Keywords : Organic


The effect of organic fertilize level, extract and drip discharge on the availability of nutrient and properties of Cucurbita pepo L

M. H .munajed; B. Al Khateeb Husham; K. J. Farhan

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2016, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 147-161

A field experiment was carried out in a clay soil in the district of Daquq, south of Kirkuk province, to study the effect of the level of organic fertilization and emitters discharge in some properties of the soil and the growth and holds pumpkin squash. The Organic fertilizers were added with four different amounts 0, 10, 15 and 20 ton per hectares, Organic Fertilization extract with two different levels 0, 20 gm per Liter, the irrigation was supplied by using drip Irrigation System. Water was supplied with two Discharge levels 3.93 and 7.86 Lh-1.Some of the chemical properties of soil such us of N, P, and K have been calculated. Number of foots and yield have been measured as a properties of the plant and the efficiency of water use have been calculated. The results showed an increase of the concentration of N, P, and K that available within the soil at 20 ton h-1 of fertilization level, which is 23.50, 108.70, and 203.7 respectively. The concentration of N, P, and K increase in the plant, which is 2.64, 0.39, 2.32% respectively. The 20 gm per liter has a significant of N, P, and K concentration in the soil with an average of 94.55, 19.80. 170.62 mg kg-1 respectively. Similarly, this concentration has an increase of N, P, and K concentration in the plant, which record 1.97, 0.41 and 2.11%. The result have showed that the best growth of the number of fruit and a total yield ,which is 8.87 fruit per plant and 25.11 ton h-1 respectively, at 20 ton h-1 fertilization level and 20 gm per liter extract concentration. In addition, at this result, combined with best water use efficiency that is 10.60 kg per meter

Limitation and separation of domestic solid waste and bio-recyclable organic waste 3- The effect of consecutive fermentation, C: N ratio and rock phosphate enrichment at the recycling of solid organic waste produce organic fertilizers

Idham; A. A. Assaffii; Basim M. Karim

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 35-48

Amount of domestic solid organic waste were collected from some of Erbil city locations, during 2014 for the purpose of recycling it to produce organic fertilizers and estimate the product, two organic waste mixture was prepared from separated waste which collected from the houses in some locations of Erbil city, first mixture with a C: N ratio 1:40, using the organic waste components as they are, second mixture prepared with C: N ratio 30:1 by enriching waste with urea fertilizer. Each mixture will fermented by aerobic and anaerobic methods, after inoculated each of them by 5% of active soil inoculation taken from the surface and soil depth, which was added to the mixtures suit to the fermentation method, a plastic bottles size 25 liters used for a period of 60 days.
Then completed with second fermentation stage, using the outputs of fermentation parameters for the first phase (4 treatment), and equipped with two levels of 10% and 20% of the raw rock phosphate (RP), then 8 treatments will fermented with aerobic and anaerobic methods, to become 16 treatment, after being inoculated each of them by 3% of active soil inoculation by using bottles of plastic, according to the fermentation method for the second stage. The important results:
Decrease the amount of carbon and increase the nitrogen concentration in the mixtures components after the end of the second fermentation stage , the treatment of aerobic fermentation and 20% RP of the mixture resulting from the anaerobic fermentation of C:N ratio 30:1 in the first fermentation stage interference treatment of 30:1 ratio and anaerobic fermentation recorded highest rate formation of humic and fulvic acid 9.14 and 19.48 g kg-1 sequentially, the lowest rate of phenolic acids formation was 2.95 mg kg-1 with aerobic fermentation method and 30:1 ratio , while the highest rate of formation was 18.64 mg kg-1 with treatment of anaerobic fermentation and 40:1 ratio
The results showed increasing in the total of microbial content, fixing nitrogen and dissolving phosphorus bacteria after the fermentation process, and disappeared of Coliform presence from mixtures with anaerobic fermentation method, and the Salmonella spp. presence disappeared completely in all treatments. Treatment of anaerobic fermentation and 20% RP from mixture C:N ratio 30:1 fermented anaerobically in first stage showed highest rate of available phosphorus concentration 12.93 g P kg-1 , as the treatment given the highest concentration of (DTPA extract ) : 773 , 63.3 , 112, 12 , 32 and 7.3 mg kg-1 of iron , zinc and copper, sequentially .

