statistically analysis indicated that there were highly significant differences among genotypes means for all studied character results of genetic analysis showed that MSgca and MSsca in diallel for reciprocal crosses were high significant for all studied characters. the result were showed that the cross Zm-5 x Zm-1 gave the highest cross vigor in each grain yield per plant 113.4% and number of days to silking -7.88%. The average degree of dominance was higher the one for all traits indicating the presence of over dominance. The broad sense heritability was high for all studied traits. the variance ratio of GCA to SCA appeared less than one for all characters. All the traits under Additive gene action.

EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF DOUBLE, SINGLE HYBRIDS AND INBREDS OF MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT PLANT POPULATION AND ESTIMATE HETEROSIS AND HYBRID VIGOR (SOME AGRONOMIC TRAITS)

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2018, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 817-835
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2018.153331

field experiment was conducted during the fall season 2017 at the fields of Field Crop Department - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad in order to evaluate the performance of double, Single hybrids, and their inbreds of maize (ZM43WIZE, ZM60, ZM49W3E, ZM19, and CDCN5) in two plant densities. The Study included the comparison among five inbreds, ten single hybrids, and fifteen double hybrids. The experiments were conducted according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replication, using the spilt plot treatment arrangement, where the two densities 60 and 80 thousand plants h-1 were randomized in the main plots and the 30 genotypes in the subplots. The results showed the superiority of the single and double hybrids over their inbreds in all the studied traits. The earliest single hybrids (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) in tassling and silking reached 56.33 and 60.33 days respectively. The double hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) To reach the tassling was 56 days and did not differ between the hybrids among them in access to silking and the earliest (ZM43WIZE × ZM49W3E) (ZM60 × CDCN5) with a period of 60.17 days. The earliest single hybrids and the double hybrids had negative heterosis and hybrid vigor (ZM49W3E × CDCN5), (ZM43WIZE × ZM49W3E) and (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) The highest mean plant height was 245.9, 233.9 and 231.6 cm respectively, which is higher than the general mean. (ZM43WIZE × ZM49W3E) The highest mean ear height was 107.87 cm followed by the hybrid (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) which reached 107.05 cm and the hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) which was 101.77 cm and did not differ significantly, the hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM60) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) by giving the highest height of the plant reached 295.9 cm while the double hybrid gave the(ZM60 × CDCN5) (ZM49W3E × ZM19) the highest average ear height reached 112.45 cm followed by the double hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) (ZM60 × ZM49W3E). The single hybrid ) ZM60× ZM49W3E (giving it the highest mean of 16.28 leaves number followed by the hybrid (ZM60 × 5) by 16.03 leaves and did not differ significantly from the remaining hybrids except for the hybrids (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) and (ZM60 × ZM19) gave least leaves number (15.25 and 15.17) sequence. (ZM60 × ZM19) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) by giving the highest number of leaves of 17.08 leaves followed by (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5), (ZM43WIZE × ZM60) (ZM19 × CDCN5) , (ZM43WIZE × CDCN5) (ZM60 × ZM19), (ZM49W3E × ZM60) ( ZM19 × CDCN5), (ZM60 × CDCN5) (ZM49W3E × ZM19) and (ZM43WIZE × CDCN5) (ZM49W3E × ZM19), reaching 16.48, 16.38, 16.37, 16.33 and 16 .27 and 16.23 respectively, which is higher than the general average and the average inbreds and the average of the single and double hybrids . Most of the single and superior double hybrids were characterized by the height of the plant and the ear and the number of leaves by the positive hetrosis and hybrid vigor in the desired direction.

MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF GENETIC VARIATION AMONG SOME MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) INBRED LINES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HYBRID VIGOR

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2018, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 860-875
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2018.153334

A full cross was carried out among six inbred lines of maize in the autumn season (2016) in one of the fields of the college of Agriculture, University of Anbar (alternative site-Abu Ghraib-Baghdad). In the spring season (2017) west of Iraq. The experiment included cultivating the seeds of inbreds lines and hybrids resulting from the crossing among them, which included 30 hybrid and reverse hybrids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of inbred lines and their diallel hybrid and reverse axes by molecular methods.
The results of the Molecular Analysis of RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) showed that the five prefixes were successful in diagnosing 32 specialized cutting sites spread within the genomes of the paternal and crossbreeding genomes, 26 of them polymorphic loci, The results of the ISSR (Inter Single Sequence Repeats) indicators showed that the five prefixes used were particularly successful when compared with RAPD indicators. There were 40 correlation sites, 39 of which were multiform and 97% of the polymorphisms. Cluster analysis results for replicated sites were very similar in both techniques used in the study. The genotypes were separated into three main groups according to the nearest neighbor method. The two breeds 1 and 2 were the most divergent, as they belonged to the two most heterogeneous groups on both ends of the hierarchical assembly.

Estimation of Genetic Diversity among Inbred lines and Single Hybrids of Maize (Zea mays L.)

