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Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences (AJAS) is a Journal of Scientific Research on Agricultural Sciences published by the University Of Anbar - College Of Agriculture since 2003 under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY). The journal publishes twice a year (June and December). AJAS aims to disseminate distinguished scientific research to various fields of agricultural sciences. We invite original work and research in various fields of agricultural sciences and related papers, reviews and short communications of content related to agriculture written in Arabic...
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EFFECT OF EDIBLE COATINGS ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FUNGI GROWTH DURING DIFFERENT STORAGE PERIODS OF PISTACHIO NUTS

T. H. Hamasalih; N. H. Rasul

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170521

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of regular edible coating treatments on the local Pistacia vera Kaleghouchi to determine changes in composition, physicochemical parameters, and microbial analysis of the pistachio during different storage periods. Pistachio nuts were coated with chitosan at different concentrations of 1%, 1.5%, and 2%, with 50% and 60% of whey protein isolate by immersion method. Samples were stored at room temperature for 5 months. The obtained results showed that there was a significant difference (p ? 0.05) between coated and uncoated samples. The highest acid value, peroxide value, viscosity and density were observed in the control samples (1.05 mg KOH/g oil, 9.33 mEq active O2/kg oil, 142.77 cP and 0.922 g/mL) respectively, while the lowest peroxide value was found in the treated nuts with chitosan 1.5% and whey protein isolate (50%), which both were 4 mEq of active oxygen kg-1. lowest acid value (0.73 mg KOH/g oil) and viscosity (80.21 cP) was observed in the chitosan 1.5% coated samples. As the lowest density was resulted in coated pistachios with both 1% and 2% chitosan and they both were 0.916 g/mL. Chitosan significantly (p ? 0.05) reduced the mould count (Aspergillus), the highest mould count (75×101 CFU/g nuts) was noticed in control sample, while lowest (5×101 CFU/g nuts) was observed in the treated samples with 2% chitosan.

IMPACT OF FEED WITHDRAWAL IN DIFFERENT PERIODS ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE BROILER CHIKS

S. S Al-Obaidi; M. M. Mohammed; F. O Geno; Z. A. Mohammed

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 2-2
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170522

The study was designed at the Bakrajo Poultry Farm, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimami, Iraq. The research aimed to evaluate the impact of feed withdrawal on carcass cutting and the chemical composition of the female meat of broiler chickens. Three hundred female broiler (Ross 308) randomly distributed into 4 treatment groups with 5 replicates of 15 chicks each. The treatment groups included control T1 with no removal of feed and T2, T3, and T4 with, 6hr, 9hr. and 12 hrs. per 24hr. removal of feed respectively. Two females were randomly selected from each replication based on body weight, weighed alive and sacrificed to estimate the percentage of weight for carcass cuts. The results showed that the percentage of dressings increased in the amount of feed withdrawal in T2, also the abdominal fat was an improvement in T2, with substantial improvement (p>0.05) for breast percentage in T2 as well. However, no major differences were found in the thigh and drumstick percentage of female broiler chicken. The effect of treatments was not significant differences on viscera oranges. Overall, withdrawal of feed for 6hr lead to increase dressing and breast percentage also by these methods can decrease abdominal fat pad and declining feed costs of female’s broilers.

EVALUATION OF BIOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND SOME MINERALS IN THE SPLEEN OF KARADI MALE LAMBS

E. A. Husain; K. A. Ahmed; Z. A. Mohammad; S. J. Ismaeel; I. S. Muhanad

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 3-3
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170524

The purpose of this study was to identify gross morphology, biometric measurement, histological, mineral structural content, and the correlation between them in the spleen of Karadi male lambs. This study was conducted in the Animal Science field, department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimani. A total of fifteen 15 spleen of Karadi male lambs used in this study. Spleen samples used to histological study and determined some macro mineral concentration. Results indicated the mean value of weight was 46.50 gm and its mean values length, width, and thickness in spleen lamb were 11.07, 6.81, and 1.38 cm, respectively. Results showed a positive correlation between most of the parameters in this study, but; the negative correlation between lamb initial wt. and Ca was r=-0.552, p= 0.098, spleen wt. and Ca was r= 0.104, p= 0.775, spleen length and spleen thickness was r=-0.427, P=0.218, spleen length and P was r= -0.117, p= 0.748, spleen thickness and Na was r = - 0.081, P=0.825, spleen thickness and Ca was r= -0.618, P=0.057, Ca and P was r = -0.496, P=0.145. Also, our result showed spleen gross anatomy (parietal and visceral) surfaces and spleen components (red pulp, white pulp, central artery, trabecular) in spleen karadi male lamb.