The use of organic plants wastes and mineral materials in treatment of saline water and it application in irrigation

I.A. Assaffii; A.A. Al-Hadethi; Y.K. Hamza

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 174-184

This study was conducted at college of Agriculture – university of Anbar during fall season 2010 to study possibility of using some organic wastes and mineral materials in treatment of saline soils and it application in irrigation. This study including laboratory experiment which design to determine the best treatment of saline water by using different plant organic wastes and mineral materials (calcite and gypsum). Four sources of plant organic wastes which included: shimblan plant, cob of corn, wheat straw, sunflower steems for the total decomposition. All organic wastes were mixed with the mineral materials (20% calcite and gypsum). Saline water was added with dilution ratio of 1:10 , 1:20 , 1:30 , 1:40 and 1:50. The EC , pH and SAR at the extract were measured. Results of this studded showed

1. The best contribution of organic wastes in decreasing value of EC of saline water were by cob of corn and wheat straw while sunflower steems and shimblan showed no contribution in this respect under the conditions of this study.
2.Using organic wastes resulted in decrease in pH values in all treatments.
3. SAR values were different with different types of organic wastes the rating of decline were cob of corn, wheat straw, sunflower steem and shimblan.

Effect of calcium carbonate and organic mater in Rhizobium lequme inoculums activity and their effect in lequme growth and yield

N. H. Arziag; J. S. Alkabiasy; Idham; A. A

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 256-268

Abstract
Extract of organic matter was used with Rhizobium legume inoculums and without it , and other compositions treatments from organic matter and NP- fertilizer ( control , 100%NP (160+160-NP 27-27% ) 1.5%C + NP50%, and 1.5%C) in tow calcareous soils (18% , 31% -CaCO3) to study the treatments role in infection achievement and growth and yield of plant. The treatments were carried out in the pot experiment 2009-2010agriculture season.
The results indicated a significant increase in emergency percentage 95% with treatment C1.5%-C + NP50% + R. legume inoculum - 18% CaCO3), which recorded the best results for the characterization of plant and contents , roots nodule numbers included in two growth stages(50 ,53 nodule/plant) and 8 branches numbers ,98 cm height of plant , 51 gm/plant yield and beast contents. in addition of soil contents from N,P , and total microbial content. The treatment saved50% of fertilizer recommended of N,P through the content of the treatment and added microbial activity which improved the performance of calcareous soils.

Effect of different level of organic and nitrogen fertilizers on fruit yield apple.(Malus domestica ) CV.ANNA

Sameer Abed Ali Saleh Al-isawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 224-234

This study was carried out during the growing season at 2007 and 2008 on apple cv Anna in private orchard at Radwania region (35 km – western Baghdad ).Trees were planted according to square method. This investigation aimed to verify the effect of different level of organic(0 ,5 , 10 , 15 kg/tree) and nitrogen for the former and (0 , 300 ,400 ,500g urea/tree) fertilizer on yield respectively. A randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) was used (with three replicates for each treatment combination). Result revealed that the treatment of (15 kg/tree)of organic fertilizer was superior significantly in fruit yield (82.29 kg ree) and other quality characteristics as compared with other treatments plants , whereas the lowest yield was that of the control untreated trees plants (67.54 kg/tree) . Nitrogen fertilizer of (500 g urea /tree) gave the highest fruit yield (89.02 kg ree) and highest quality values as compared with other treatments , Similarly a lower fruit Yield (56.08 kg/tree) was found in control trees. A significant interaction effect were recorded between the two fertilizer used regarding fruit yield and other quality traits .Organic fertilizer at 15 kg/tree with urae at 500 g urea/ gave the highest fruit yield(103.33 kg/tree) , whereas control treatment gave the lowest yield (45 kg/tree) . It can be concluded that organic fertilizer level of 15 kg /tree and nitrogen fertilizer level of 500 g urea/tree may be used effectively for higher fruit yield and quality characteristics cv Anna apple.

Effect of Gibberellic acid and Organic fertilizer on certain chemical compounds for Wheat plant Triticum aestivum L.