A. M. Ahmed; A. H. A. Sweed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2017, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 71-82
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2017.129075

Six inbred lines (1-S10, 2-Zn12, 3-Sy24, 4-Zm17, 5-O18, 6-Mgw7) of maize were crossed in half diallel to produce 15 single cross in Field Crops Research–Abu Ghraib in fall season 2014. Seeds of genotypes (6 lines +15 single cross) have been planted in field of a farmer in Abu-Ghraib, using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D), with three replicates in fall season of 2015, to evaluate the performance of these lines and hybrids and to estimate genetic diversity among 6 lines and 15 single cross by using Mahalanobis D2 statistic for 10 morphological traits Viz. days to silking, plant height, ear height, leaves number, leaf area, ear number per plant, ear length, rows number per ear, 250-kernel weight and yield kernel per plant.
Statistical analysis showed significant variation among maize genotypes for all studied traits. The six inbred lines were grouped into three different clusters by using cluster analysis. The cluster I contained the highest number of lines 1, 2, 5 cluster II contained towlines 3 and 4 and cluster III contained one line 6. The highest ‎mean values for all traits, which, in clouding grain yield per plant about 146g ‎were observed in cluster III, except ear height with 69.83 cm, and the lowest ‎mean value for days to 50% silking as 61.50 day were found in cluster II. The inter-cluster distances were larger than intra-cluster distances, ‎suggesting wider genetic diversity among the lines of different groups. ‎The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and ‎cluster III with 6.49, and lowest between cluster II and cluster III with 3.85. The highest intra-cluster distance was noticed in ‎cluster I as 3.3%. and lowest for cluster III. Fifteen hybrids were grouped into six clusters, The ‎cluster I contained the highest number of hybrids 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11 cluster II, III, V, and VI contained one hybrid for each one 7, 8, 13 and 15 respectively, while cluster IV contained tow hybrids 21 and 14. The highest mean ‎values for plant height, leaves number per plant, leaf area, ear length, rows number per ear by17.34, 250-kemel weight with 65.00 g and grain yield per plant as 174.17 g ‎were observed in the cluster IV.
The mean of ear height with 82.33cm was the highest in cluster II and the mean highest for number of ears per plant about 1.30 was the highest in cluster VI. The lowest mean value for days to silking with 58.00 day was found in cluster V and cluster VI. The inter cluster distances were larger ‎than intra-cluster distances, suggesting wider genetic diversity among the hybrids of different groups. The highest inter-cluster distance was ‎observed between cluster IV and cluster VI with 7.03, and the Lowest between cluster I and cluster II about 3.54. The highest ‎intra-cluster distance was noticed in cluster I abut 3.76.

Effect of plant spacing and foliar feeding of iron in growth and yield traits of maize.

Ismail Ahmed Sarhan Al- Jumaili

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 214-225

ield experiment was carried out in a loamy sand soil mixture, at Al-Naemea region, Fallujah City of Al–Anbar province, during the spring and autumn seasons of 2013, to study the effect of three plant spacing between plants10, 15 and 20 cm and four concentrations of foliar feeding of iron 0, 50, 75and100 mg Fe L-1 in growth and yield of maize Ipa 5018. Factorial arrangement was use with R.C.B.D.in three replicates. The results showed that a distance of 10 cm of planting gave the highest mean for each of the plant height, leaf area index and total grain yield 4.75 and 6.15 t ha-1 for two seasons respectively. While the distance of 20 cm planting gave the highest mean for each of the leaf area in autumn season, ear number per plant, number of rows per ear and weight of 500 grain for two season respectively. The concentration 100 mg Fe L-1 gave the highest mean for each of the leaf area ,leaf area index, ear number per plant, number of rows per ear, weight of 500 grain and total grain yield 4.82 and 6.38 t ha-1 for two season respectively. While the concentration 75 mg Fe L-1 gave the highest mean of plant height. The interaction between planting distance of 20 cm and a concentration of 100 mg Fe L-1 was significant effect in ear number per plant and number of rows per ear in autumn season and leaf area and weight of 500 grain in both season respectively. While the interaction between 10 cm distance with concentration 75 mg Fe L-1 significant effect in leaf area index and total grain yield in both season respectively.

Estimation of General Combining Ability for Parents and Specific for Single Hybrids and Correlation Coefficient for Studied Characters of Maize using Simmonds Method

Mustafa Iskander Zaid Al-Wardy; Ali Hussein Jasim; Abed Msarbet Al-Jumaily

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 204-215

Eight inbred lines of maize (1. Inb–6, 2. Pio – 17, 3. Syn– 9, and 4. Zm–17) as female and lines (5. Pio–3, 6. S–10, 7. MGW–1 and 8. Ast–B) as male parents were entered in program for hybridization in factorial mating system to produce 16 single cross in field crops Research station of general Board of Agricultural Research- Abu – Ghraib.Seeds of gene types (4Femal + 4Male + 16 Cross) have been planted in field of a farmer in Kut, using randomized complete block design R.C.B.D. with three replicates in fall season 2015 to estimate general and specific combining ability and their effects and correlation coefficient between observed and expected values for each trait, using (22) methods for factorial analysis, The results revealed that there were significant differences for mean squares of genotypes for all studied traits The hybrid 3*5 gave mean highest for ear length 20.42 cm, number of grains per row 35.75 and for grain yield per plant 381.24gm.
Results of genetic analysis showed that the variance of the SCA was more than the variance of the GCA for ear length 0.668, number of rows per ear 0.628, number of grains per row 0.738, ear diameter 0.631 and for grain yield per plant 0.570. The effects of GCA for the females and males parents were positive and negative for cross in all traits. The line 2 found effect highest GCA for ear length 0.871, ear diameter 1.409, number of ears per plant 0.152 and for grain yield per plant 43.271, and ear length 0.769, number of rows per ear 0.731, number of grains per row 2.276, 250 grain weight 13.770, and for grain yield per plant 25.017. In addition, the SCA effects for crosses were positive and negative for all the cross in all studied traits, the single cross hybrid 3*8 was the effect highest of SCA for ear length 2.826, number of grains per row 6.011, and for grain yield per plant 90.513. The correlation coefficient between the observed values and expected values for each trait was high for all studied traits.

Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda

JASIM M. A. AL-ISAWI; SALIH H. SAMER

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 262-272

Evaluation of chemical agents Salicylic Acid(SA) and Beta Amino Butyric Acid (BABA) agents to induce systemic resistance Results indicated that when BABA sprayed on foliage at rate 1000 and 2000 mg .L-1 and SA in 200 and 400 mg .L-1 highly reduced disease infection to 13.33 ، 10.00 ، 20.00 and 13.33% respectively with efficiency use 63.3 ، 72.5 ،50.0 ، 63.3% respectively compared to control(no treatment in presentence of pathogen without addition of inducing agents) with percentage of infection 36.33% . Biochemical analysis showed that treatment maize with 2000 mg.l-1 of BABA increased peroxidase activity the change in absorbance 44.10 min-1.gr-1 fresh weight after 5 days of treatment ،while treatment with SA at rate 400 mg.L-1 increased peroxidase activity the change in absorbance was reached 44.33 min-1.gr-1 fresh weight after 8 days. When BABA was use at 2000 mg .L-1 achieved phenols and prolin accumulation to rate 306.7 mg-1 .gr-1 fresh weight and10.33 µM-1. .gr-1 fresh weight after 10 days of treatment respectively.

Genetic Analysis for Combining Ability and Estimation some Genetic Parameters for Inbred lines and Single Cross Hybrids of Maize

Nasser M. Al-Amery; Hashem R.Latheth; Abed M. Ahmed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 155-162

Six inbred lines of maize have been used (1- Syn-1, 2-MGW-3,3- S-165,4-Syn-22,5- Zm-9,6- M-17) entered in program were crossed in half diallel cross to produce 15 F1 cross in Field Crops Research Station of General Board Agricultural Research, Abu-Ghraib in fall season 2013. Seeds of genotypes (6 parents and 15 cross) have been planted in field of a farmer in Almusaib project in fall season 2014, using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates. The results
Have been analyzed according to method 2; model one of Griffing (6). The objective of this study was estimating of general and specific combining ability for parents, their hybrids, respectively, and some genetic parameters for growth, yield and its components characters. Results of statistics analysis showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all studied characters. Results of genetic analysis showed that Mgca. In addition, Msca. Were highly significant in all studied characters and the σ2gca / σ2sca were less than one for all the studied characters. The effects of GCA were positive and negative among parents for all studied characters , the inbred line syn-1 was found as the best gca effect for ear height 6.122, leaf area 24.885cm2 300-kernel weight 3.499 gm and grain Yield 7.018, While the effect of SCA for single crosses were positive significant for all studied characters. The single cross hybrid (MGW-3×S-165) had highest SCA effect for 300-kernel weight 15.816 gm and the single cross (Syn-22× ZM-9) had highest SCA effect for ear length 2.697cm and for grain yield per plant 51.212 grain. The values of (σ2D) were more than that (σ2A) for all studied characters. The broad sense heritability was high between 85.55% for ear high and 99.39% for 300-kernal weight, while narrow sense heritability was low for all studied characters. The value of average degree of dominance was more than one for all studied characters.

Effect of inoculum type, infection method and determination response of some maize hybrids to common smut infection caused by Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda

JASIM M. A. AL-ISAWI; Salih h. SAMER

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 273-283

The inoculum type and infection method are effecting of percentage and severity of common smut disease on corn .Result of Field study indicated that the type inoculum mixture (Teliospores and Basidiospores) for Ustilago maydis was the best inoculum to achieve highest infection for two periodes after 10 and 20 days of inoculation. Percentage of disease infection was 40% for both periodes and disease severity was 5.17 for both periodes too, compared to control (no treatment) was 6.7% and disease severity was 1. Result of method of inoculation indicated that injection of silk channel with suspension of (teliospores and Basidiospores) gave highest percentage of infection 40% after 10 and 20 days with disease severity 4.67. Regarding the study of sensitivity 10 foreign hybrids (wich cultured in wide area in Iraq). Result demonstrated that Abgaro and Dijla hybrids were more resistance to the disease. Percentage of disease sinfection were 16.7 and 16.7% on foliage respectively the percentage .However, percentage infection of ears were 23.3 and 26.7% and disease severity was 2.5 and 2.5 respectively. Also, result indicated that local corn variety was most sensitive among corn hybrid, percentage of infection was 33.3% and 40% on foliage and ears respectively, disease severity of ears was 5.33.