EFFECT OF SPAWN SOURCE AND LOCAL ORGANIC SUBSTRATES ON DURATION OF THE CROP GANODERMA LUCIDUM MUSHROOM AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

H. M. Rasheed; I. A. Abed; J. S. Hmood

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 4-4
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170525

The study was carried out by using local organic wastes to investigates the growth of mycelium Ganoderma lucidum Mushroom, produce the spawn and prepare a substrate and their effect on the duration and Production efficiency. The experimental results of mycelium growth on a different set of local organic waste show that the minimum growth-period was 13.34 days with the substrate B, such that the mycelium was diffused on the substrate in cottony compact. On the other hand, the mycelium growth continues to 21.34 and 21.67 days with the substrate D and C, respectively, with a significant negative variation (P>0.05) and cottony non compact mycelia growth on the substrate parts. The source of the produced spawn was adopted for mycelium growth results. The results of the substrates characteristics during the stages of substrates preparation have been demonstrated that the highest value of pH was achieved by 6.93 with the substrate A. Moreover, the results show that the maximum moisture content of the substrates was obtained with the substrate B about 67.36%, and that the minimum time period for duration of the crop by two time harvested Done during 107.16 days and 107.33 days on substrates B and E respectively. While The difference was significant (P>0.05) with substrates C and D The second harvest ended after 108.66 days and 108.83 days from substrates Spawning respectively. It was not recorded significant with different source spawn. The best bio-efficiency has been achieved an average of 6.55 % with substrate B. the average substrates efficiency that spawned it by spawn- which its source is the Barley grains achieved 3.88 % Significantly superior (P>0.05) on substrates efficiency that spawned it by spawn- which its source is the Palm trunk sawdust.

DETERMINING SOIL CAPABILITY TO WIND EROSION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOME OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL IN NORTH OF SAQLAWIYAH

F. M. Jasim; A. S. Abdullah

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 5-5
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170526

The study area was chosen within the boundaries of the Saqlawiyah sub-district،between longitudes 43o39-30=- 43o42-30= and the latitudes33o25-0= -33o30-20= the determining of the Capability of the soil to wind erosion and its relationship to some of the characteristics of soil in North of Saqlawiyah. After specifying the required information،six sites were chosen to represent the study area،where five samples were taken from different points for each site in the study area based on the study sites were determined using a GPS device. The value of the soil susceptibility index to wind erosion was calculated for each sire،and the results showed that the highest value of the Soil Susceptibility Handbook was in desert soils with sandy texture،amounting to 320 Mg H-1 Whereas،the value of soil erosion index in cultivated soils decreased to 55 Mg H-1 The highest value of the soil receptivity index for erosion is 320.0 Mg H-1 at the clay content of 40 g Kg-1،and the lowest value of the soil erosion index was 55.0 Mg H-1 at clay content 168 g KG-1 In cultivated soils،The values of the index of soil susceptibility to wind erosion ranged in general between 55 -320 Mg H-1where the highest value of the index of soil susceptibility to wind erosion was 320.0 Mg H-1in desert soils،while the lowest value of the index of soil susceptibility to wind erosion was 55.0 Mg H-1in cultivated exploited soils.

COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF MOBILE DRIP IRRIGATION AND SUB-SURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION USING NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE GROWTH AND YIELD BROAD BEEN (VICIA FABA L.)