Rajaa Fadel Hamdi; Saadi Sabaa Khamees

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 70-79

The experiment was conducted on plastics pots with capacity 9 kgs soil according to completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates and used wheat cultivar (Abu-Ghraib) and used in this experiment the plant hormone gibberillic acid (100ppm) and organic fertilizer (144 gm/pot) and (gibberellic acid 100 ppm + organic fertilizer 144 gm/ pot). The aim of this research to study the effect of gibberillic acid and organic fertilizer and (gibberellic acid 100 ppm +organic fertilizer 144 gm/ pot) with control treatment on qualitative of amino acid in grain and dry shoot of wheat plant and also to study the effect of experimental treatments on Fe, Mn, Mg concentration in wheat grain and dry shoot. The results showed: gibberellic acid (100 ppm) and organic fertilizer and (gibberillic acid + organic fertilizer) lead to new amino acids comparative with the amino acid in the control treatment in wheat grain and dry shoot. And the results also showed,The gibberellic acid treatment led to increased Fe concentration in wheat grain and dry shoot, Their values were 148.6 and 114 ppm respectively. And also for organic fertilizer treatment this led to increase Fe concentration in wheat grain and dry shoot this value were 173.3 and 175.3 ppm respectively. The treatment (gibberellic acid + organic fertilizer) showed great increase in Fe concentration in wheat grain and dry shoot also and the results showed also, gibberellic acid led to decrease of Mn concentration in wheat grain and dry shoot of plant, Their values were 112.6 and 101 ppm respectively. While the organic fertilizer led to increase Mn concentration in grain and dry shoot of wheat plants and intraction in grain and dry shoot of wheat plants and increase Mn concentration in treatment (gibberellic acid + organic fertilizer) comparative with the control and the results also showed: gibberellic acid and organic fertilizer and (gibberillic acid + organic fertilizer) increased Mg concentration in grain and dry shoot of wheat plants comparative with the control treatments, Their values were 1359 and 1569 and 1899 ppm in wheat grain respectively and 2299 , 2308 , 3859 ppm in dry shoots of wheat respectively.

Effect of spraying some organic fertilizers on growth and yield and quality of three potato cultivars

Omar H. Muslah; Sadek K. Sadik; Majed A. Hanshal

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 68-78

Abstract
An experiment was carried out in one of the private fields in Amiriya (10 km south of Fallujah), Anbar province, to study the effect of spraying some organic fertilizers on growth , yield and quality of three potato cultivars during spring season of 2010, seed tubers (class Elite) were planted at 6-2-2010. Plants were spread at 45 days and 65 days from sowing. Use the randomized block design full RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with three replicates, the means were compared according to L.S.D. test at 5% significant level.
Spraying of Bepton was superior in plant length 104.44 cm, leaf area 49.86 dm2, chlorophyll 49.18 SPAD unit, number of marketable tubers plant 6.67 tubers, total plant yield 889.1 gm, dry matter 16.88 %, starch 11.56% and specific density 1.0640 g/cm3 , compared with Bihorm solution. Desiree cv. was superior in plant length 114.56 cm, marketable tubers yield plant 630.1 gm, dry matter 15.93 % and specific density 1.0594 g/cm3, compared with Avalon and Arizona cv.

Effect of organic fertilizer on availability of macro nutrients N, P, K and the product of garlic

Iman K. Mohammed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2010, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 56-63

A field experiment was conducted at the Field of the college of Agriculture at Abu – Ghraib in Silt clay Loam soil at 2008 – 2009. Treatments included Cow manure at Levels 0, 20, 40 T. h-1 and Sheep manure at Levels 0, 20, 40 T. h1- in randomized complete blocks design with three replicates and their effects on increasing the availability of macro nutrients N, P, K, in soil and increasing the yield of Garlic. Samples of soil have been taken before planting and 150 days after planting.
Results showed that the highest concentration of N, P, and K on the higher level of availability of N, P, and K was at levels 40 T. h-1 of cow and sheep manure consequently . Also higher yield of Garlic was achieved at Level (40 T.h-1) as it reached 17.29 and 16.47 T.h-1 for each of cow and sheep manure consequently in comparison with control treatment (13.53) T.h-1. The results proved an increase in the number of leaves/plant as well as in the height by cm at this level of addition too.