Evaluation of maize inbreds by top crossing

Nathem; Y. A; F. Y; Baktash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 140-153

An experiment were conducted at the field of Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during spring and fall seasons. The objective was to evaluate 70 inbreds in 3rd generations of selfing by top cross method with synthetic Variety (Buhoth 106), then selection best ten inbreds and continuo selfing in the future . In the spring season top crosses was carried out. While in the fall season, varietal trail for top crosses was applied in RCBD with four replications. The results showed that there are significant differences between top crosses in all the studied characters. It was found early and late top crosses in tasseling and silking .Tallest and shortest plant and ear height were revealed. The phenomena of prolificacy did not find. The average ear length 20.91-12 cm were produced from top crosses of inbreds Bk43 and Bk44, respectively. The top
Cross of the inbred Bk43 produced plants with the highest number of grains/row (45 grains (, while the top cross from the inbred BK26 was produced higher number of grains /ear. The highest grain weight (103.29 gms) produced from the top cross of Bk23. The highest grain yield (183.08 and 169.23 gms/plant) produced from the plants of top crosses Bk26 and Bk43, respectively. The top crosses of inbreds Bk26, BK43 , BK25 , BK39 , BK3, BK41, BK65 , BK16 , BK55 and BK11 , were superior in yield and some agronomic characters ,so, selfing and single cross hybrids development program will conducted to those inbreds in central Iraq.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters for some Traits in maize (Zea mays L.)

Ahmed Shhab A. Ramadan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 189-198

A field trial was carried out at Field Crops Research Station of General Board of Agricultural Research, Abu-Ghraib in spring and autumn seasons in 2013, Six inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were used in this study (gotten it from same station) (Sxn.2 ، zm-9، Am-65، ART-A.2، ART-C-19، syn-35), These inbred lines of maize were entered in half diallel cross in spring season 2013 to produce 15 F1crosses. The seeds of crosses were sown in fall season using R.C.B.D. with three replicates to analyses general and specific combining abilities and to estimate the effects and estimation of some genetic parameters using the approach of Griffing method 4 with fixed model for number days of sowing to 50% (day), plant height(cm), ear height(cm), and rows number per ear, kernels number per row, ear length(cm), 250-kernel weight(gm) and grain yield per plant(gm), Statistics analysis showed that there were found highly significant differences among diallel crosses for all studied characters except 250-kernel weight(gm) in case of SCA, Value of mean square of general combining ability were more than value of mean square of specific combining ability in all studied characters. The values of the variance component specific combining ability were more than that the variance component of general combining ability and the variance ratio 0f GCA to SCA was less than one in all studied characters, The values of the dominance genetic variance more than that the additive genetic variance for all studied characters except 250-kernel weight(gm). Broad sense heritability was high for all studied characters, while narrow sense heritability was low for all studied characters; the value of average dominance degree was more than one for all studied characters.

Response of Maize to Potassium fertilizer and Boron leaves nutrition

B. H. A. AL-Dulami; N. D. H. AL-Hadethi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 213-225
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2015.120020

The field experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn season of 2012 in the city of Ramadi , Anbar province in loam clay silty soil texture in order to study the effects of three concentrations of boron (0, 0.75, 1.5) KgB.ha-1 was added as foliar application in the form of boric acid H3BO3(17.4%B) and three levels of potassium fertilizer (0, 100, 200) KgK.ha-1 of potassium sulfate K2SO4 (45%K) as its source in the growth and productivity of two genotypes of maize (IPA 5018 and Bohoth 106). The experiment split-split plot with R.C.B.D. design was used with three replications.
The results of this study were:
The IPA genotype had significant superior in grains number per ear, grains yield, biological yield and harvest index, the increase percentage as average of two season was 11.35, 14.97, 12.02 and 4.41% respectively compared to Bohoth genotype, which was superior in leaf area. The highest Level of potassium (200KgK.ha-1) had significant superior in leaf area, number of grains per ear, grains yield, biological yield and harvest index, the increase percentage as average of two season were 12.74, 48.75, 57.81, 39.67 and 14.28% compared to control treatment, which gave the lowest mean for this characters respectively.
Foliar application with high concentration of boron (1.5Kg B.ha-1) gave significant increase in all studied characters. The grain yield at this concentration was 10.32 and 12.43 ton.ha-1 compared to control treatment (6.48 , 7.86) ton.ha-1 of the two seasons respectively .The triple interaction of IPA genotype with highest level of both fertilizers (200Kg K+1.5Kg B).ha-1 gave the highest average of leaf area , grains number per ear , grains yield (12.80 , 14.72) ton . ha-1, biological yield and harvest index (56.82 , 56.42)% in both seasons respectively. It can be concluded that the IPA5018 genotype was more responsive for application of nutrients as it gave highest average for studied characteristics especially in high levels in both seasons.