M.R Azzam; M.O Al-obaidi; H. H. Edan; A. M. Abd Al-Hameed; A. I. Al-Abaied

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 6-6
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170527

A field study was carried out in clay loam soil that classified into Typic Torrifluret in Ramadi city (College of Agriculture- University Of Anbar) during the fall season of 2018 in order to compare mobile drip irrigation with under surface drip irrigation by using Nano-Root guard drippers and their effects in physical properties and water consumption of bean as well as, the study targeted determination of water use efficiency using Najeeb Kharoofa equation depending on crop coefficient that obtained from recent researches and weather data of experiment location. All agricultural practices were done as recommended and the experiment was laid out as RCBD with three replications of each irrigation system. Seeds of bean (cv. Veto) were sown in 20th of October 2018 and the harvest time was in 13th of March 2019. Irrigation dates were at 50% depletion of available water according to evaporation pan Bean productivity was significantly increased at under surface drip irrigation with 7.71-ton ha-1 in comparison with 6.32-ton ha-1 that obtained from mobile drip irrigation. The difference were significant between water use consumption values that were calculated according to Najeeb Kharoofah equation and between data collected from evaporation pan, however it was 148.48 mm by Najeeb Kharoofah equation while it was 446 mm according to evaporation pan data. Regarding the method of irrigation, they were affected. The effect was clear in the mobile drip irrigation compared to sub-surface drip irrigation as the evaporation rate was higher. However, the average of soil water content average for the three replications along growing season was 21.75% while it was 24.96% in the sub-surface drip irrigation.

EFFECT OF ADDING SAP، CERATOPHYLLUM and WATER LEVELS IN SOME WATER PARAMETERS AND CONSUMPTION USE FOR MAIZE CROP

S. M. Salih; A. I. Al-Abaied

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 6-6
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170530

A field experiment was conducted for the autumn season 2018 to evaluate the effectiveness of Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) and Ceratophyllum powder and there effect on the sandy water parameters of sandy loam and water consumption of maize,where the coefficients containing different weight concentrations were distributed from SAP (0.4%, 0.2% and 4%) of Ceratophyllum powder, and irrigation at three levels (in the net irrigation requirement,125% of the net irrigation requirement, 150% of the net irrigation requirement) and the most important results were obtained: The water consumption of I1 (526) mm, while the amount of water added (502) mm and a decrease of 4.56% This reduced the role of both SAP and Ceratophyllum powder in increasing soil water retention capacity and improving its physical properties. The highest water consumption (ETc) of I3 was 789 mm. season-1 and decreased to 658 and 526 mm at I2 and I1 irrigation coefficients respectively, due to differences in the amount of water added and prepared in soil. There was a decrease in saturated water conductivity values with an increase in the level of addition of SAP and Ceratophyllum powder. The highest value of saturated water was 0.16 cm.min-1 for the treatment of I1O1, while the value of water delivery was less than 0.4% of SAP powder. Cm min-1 for the I3P2 transaction. The base infiltration values decreased with the addition of the addition of SAP and the Ceratophyllum powder, with the highest value of the basal treatment rate of 8.4 cm min-1 for the treatment of I1O1, while the base tip value was added by adding 0.4% of the SAP powder to the treatment I3P2 1.2 cm min-1.

EFFECT OF PLOWING AND IRRIGATION SCHEDULING ON SEASONAL WATER CONSUMPTION, YIELD AND ROOT DISTRIBUTION OF MUNG BEAN UNDER SURFACE AND DRIP IRRIGATION

N. M Abood; S. A. Salim

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 7-7
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170532

Two field experiments were carried out in the feed crop studies station of the Ministry of Agriculture - Haditha agriculture division located in the village of Sakran - Haditha district 260 km west of Baghdad. The location lies on longitude 42° 22' 21'' east and longitude 34° 08' 23'' north, and 80 m above sea level, On the ground dimensions (21 × 30 m) for each experiment, during the autumn season 2018. The aim of this study is to find out the role of soil surface crusting and its relationship with tillage pattern, irrigation interval and its relationship with soil moisture content, productivity of mung bean, under surface and drip irrigation methods. The treatments of each experiment were distributed individually using Split-Plot Design, with three replications. Treatments were distributed randomly, with each experiment included two experiments on six treatments using zero tillage mode T0, minimum tillage T1 and conventional tillage T2 and two irrigation intervals are two days I1 and four days I2. The results showed superiority of seasonal water consumption values for both irrigation methods when a comma spacing irrigations four days (I2) it reached 403.51 mm and 207.058 mm for the methods of surface irrigation and drip irrigation respectively, T1I1 treatment was superior over similar surface irrigation treatments in grain yield, where the grain yield of 2.52 t ha-¹, T2I1 treatment also was superior in grain yields, reaching to 1,745 t ha-1, when drip irrigation method was used, The results showed that the longest height and the highest dry root weight was for T0I2 treatment reached to 0.33m and 14 gm, respectively when drip irrigation method was used, while the root length for the T1I1 treatment was 0.29 m and the highest dry root weight of 13 g was for T2I1 treatment when drip irrigation method was used also, The water use efficiency by using drip irrigation method was superior by 1.408 kg m-3 for T2I1 treatment and the highest water use efficiency was 1.11 kg m-3 for T1I1 treatment when surface irrigation method used

