Keywords : Bread Wheat


Effect of seeding rate, Nitrogen levels and rate of application of herbicides on growth of bread wheat

Reasan K. Shati; Sabiha H. Al-Lami

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 42-63

A field trial was conducted at the experimental farm, Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons to investigated the effect of seeding rate (120, 180 and 240 kg.ha‌2), nitrogen levels ( 240, 300 and 360 N kg.ha-2) and rate application of herbicides (Topic 250 gm a.i ha-1+ Logran 125 gm a.i ha-1 and Topic 500 gm+ Logran 250 gm a.i ha-1).
A randomized complete plot design (RCBD) according to split – split plot was used with three replications.
The following results could be summarized as follow :
Rate seeding 240 kg.ha-1 gave a high value of leaf area index (6.1 and 6.9) dry weight of crop (509.6 and 670.4 gm.m‌-2), rate growth of crop (41.0 and 46.0 gm.m‌-2.day-1) and net assimilation rate (5.7, 6.0 gm.m‌-2.day-1)in the two seasons respectively.
In both seasons 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 and at all stage growth of plant especially at stage 102 day from date planting. The high level of nitrogen fertilization 360 kg.ha-1 caused increasing of most characteristic as leaf area index, dry weight of plant, rate growh of crop and net assimilation rate.
The treatment recommendation of Topic and Logran at first season gave high value of leaf area index (6.1) and rate growth of crop (41.9 gm.m-2 day) at second season.
The treatment of full recommendation of rate application of Topic and Logran gave high value of leaf area index (7.5) and dry weight of plant (484.4 gm.m‌-2.day-1). Rate of seeding 240 kg.ha-1 with 360 kg.N.ha 1 gave in both seasons high value of leaf area index 6.6, 7.2 dry weight of crop (699.2, 597.2 gm.m-2) and rate growth of crop (43.7 and 47.7 gm.m-2.day-1) respectively.The treatment recommendation of Topic and Logran with nitrogen fertilization 360 kg N.ha-1 at first season gave high value of leaf area index 6.6 but at second season gave full recommendation high value 8.0.
From these results we can conclusion that the wheat is positive response to study factors, so we can use competition method to control a weed, instead of herbicide in order to keep clean environment.

Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes to Planting Dates

A. M. Al-Jumeily

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 110-124

نفذت تجربة حقلیة فی محطة ابحاث المحاصیل الحقلیة التابعة لمرکز إباء للأبحاث الزراعیة خلال الموسمین 2000-2001 و2001-2002 على التتابع, لمعرفة استجابة الحاصل ومکوناته وصفات أخرى لمواعید الزراعة لسبعة تراکیب وراثیة من حنطة الخبز. استعمل ترتیب التجارب العاملیة وفق تصمیم القطاعات العشوائیة الکاملة RCBD بثلاثة مکررات, کانت مواعید الزراعة 5 تشرین ثانی و25 تشرین ثانی و15 کانون أول. أظهرت النتائج تفوق موعد الزراعة 5 تشرین ثانی فی ارتفاع النبات وطول السنبلة فیما تفوق موعد الزراعة 25 تشرین ثانی فی عدد السنابل للمتر المربع وعدد الحبوب للسنبلة ووزن الحبة وحاصل الحبوب والحاصل البایولوجی ودلیل الحصاد. اختلفت التراکیب الوراثیة معنویاً فی صفات النمو والحاصل ومکوناته, إذ أعطى الترکیب الوراثی سدس1 أعلى قیم لارتفاع للنبات ولطول السنبلة ووزن الحبة وأعطى الصنف مکسیباک أعلى حاصل بایولوجی, بینما أعطى الصنف إباء 99 أعلى عدد سنابل للمتر المربع وعدد حبوب للسنبلة وحاصل حبوب ودلیل حصاد. حصل تداخل معنوی بین التراکیب الوراثیة ومواعید الزراعة، فقد أعطى الصنف إباء 99 عند موعد الزراعة 25 تشرین ثانی أعلى حاصل حبوب بلغ 8.28 و8.77 طن/هـ فی الموسمین على التتابع نتیجة لمکونات الحاصل (عدد السنابل/م2 وعدد الحبوب للسنبلة). یستنتج من البحث أن أفضل موعد لزراعة محصول الحنطة یقع ضمن المدة مابین 20-30 تشرین ثانی وأن الصنف إباء 99 کان الأفضل فی الأداء مقارنة ببقیة التراکیب الوراثیة.