Equivalence and competition of maize [zea mayz (L.)] And mung bean [ vigna radiate (L.)] Intercropping

Abdullah M.S. Aldaheri

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 280-287
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2015.120028

To investigate the performance of maize - mung bean intercropping using different seeding ratios (1:1 , 1:2 and 2:1) in the west of Iraq; a field experiment was conducted in spring and autumn seasons of 2013 using complete blocks design(RCBD) with three replicates, the equivalent and competition indicators were estimated. The result showed the following: the yield of total dry matter and grain yield of maize as individual were superior in comparison with intercropping with mung bean. The intercropping of maize and mung bean recorded a higher than 1 of land equivalent ratio (LER), seeding ratio 1:1 gave the higher (LER) of grain yield in the spring reached 1.10, while seeding rate 2:1 gave the higher (LER) of dry matter in the autumn (LER 1.08). Maize showed greater ability of Aggressively (A) in intercropping with mung bean compared with mung bean, where showed the positive values while the mung bean recorded negative values of (A) at the all seeding ratios, maiz gave the higher values of (A) reached 0.21 of dry matter at seeding ratio 1:1 in the spring season and 0.22 at 2:1 in the autumn. Maize also showed the most aggressivity of grain yield where gave 0.28 at seeding ratio 1:1 in the spring and 0.36 at seeding ratio of 1:2 in the autumn. It can be concluded that the relation between maize and mung bean is a competitive more than symbiosis under current experiment conditions.

Effect of Leaching requirements and plot dimensions on salt distribution and growth, Yield of maize (Zea mays L.) irrigated with saline water

W.F. AL-Shammar; Y.K. Hamza

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 260-273
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2013.87252

A field experimental was conducted in fall 2008 at Heet city of Al Anbar governorate in silty clay soil to study the effect of leaching requirement and plot dimensions on salt distribution and yield of maize crop. In irrigation was used saline mixed water 3 ds.m-1 from salty water well water of 5.83 ds.m-1 from the area has been mixed with Euphrates water of 1.07 ds.m-1. (R.C.B.D) factorial experiment was applied to study two factors the first was Leaching requirements with three level (0%, 15%, 25%) and the second factor was plot dimensions with two level (4×5) and (2×10).The design was used with three replicates.
Results of this experiment showed that :
Using L.R of 15% level caused an increase in grain yield of maize in compared to control where the production was depressed .When increasing L.R level up to 25% the yield was decreased to 10.27 ,11.32 and 10.50 Mg.ha -1 for control, with no addition of L.R there was an increase of an-ions and cations accumulation at soil surface layers and decreased with depth. It were for 35.5 ,37.1 ,35.7 and 32.7 meq.L-1 for depths 0-30 ,30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm respectively in comparing with total cautions of the soil before farming for the same depths respectively. They were 12.86 , 14.04 ,11.84 and 8.33 meq .L-1 same result were recorded for the anions, results indicated a decrease in cations and anions concentrations at surface layers and an increase of these ions at the lower layers by using L.R of 15% and 25% level data were 5.81, 7.14, 7.55 and 10.86 meq.L-1 for 15% L.R level for 5 depths 0-30 ,30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm respectively, with increasing L.R level to 25% .the total cautions were 4.51, 6.84, 7.25 and 13.5 meq.L-1 for same depths respectively .

Effects of sowing dates on yield and yield components of five maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes

Nawfal A. Al-Mashhadani

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 64-70

Five Genotype of maize were used in this study were planted in autiem seoson of 2009 by using arandomiz complete blook design with three replication . The aim of this study was study the effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of five maize genotypes. Results showed that sowing plants on 30th july give the highest earlength (23cm ), row number perear( 18 row ) weight of 1000 kernels ( 325 gm), and total grain yield (11.5 t / ha ) . grain yield per hectare ( 11.5 t/ ha ) by sowing during 30 July.

Genetic analysis by using full– diallel crossing of maize

Abdul-Razzaq Y. Al-Zawbaai; Nadhum Y. Abed; Nagham M. Al; Azawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 84-96

Full – diallel cross was carried out among four inbred lines of corn (Zea mays L.) in Spring season (2006). In autumn season (2006) a comparison experiment was carried out at Al– Madain Field in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Study was conducted to identify and select superior maize inbred lines based on their performance parse, as to evaluate their single– cross hybrids performance based on results of analysis of combining ability and the first method with fixed model . Significant differences were found between genotypes in all studied characters and most of hybrids gave significant heterosis. Results of diallel analysis showed that heterosis in diallel hybrids which was greater than reciprocal hybrids for most characters except for plant height and ear height . Diallel hybrids (1×4) , (2×4) gave higher positive hybrid vigor for weight of grain and grain yield (13.5% , 17.6%) respectively .
Some parents showed preferred GCA effect in characters consecutively with preferred SCA effect for grain yield and many other characters .The ratio of variance of general combing ability (б2gca) to the specific combining ability (б2sca) and of the reciprocal (б2rca) was less than 1.0 in most studied characters , expect for plant height and ear length in reciprocal hybrids which was greater than 1.0 . The value of dominance degree was less than 1.0 for most studied characters in both diallel and reciprocal hybrids. As for broad and narrow sense heritability , it was low for all studied characters in both diallel and reciprocal hybrids . Genetic variance dominance values (б2D) was higher than genetic variance additive values (б2A) for most of other studied characters important grain yield was (154.8) in diallel hybrids, (66.3) in reciprocal hybrid this was indicating the importance of both additive and non additive gene actions in the control of these characters .