MEASURING AND MODELING THE SHRINKAGE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF SOILS WITH DIFFERENT GYPSUM CONTENT

N. K. Yassin; A. W. Al-Kayssi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 7-7
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170534

A laboratory experiments were carried out to study and modeling the effect of soil gypsum content on soil shrinkage characteristic curve (SSCC) of gypsiferous shrinkage curve. Soil samples with 100 (G2), 150 (G3), 200 (G4), 250 (G5), 350(G6) g kg-1 gypsum content were prepared by mixing materials from surface soil layer with low gypsum content (G1) 60.6 g kg-1 and sub-surface soil layer with high gypsum content (G7) 433.9 g kg-1. SSCC was measured for each soil sample at the moisture tension of 0,3,6,15,33,100,500,700,1000 and 1500 kPa, the results indicated that SSCC of the studied gypsiferous soils (G1–G7) included only three shrinkage stages. The proportional shrinkage stage formed the bulk part of the SSCC which ranged between 46–84 % for the gypsiferous soils samples G1–G6, the residual shrinkage stage was less than proportional shrinkage stage of the SSCC and ranged between 11–49 % for the gypsiferous soils samples G1–G6, and Zero shrinkage in all samples of gypsum soils. The results showed a significant agreement between the measured and predicated SSCC values calculated. The coefficient of determination ranged between 0.9961 and 0.988 for all studied gypsiferous soils.

EFFECT INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS OF (MAIZE AND MANGBEAN) ON YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS AND QUALITY CHARACTERS OF MAIZE CROP

H. M. Al-fahdawi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 8-8
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170536

A field experiment was conducted in the (Juwaba) Arund area of Ramadi city in the spring and autumn seasons 2017. To study the effect of intercropping systems and maize varieties on the yield and its components and the quality characters of maize crop, maize varieties (booth 106, 5018, 5012 and French cultivar) were used. The experiment was carried out according to the design of (RCBD) and in the order of the split plot, cultivar wear arranged in Maine poke the main plots and the secondary plots occupies (the intercropping systems). The results showed that the intercropping system 1: 2 was superior in number of ears per plant which gave 1.48 and 1.70 ear in the spring and autumn seasons respectively, also it was superior in the average of 500 grains weight in the spring season by giving 155.4 gm, also the same system in the grain yield in the autumn season by giving 10.96-ton ha-1. While the cultivars, The French cultivar was superior in spring season in seed yield which gave the highest value 7.99 ton ha-1, while the cultivar 5018 was superior in the autumn season by giving the highest grain yield was 11.48 ton ha-1, while the qualitative characters, sole crop for maize was excellence in the percentage of oil on the rest of the farming systems in the autumn season only gave higher mean about 4.74% ,while the intercropping system 1:2 exceeded the in percentage of protein in seeds about 10.32% in spring and autumn seasons.

OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR EXTRACTION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM SHELLS OF TWO LOCAL CULTIVARS OF EGGPLANT

M. A. Qasim; E. Z. Naji

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 9-9
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170538

This study was carried out in the laboratories of the Department of Food Sciences in the Colleges of Agriculture / University of Tikrit and the College of Agriculture / Anbar University for the period from 9/10/2018 to 1/5/2019 with the aim of extracting the anthocyanins pigments from the peels of two varieties of eggplant (Solanum melogena L), namely. Hytech and Hauser, which were grown in Yusufiya / Baghdad. Several solvents were used in the extraction of anthocyanins from the two types above, including (acidified ethanol, tartaric, malic and citric) in order to determine the best variety and the optimal conditions for extraction, and the results showed that the highest proportion of anthocyanins obtained was from the Hitech variety with a value of 89.35 mg / 100 gm compared to the variety. Hauser, as the proportion of anthocyanins obtained was 67.12 mg / 100 g, using acidified ethanol as the best solvent for the extraction compared with other solvents used. The results of the optimum extraction conditions also indicated that the best extraction temperature used was 40 ° C, the best time was 75 minutes, and the best mixing ratio was 1: 10.

THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES ON THE MICROBIAL CONTENT AND RESIDUAL ELEMENTS IN DRIED FRUITS

H. M. Rasheed; S. S. George; A. O. F. Khashroum; H. J. Hamad

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2020, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 10-10
DOI: 10.32649/aagrs.2022.170539

A number of dried fruits included figs, Qamar al-Din slices (dried apricots), tamarind paste, carrot slices, coconut slices, and lemon slices; were used to determine microbial counts (Total aerobic bacteria, total Coliform, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds) via petrifilm method. A number of essential elements (Fe, Zn and Mn) and toxic elements (Ni, Cd and Pb) were estimated. A significant differences P <0.05 were recorded for the microbial counts among some fruits. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed P <0.05 among other samples. The highest mean of TC was recorded 4.3 cfu/ g in Qamar al-Din slices. No growth was recorded for Staphylococcus aureus for all dried fruit samples. For yeasts and molds, the highest mean logarithm was registered 3 cfu/ g in Qamar al-Din sample, while the lowest mean was recorded 2.3 cfu/ g for lemon slices. A significant differences were observed in elements mean concentrations P <0.05 among some dried fruits, while no significant differences were observed among other samples. For the essential elements, Fe recorded the highest mean concentration in figs; 5.44 ?g/ g. On the other hand, Pb, the toxic element, recorded the highest mean concentration 0.62 ?g/ g in carrot slices. From the obtained results, it was concluded that the concentrations of essential and toxic elements in the studied fruits were found within the acceptable range or less than the permissible limits set by the various health organizations concerned with food safety.

The Study of Selenium’s effect on Histological Structure in Guinea Pigs

Hassan A. M

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2005, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 258-269

Tissue sections under light microscope shows differences in the effect selenium on the liver. A wide range of precipitates for mineral was detected in the cells. Some effects with abnormal architecture, irregular nuclear membrane and abnormal mitochondria were detected under electron microscopy in the S1 group. This electron microscope picture was more intensified in S2 group. Some cells looked with a cancer cell appearance.

The influence of host plant on the efficacy of the growth regulator Applaud and the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh) for the control of green peach aphid Myzus percicae Sulz. in the field

A. A. Ali

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 205-216

Field experiments were undertaken to evaluate the influence of eggplant, tomato and pepper, as a host plants, on the efficacy of the growth regulator Applaud and the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh) against the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. Results indicated that both the growth regulator and the parasitoid were more effective when used on eggplant than on tomato or pepper plants. Aphid insects disappeared from the plants after four weeks of treatment when the parasitoid and the growth regulator were used together. However, the general means were 30.2 and 33.6 insect/plant for Applaud and applaud with the parasitoid treatments respectively .The general mean of the parasitoid treatment alone was 50.4 insect/ plant while it was 114.7 insects/ plant in the control treatment. Result also indicated that the parasitoid was more effective on pepper plants than on eggplant and tomato. Mean of insects was 46.5 insects/ plant while it was 37.8/ plant for applaud and the parasitoid treatment. Results have also indicated that parasitoid emerged from aphid treated with applaud were less effective against aphid than the normal individuals. Percent parasitism was 81.5 and 48.0% for normal and Applaud treated parasitoid. Therefore the application of the growth regulator should be considered with minimum dosage in order to help in conserving the parasitoid and may be other natural enemies which will contribute in achieving an effective and safe integrated control practice against this pest in the field.

Evaluation of two methods, the direct method and sweeping– net for sampling of some arthropoda insects associated with foliage of some cotton varieties