Phenotypic and genotypic variation and correlation in bread wheat

F. Y. Baktash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 150-165

These experiments were conducted in the field of Crop Science Dept., Coll. Of Agric. University of Baghdad, during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003, seasons. The objectives was to study phenotypic and genotypic variation and correlation in bread wheat, using split plot design with ten varieties ( Tamoz 2, Tamoz 3, Abu-Ghraib 3, IPA95, IPA99, Sale, Al-Rashed, Al-Iraq, Fateh and Rabea) as main plots and four seeding rates ( 80, 120, 240 and 320 kg/ ha) as sub plots with three replications.


البحث جزء من أطروحة دکتوراه للباحث الثانی
Increasing seeding rates from 80 to 160, 240 and 320kg/ ha increased phenotypic and genotypic variances of grain yield. Environmental variance reduced for number of spikes/ plant, number of grains/ spike and harvest index in both seasons, while for grain yield reduced in first season and increased in second season. Increasing seeding rates from 80 to 160, 240 and 320kg/ ha, increased positive genetic correlation coefficient for several characters.
It was concluded that the number of spiklets/ spike, harvest index, spike length and number of grains/ spike could be used as selection index for the improvement of grain yield in bread wheat.

Path Coefficient Analysis of Bread Wheat as Affected by Planting Dates

A. M. H. Al-Jumeily

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2007, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 110-123

A field trial was conducted in the field of Crop Science Dept., Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 winter seasons, to study the effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of eight bread wheat cultivars. A split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Planting dates (Oct. 25th , Nov. 19th and Dec. 14th) were assigned in the main plots, where as eight bread wheat cultivars were assigned in the sub-plots. Data collected on grains yield, tillers number/m2, ear length, number of grains / spike, 1000-grain weight and harvest index. Phenotypic correlation coefficient among grain yield and all other characters were determined, path coefficient analysis carried out to partition the phenotypic correlation coefficient to the direct and indirect effects to each planting date and season.
The path coefficient analysis showed that number of tillers/m2 had the highest positive direct effect on grains yield (7.69) followed by ear length (3.92) at the second planting date (Nov. 19th). Number of spikes/m2 gave highest positive direct effect (3.18) followed by 1000 – grain weight (1.5) and ear length on grains yield (1.4) at the first planting date (Oct. 25th) where as harvest index had the highest positive direct effect on grain yield (1.91) at the third planting date (Dec. 14th).
The sum of direct and indirect effect on grain yield was from ears number/m2, harvest index, ear length and tillers number/m2 at the Oct. 25th, and from harvest index, number of grains/spike, ear length and number of tillers/m2 at the Nov. 19th, and from harvest index, tillers number/m2 and number of spikes/m2 at the Dec. 14th at first season. It was concluded that the direct and indirect effects of each character on yield depends on planting date and season, depending on number of tillers/m2, number of spikes/ m2 and harvest index could be used as selection index to improve grains yield in bread wheat by selection in next generations at irrigated central of Iraq.

PATH ANALYSIS FOR SEVERAL BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES

F. Y. Baktash

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2006, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 123-137

A field experiment conducted in the field of Crops Science Dept., Coll. of Agric. Univer. of Baghdad, during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003, seasons. The objectives was to study the path analysis in bread wheat traits. The experiments were carried out, using split plot design with ten varieties (Tamoz 2, Tamoz 3, Abu-Ghraib 3, IPA 95, IPA 99, Sale, Al-Rashed, Al-Iraq, Fateh and rabea) as main plots and four seeding rates (80, 120, 240 and 320 kg / ha) as sub plots with three replications.
Path analysis revealed that the harvest index for all seeding rates, biological yield of higher seeding rates and number of spikes / m2 in low seeding rates, obtained highest direct effect to grain yield.
The highest direct and indirect effect to grain yield revealed from harvest index, spike length and number of spikelets / spikes.
It was cocluded that harvest index could be used as selection index for the improvement of grain yield in bread wheat.