Heritability and Genetic Gain in Maize

Benan H. Hadi; Karyma M. Wuhaib

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 96-107

This research was conducted at the farms of the Dept. of Field Crop Science/ College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad, during two seasons of 2004. The objective of the study were to assess genetic variance for some characters of maize (Zea mays), and their contribution to yield variation; and the correlation among characters in addition to the heritability and genetic gain of four selection criteria based on the highest yield, harvest index, grain weight, and grain per ear according to each criteria, 100 plant grain seeds were selected and mixed. During fall seasons seeds were distributed among treatments in four replicates according to RCBD whine a split plot arrangements.
The characters grain number per ear, dry weight and yield efficiency contributed to the whole yield variance (1998.77) by 27.27 and 270% respectively. These characters gave the highest heritability (0.49, 0.49 and 0.48) and the highest genetic gain (64.15, 64.09 and 63.32) respectively. Phenotypic variance was higher than genotypic for all characters under study. There was a positive genetic correlation between grain yield and other characters. The highest correlation coefficient was found with yield efficiency (0.901), dry weight (0.884), grain number per ear (0.853) and ear number per plant (0.788). The phenotypic correlation was also high (0.84, 0.661, 0.835 and 0.781 respectively). Yield was not significantly correlated with leaf area index (0.085, 0.004, 0.047, 0.0359 and 0.038) respectively. All genotypic values were higher than phenotypic, for phenotypic is controlled by genotype.

Effect of tillers in growth and yield of maize

A. M. Dahi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 125-130

نفذت تجربة حقلیة بتصمیم القطاعات العشوائیة الکاملة وبأربعة مکررات فی تجربة عاملیة فی محطة أبحاث المحاصیل الحقلیة فی أبی غریب /الهیأة العامة للبحوث الزراعیة فی الموسمین 2006 و 2007. الهدف من الدراسة معرفة تأثیر الأشطاء على صفات النمو وحاصل الحبوب لنبات الذرة الصفراء، شملت التجربة على ستة تراکیب وراثیة هی" بحوث106"و "5012"و" مسره"و" ربیع"(مجامیع ترکیبیة) والهجینان 3003 و A5XR5 کانت مواعید الزراعة للموسمین منتصف شهر تموز . أظهرت النتائج بأن معدل عدد الأشطاء فی النبات تباینت من موسم لآخر حیث أعطى " بحوث106" أعلى عدد من الأشطاء وکان (2.1) شطأ فی موسم 2006 بینما فی موسم 2007 أعطى الهجین "A5XR5" أعلى معدل لعدد الأشطاء (2.3). لم یکن لعدد اشطاء النبات تأثیراً معنویا فی ارتفاع النبات فی الموسم الأول فیما أثرت فی ارتفاع النبات فی الموسم الثانی حیث أعطت نباتات التراکیب الوراثیة بدون أشطاء أعلى معدل للارتفاع بلغ1.17 م. أعطت نباتات التراکیب الوراثیة بدون أشطاء أعلى معدل للمساحة الورقیة فی کلا الموسمین بلغت 0.33 و0.29 م2على التوالی. لم یتأثر معدل عدد أوراق النبات الواحد معنویا للتراکیب الوراثیة بوجود أوعدم وجود أشطاء فی الموسم الأول، أما فی الموسم الثانی فقد تفوقت نباتات التراکیب الوراثیة الخالیة من الأشطاء بإعطائها أعلى معدل لعدد الأوراق (14 ورقة) للنبات. اما بالنسبة الى حاصل النبات فقد تفوقت نباتات التراکیب الوراثیة الخالیة من الاشطاء فی کلاالموسمین حیث اعطت اعلى معدل من الحبوب بلغ 121.1 و 95.71 غم/النبات على التوالی. نستنتج من هذا البحث بان للاشطاء تاثیر سلبی على حاصل النبات وعلیه یجب ان ننتج تراکیب وراثیة خالیة من الاشطاء.

Heterosis and combining ability in several agronomic characters of maize inbred lines

F. Y. Baktash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 178-199

Diallel cross was performed among eight maize inbred lines (1-IPA 2, 2-IPA 7, 3–IPA 21, 4-IPA 12, 5-71-5, 6-IPA 6, 7- IPA 3 and 8-IPA-14) in the field of Field Crops Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during spring and fall seasons in 1999 and 2000. The objective was to evaluate several maize inbred lines and their crosses, and estimation gene action in several maize characters. In the first season (spring 1999), inbred lines were propagated, while in the fall season 1999, a set of 28 hybrids were developed. Hybrid yield trails were conducted during spring and fall seasons in 2000, using randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant differences were found among several averages and heterosis of studied characters. The plants of the hybrids (1x7) and (3x7) were earlier in tasseling and silking in spring and fall seasons. The plants of the hybrids (4x7), (1x4) and (7x8) had higher ear height. The hybrids (1x3) and (3x6) were superior in leaf area in both seasons. The higher grain yield (99.33 gm/ plant) produced from crosses (5x8) in spring season, while in the fall season the hybrid (1x3) produced the highest grain yields (181.60gm/ plant). The higher degree of dominance and broad sense heritability were found in the grain yield, while the highest narrow sense heritability produced in the silking. The single cross hybrid (1x3) could be promising in the fall season in central Iraq.