Intisar M. Amen Al-Jboory; Hasnawy; Musa M. Al; Hameed H. Al; Karboli

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 207-214

Afield experiment was conducted at the field of the College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad to evaluate the efficacy of two sampling methods, the direct method and the sweeping – net , to estimate the population density of some insects and mites associated with the foliage of three cotton varieties (Abu-Ghraib , Daes and Ashur). A sampling program on a regular basis has been developed during the season. Results showed clear differences in the types and numbers of insects collected in every method way. The main species collected by the two methods were: the whitefly, Bemesia tabaci, leaf hopper, Asymmetrasca decedents and cotton thrips, Thrips tabaci. There were no significant differences in the numbers of the whitefly for the three varieties by the direct method which amounted to (3.89, 4.39, 4.09) individual/ 5 leaves respectively, while there were significant differences when using the sweep– net, in which the highest numbers was recorded on Daes (6.05/ 5 leaves), which/ differed significantly from the numbers on the varieties Ashur and Abu-Ghraib (11.7 and 13.00)/ 5 leaves respectively. There were no significant differences in the numbers of leaf hopper, A. decedents and cotton thrips T. tabaci colleted in every way for the three varieties. The leaf hopper numbers ranged between 15.39 to 16.19/ 5 leaves by the direct method and 1.80 to 1.39/ 10 sweep-net, while thrips numbers ranged between 1.29 to 1.39/ 5 leaves and, 1.19 to 1.42/ 10 sweep– net. In addition to the main insects species collected above, other species collected by the sweep– net alone included: the cotton seed bug, Oxycarenus hyalipennis, bud and flower bug, Crenotides pallidus (Rambur). Among insect predators collected both methods on all varieties the ladybird, Coccinella septumpuntata L., the ladybird with 11– spots, C. undecimpuntata L., numbers of the last species have been higher on Abu– Ghraib variety (1.32/ 5 leaves), compared 0.89 and 0.99/ 5 leaves for the varieties Daes and Ashur respectively. The anthocorid bug, Orius albidipennis (Reuter) numbers were higher on the variety Ashur (1.06/ 5 leaves), compared with (0.79, 0.89)/ 5 leaves on the varieties Abu-Ghraib and Daes, respectively. Numbers of syrphid fly was relatively similar on all varieties and ranged between (2.18– 2.39)/ 5 leaves. The, aphid lion, Chrysoperla sp. and Scymnus sp. Were collected in low numbers from the varieties by the sweeping– net. The possibility of benefit from the use of the two sampling methods for detecting the presence of insect pests and their predators and to assess vital numerical density in cotton fields also discussed.

The effect of using eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) and some biological treatments to reduce Mycotoxin effects (aflatoxin B1) in the performance of broiler breeder (Ross 308)

Adil. A. Yousif; Walled. E. Kurdi Al-Jugifi

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2015, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 96-111
DOI: 10.32649/ajas.2015.120009

Abstract
This study conducted in the field of animal resource department / College of Agriculture/ University of Anbar from 17/1/2013 till 3/7/2013. Two hundred ten female breeders (Ross 308) used in the study from the age of 27 weeks to 50 weeks (168 days) divided into seven treatments with six replicate and six birds with each replicate. The birds were reared in cages the artificial insemination had been done twice weekly. The meal and the female were fed separately. The Experimental treatments were T1 / control ration without any addition, T2/ ration contaminated with 1.5 mg aflatoxin B1/kg feed, T3/ ration contaminated with 1.5 mg aflatoxin B1 /kg feed + 2% eshnan, T4/ ration contaminated by 1.5 mg aflatoxin B1 /kg feed + 4% eshnan, T5/ ration contaminated with 1.5 mg aflatoxin B1/kg feed + 2 kg probiotic / ton fodder, T6/ ration contaminated with 1.5 mg aflatoxin B1/kg feed + 50% probiotic fermentation daily and T7/ ration contaminated 1.5 mg aflatoxin B1 /kg feed + 1 kg yeast / ton feed. The results showed the following:
1- The treatments of fermentation 50% proportion were recorded the best result it in the percentage of eggs' production eroding to the HH% and HD,HH and the cumulative egg mass gm/egg/hen/168 days and with significant difference with the result of aflatoxin treatments but without significant 4% and the yeast.
2- There was an obvious improvement in all the herbal and biological treatments used in the experiment in accumulative feed conversion factor (g. feed / g. eggs) and (g. feed / egg) in comparison with aflatoxin treatment and without difference with the control feed one.
3- There was a significant reduction (P> 0.05) in fertility eggs number and in the accumulation chick's number for every hen in the first hatch in aflatoxin treatment and recorded 7.30, 9.65 consecutively. Yeast treatment showed significant improvement with (P> 0.05) in that trait criterion with 15.74, 17.67 fertility egg/hen chicks consecutively. However, yeast treatment recorded worst results in the second hatch whereas it significant recurred in the number of fertility eggs, the number of accumulation chicks for every hen in 28 days in comparison with the control and eshnan 4% and the result of aflatoxin treatment reveled no significant reduction in accumulation chicks number and the number of fertility eggs reduced with hen in comparison with central. The treatment of yeast and eshnan reveled arithmetic improvement in those traits