The Use of The Genetically Modified of Azotobacter vinelandii In Isolate with the preparation of The Bio-organic Fertilizer From Local Materials and then Bio-testing It

I.A. Assaffii; A. M. Turky; D. F. Al-Rawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 275-287

It is difficult to find an isolate that can give all plant needs , therefore it requires more than one isolate to give the various needs of the plant . The use of a mixture of isolates that can fix nitrogen and dissolve phosphate in a certain vaccine results decrease in their activity ,therefore the idea of using the isolate , Azotobacter vinelandii which is modified to dissolve phosphate and fix nitrogen in the preparation of local materials to make a compose is suitably fit to enhance the conditions of plant growth and soil features. The isolate ability on fixing nitrogen and dissolving super phosphate ( T-CaP ) or phosphate rocks ( RP ) compounds was tested by their abilities to give sidrophores and indol compounds .A mixture of various qualitative and quantitative components of local plant and animal , other natural minerals consisted of cow organic matter ( C/N = 27/1 ) dried materials of the plant , Ceritophylium demeresm ,two other phosphate rocks , natural apatite ( Rp-N )( %8P ) and calcinated phosphate apatite ( RP-C ) ( %12P ) was prepared .The aim was to change these components into a more useful mixture .A bacterial vaccine, A. vinelandii that was modified by fermintating the mentioned components on different time intervals 10 , 20 and 30 days before one day of their addition to the soil in a fermented and unfermented nature to change soil characters .Four fermented and unfermented mixtures were used mixed 1% of the used soil .Two fermented and non-fermented mixtures with 1% were selected as compared to the use of TSP and Urea fertilizer in pot experiment planted with Vicia catiang .
Results indicated that the used isolate was able to fix nitrogen with an average of 2.8 mg/L with a microbial density of 6.2 × 108 Cfu/g indol ,dissolved phosphate compounds ( TCaP) with an average of 10.6 mg/L and produced indol components with and an average of 11.6 mg/L . The mixtures of 300 and 700 mg of RP-N and OM was found to the best in containing the dissolved phosphate compound , 71.2% from the total phosphorus and the total nitrogen 19.6 gm N/kg mixture which was the best average for the C/N in the mixtures after fermentation 1:9 . The use of the natural phosphate rocks gave the best dissolving results and nitrogen quantity was increased with the use of C. demeresm plant wastes .The use of the fermented mixtures enhanced soil texture after 30 days of incubation with an average of 30 mg of dissolved phosphorus /kg soil and 150 mg nitrogen,also rapid germination were achieved with an average of 71 and 20.2 for plant and root length respectively The average root and vegetative dry weights was 160 and 178 g/plant respectively .Those treatments showed a better rhizopeal bacterial infection for plant roots with an average of 22 effective knots with 68% with protein percent 17.9 % in dried weight of the plant . Also ,they enhanced the soil content with viable phosphorus and nitrogen with an average of 20.5 and 130 mg/kg soil respectively .These results assure the existence of various carbon resources for microbial growth and activity resulted from the fermented mixtures which , in the mean time increased the fixation of nitrogen and dissolving phosphate compounds and finally producing Sidrophores , growth regulators , enhancing soil texture and viability of nutrients to the plants .

The Effects Of Water Stress And Organic Matter On Some Morphological, Physiological Characters On Sorghum

A. A. Al-Dahiri

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2006, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 49-61

This experiment was condueted in Al-Anbar University coolege of Science. during autum season 2004, to study the effects of water stress and organic matter on some morphological and physiological properties, of sorghum plant. The experiment included the following treatment:
1- Soil water stress (soil moisture tension) with three percentages 25, 50 and 75% of water availability.
2- Organic matter from aquatic plant with levels 0.000 , 250 and 500 gm - vase.
Soil type : tow soils were used with different textures.
Factorial experiment was used according to completely randomized design (C.R.D.) with three replicates for each treatment. Plastic containers were used (capacity of 8 kg) with dried. and filled with sieved soils. Seeds of sorghum were planted on July - 2nd - 2004. Irrigation was done according to volumetric method to protect soil moisture stresses of the water availability percentage 25, 50 and 75%. The study continued up to December - 15th - 2004. The usage of water consumption by sorghum was calculated according to quantities of water applied for whole the period of growth season. Yield was harvested on December - 30th - 2004. Some morphological and physiological properties of plant were measured, plant hight, leaf area, yeild of dry amaterial and root, Chlorophyll a, b, total contents of chliorophyll, charbohydrat content, protein content and contents of N.P.K. in grain. The result can be summarized as follows:-
1- The interference between water stress and organic matter affected significantly most properties of plants. The treatments of water deficit 25% and 250 gm - vase of organic matter were the best, while the treatment with the water stress 75% and without organic matter was less than others.
2- Clay loam soil was recognized as compared with the sandy loam soil by increase most other studied characters.