Performance of two Genotypes of Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Different Spaces

M. K. Alik

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 200-218

A field study was conducted during Autumn season 1999 and Spring season 2000 at experimental farm department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib.Univ. of Baghdad.
The aim of the study was to investigate performance of Genotypes of maize (Bohoth 106 and IBA 3001) to difference densities with different spaces (80 cm 20 cm,100 cm  16cm , 40 cm  40 cm, 80 cm  30 cm, 80 cm  15 cm and 80 cm  10 cm) The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.
The results obtained could be summarized as following:
The lower density (80 cm  30 cm) gave the highest value of number grain of ear (668.4 and 735 .4 grain) , weight of single grain (261.6 , 223.9 mg) and yield of plant (120.1 and 87.0 gm) respectively in Autumn and Spring while treatment of highest density (80 cm  10 cm) gave high value of yield grain (9.40 5.4 ton.ha-1) respectively at both seasons.
Iba 3001 under density 62500 plant.ha-1 (80 cm  20 cm) gave high value of grain yield 11.1 and 5.2 ton.ha-1 respectively in both seasons.

Response of growth of Genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.) under different spaces

R. K. Shati; M. K. Allak

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 78-96

A field study was conducted during Autumn season 1999 and Spring season 2000 at experimental farm department of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib.

بحث مستل من رسالة ماجستیر للباحث الثانی
The objective of the study was to investigate response of growth of Genotypes of maize (Bohoth 106, IPA 3001) to densities with different spaces (80 cm  20 cm, 100 cm  16 cm ,40 cm  40 cm , 80 cm 10 cm, 80 cm 15 cm and 80 cm  30 cm).
The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.
The result obtained could summarized as following:
All treatments caused significant effect on all studied characteristics. The density (125000 plant .ha-1) which planted with spaces 80 cm  10 cm gave the highest value of leaf area index (5.40, 5.90), weight of dry matter (19.76, 30.29 t. ha-1) respectively in Autumn and Summer seasons. There fore we get high crop growth rate (32.69, 60.52) respectively in both seasons then other treatments.
Genotype bohoth 106 gave high value of leaf area index (3.59, 4.69) respectively in Autumn and Spring seasons.
The interaction between genotypes and spacing was significant. The genotypes bohoth with space 80 cm  10 cm gave high value in weight dry matter (20.41, 31.30) and crop growth rate (37.70, 68.21 gm. m-2. day-1) in both seasons.

Estimation of genetic parameters and regression line analysis for yield and its components in maize

H. J. Al-Dulaimi; A. M. Al-Jumaili; S. A. Faiath

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 46-58

Eight inbred lines of maize were crossed in half- diallel in spring season of 2002 to produce twenty eight F1 crosses. The parents and crosses were grown in Fall season of 2002 and in Spring season of 2003 using RCBD with four replicates to determine the nature and magnitude of gene effects through components analysis and graphic analysis for 50% silking date, plant and ear height, ear length, number of rows/ear, number of grain/row, kernel weight and grain yield/plant. Both the additive and dominance genetic variances were found to be significant for all characters, except for grain yield/plant where the additive genetic variance was not significant in Fall season. The estimates of dominance genetic variance were more than the additive one for plant and ear height, number of grain/row, kernel weight and grain yield/plant, while, it was inverse that in other characters, and this reflected the reduction of the values of the narrow sense heritability, and increased of the values of the average degree of dominance one for the mentioned characters and it was less than one for other characters, which indicated that the studied characters were under partial and over dominance gene action. Also the results showed that positive and negative alleles were not distributed equally among the parents for all characters. Indicating that from the estimates of the ratio H2/4H1 were different from 0.25, and excess of dominant genes in the parents for all characters, indicating that from the estimates of the ratio KD/KR were more than one. The graphic analysis suggested the presence of over dominance and genetic variability among parents for most characters. It was concluded from the results of this study that some inbred lines could be used in a breeding program to develop elite hybrids of higher yield/plant and other related traits.

ESTIMATION OF SEVERAL GNETIC PARAMETERS FOR OIL AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN MAIZE

F. Y. Baktash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2007, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 117-124

The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Field Crops Department, during spring season, while in fall season 2001 it was conducted at the field of Al-Madain. The objective was estimation of several genetic parameters for oil and protein content in maize. In the first season, crossing was done among six inbred lines, (1) BK 10 (2) BK12, (3) BK15, (4) BK20, (5) BK2 and (6) BK6. In the second season a yield trial was conducted, on 15 hybrids, 6 parents and four different other genotypes, in simple partial lattice design with four replications. Significant differences were found among crosses and parents in studied characters also in (gi^i, si^j). The higher differences for the average degree of dominance, broad sense heritability (h2.bs%) and narrow sense heritability (h2.ns%) for oil and protein. The single crosses (4×2), (5×2) had the higher oil percentage (5.94%) and protein (10.25%) respectively. The single crosses (4×2), (5×2) appeared the higher value of positive heterosis (32.39%) for oil and (16.47%) for protein. The hybrids (4×2), (5×3) had the highest (si^j) for protein and oil percentage.
It was concluded that the crosses (4 x 2) and (5 x 2) were promising hybrids for oil and protein content of maize grains.

ESTIMATHON OF COMBINING ABILITY AND GENE ACTION USING THE HALF DIALLEL CROSSE IN MAIZE

H. TH. Al-Fahdawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2006, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 138-145

Half diallel cross was carried out among six inbred lines of maize in spring season (2004), autumn season (2004) acomparison experiment was carried.
The experiment was designed according to (R.C.B.D.) with three replications to determine general and specific compining ability effects and gene action. Significant differences were found among parental and their crosses for all characters. The parents were generally combined in desirable direction for several characters. Variance of genral and specific combining abilities were significantly different for all than characters. The highest Sca effects were expressed in HS × W17 for grain yield. Dominance genetic variance was higher the additive genetic variance for all characters. The broad – sense heritability values were ranged between (33.33%) for ear diameter to (91.3%) for grain yield / plant while narrow – sense heritability value were ranged between (10.34%) for grain yield/plant to (33%) for leaf area. The average degree of dominance was higher than one for all the characters which revealed the over - dominance.

Estimation of Heterosis in single crosses of maize

Dolimy; N. M. A. Al

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2006, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 92-99

Six Genotype of maize were used in this study to give 15 hybrids by using half diallel crosses in spring season of 2004. The parent and crosses were planted in autumn season of 2004 by using a randomize complete block design with three replication. The aim of this study Estimation of Heterosis between the genotypes of maize in F1. Significant differences were found between the genotypes and hybrids for all the characteries the genotype (IPA 3001) gave grain yield 190.80 gm. While the hybrid (105 × SP18) gave grain yield (212.50) gm. The heighest heterosis value was 17.77 % appeared in grain yield for the hybrid (105 × SP18).

Effect of potassium fertilizer and control of Corn stem borer on some growth characteristics of two varieties of maize Zea mays L.

B. H. A. Al-Solagh; T. M. A. Al- Fahdawy; H. F. N. Al-Awady

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2005, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 64-83

Afield experiment was conducted in alluviul clay–loam soil in college of Agriculture Al-Anbar university during the growing season of 2002. The were 4 levels of potassium fertilizer (0, 20, 40, 60) kg k/ ha (K2SO4 41% K), two insecticides including (cruiser and diazinon) and two varieties of Corn (Buhooth 106, IPA 5012). Results can be summarized as follows:
IPA 5012 genotype recorded less day number from sowing upto 50% male flowering and gave alowest percentage of infestation for both season, while Buhooth 106 genotype recorded ahighest mean of plant length, leaf area and dry weight of plant.
Plants fertilized whith 60 Kg K / ha gave ahighest means in plant length and plant dry weight, that level also recorded alowest percentage of infestation.
Treatment of control plant with insecticide cruiser showed alowest percentage of infestation and highe significant in plant length, plant dry weight for both seasons and leaf area in autumn.
The interaction between genotype and potassium fertilizer had asignificant effects (P<0.05) in flowering earliness until 50% flowering male for spring season and plant dry weight in autumn season.
The interaction between the insecticide (cruiser) and potassium fertilizer 60 Kg K / ha resulted in highest length of plant (184.70 cm) and the interaction between this insecticide and fertilizer with 40 kg k / ha gave ahighest mean of leaf area (6340.25 cm2 / plant) in autumn season only.

Effect of potassium fertilizer and control of Corn stem borer on yield components, grain yield and its quality of two varieties of maize Zea mays L.

B. H. A. Al-Solagh; Tarik M. Al-Fahdawi; H. F. Najeb

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2005, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 84-98

A factorial experiment in R.C.B.D. was conducted in alluviul clay–loam soil in college of Agriculture AL-Anbar university during the growing season of 2002, There were 4 levels of potassium fertilizer (0, 20, 40, 60) kg k/ ha (K2SO4), two insecticides including (cruiser and diazinon) and two varieties of Corn (Buhooth 106 , IPA 5012).
Results can be summarized as follows:
IPA 5012 genotype recorded alowest percentage of infestation and gave ahighest rang of grains No./ row, grain yield production (3.05, 6.52) ton / ha and protein percentage in grains (10.39, 10.88)% for spring and autumn seasons respectively, while Buhooth 106 genotype recorded ahighest range of 300 grain weight (66.95 g) in spring season.
The level of 60 kg K / ha showed significantly ahighe mean of ear number in plant, grain No. / row, 300 grain weight, grain yield (3.85, 7.50) ton/ ha, protein percentage (11.28, 11.19)% in two seasons respectively and ear row number in spring season and gave alowest percentage of infestation for both seasons as compared with other levels.
There was asignificant effect (P<0.05) cruiser in adecrease percentage of in festation as well as in increase the mean of ear no./ plant, row no./ ear, grain no./ row in spring season and 300 grain weight, grain yield, protein percentage in both season.
It was concluded that the genotypical IPA 5012 was superior over the genotypical Buhooth 106 in most studied characters. The addition of potassium in a level of 60 kg K/ ha with the control of cruiser had significantly reduced the infestation percentage of the insect and increased the yields of grains per unit area and inhanced their quality.