Effect of container , medium weight , and moisture content on aflatoxin B1 production on rice

Salim H. S. AL-warshan; O. N. AL- Hadethy

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 11-17

Laboratory experiment was carried out to evaluate three kinds of media containers for aflatoxin B1 production on rice . One liter volume flasks , one kilogram silicon bag, and 25 Cm wide ,5Cm high Petri dish ,with three media weight , 50 , 150 and 250 gram / container at three moisture content , 18% , 20% , 22%. Results showed highly significant differences ( P< 0.01 ) in amount of aflatoxin B1 concentrations between treatments , and the Petri dish was superior among treatments followed by flask while silicon bag resulted in the least of aflatoxin production at 18% of moister content for all used weights . The results also showed adverse effects of increased weight and moisture content of culture media on fungal growth and inhibition of toxin production in all treatments .

The Study of Selenium’s effect on Histological Structure in Guinea Pigs

Hassan A. M

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2005, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 258-269

Tissue sections under light microscope shows differences in the effect selenium on the liver. A wide range of precipitates for mineral was detected in the cells. Some effects with abnormal architecture, irregular nuclear membrane and abnormal mitochondria were detected under electron microscopy in the S1 group. This electron microscope picture was more intensified in S2 group. Some cells looked with a cancer cell appearance.

Effect of sowing date in growth characteristics for several cultivars of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

B. H. A. Al-Solagh

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2007, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 97-109

A field experiment has been fulfilled in sandy - clay texture soil in Al-Jazira region in Al-Khalidia town in Al-Anbar province during summer season of 2000 ac. To study the effect of sowing dates (1st may, 15th may, 1st June and 15th June) in growth characteristics of four cultivars from sesame (Al-Mahali, Ishtar, Babel and Rafadeen) and determine the best cultivar and date of sowing given the best growth for sesame under the climate of Al-Anbar governorate. The factorial experiment has been used according to random complete block design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicate. The following were obtained results:
The cultivars different significantly in growth characters, the derivative cultivars especially Ishtar are earlier in duration (period) of maturity (ripening) and mean 15.64 day compared with Al-mahali cultivar whose overcame on them in stem diameter (1.36 cm), number of branches per plant (4.10 branch) dry weight of plant (16.83 g / plant). while Ishtar and Babel are overcame in shortest of stem height from ground (earth) until the beginning of branching (12.54 , 13.12) cm. The last cultivar also overcame in high mean of plant height (149.13 cm) as compared with other varieties.
There was a significant effect for sowing dates in most growth characters. The plants which are planted at 1st may recorded a high mean for dry weight of plant (15 g / plant) and number of day from sowing to ripening (150.82 day) compared which are planted in 15th June which earlier in ripening (110 day) and overcame in stem diameter (1.27 cm), while the plants are sowing in 1st June recorded a high mean of plant height (153.35 cm). the dates of sowing not effect significantly in the stem long from earth surface until beginning of branching and number of branches / plant.
The interaction between sowing dates and cultivars had significant effect in all growth characters except number of branch / plant. The local cultivar that sowing in 1st June gave a highest mean of plant height (182.15 cm), stem diameter (1.58 cm) and plant dry weight (27.75 g / plant). The Ishtar cultivar that sowing in the same date also recorded a less distance to beginning of branches (9.83 cm) and earlier in ripening when sowing in 15st June (104.66 day) as compared with other treatments especially with local cultivar that planting in 1st may (164.66 day).

The effect of dietary supplementation with locally prepared probiotic and imported product (Biotronic SE) on laying Performance diets contain diffirent levels of barley

M .A. Al-Noori; H. L. Sadik; M. F. Abdul Ghani

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2008, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 183-193

This experiment was conducted in Therthar poultry fields of the animal's product Theraar company. The effect of adding local probiotic and the imported Biotronuc SE to the feed was studied with different levels of barley on productive traits of laying hens at 21 weeks upto 40 weeks of age. Two hundred and fourty three laying hens at 21 weeks of age distributed on 9 treatments with three replicates for each treatment. The local probiotic was used at a level of 5 kg / ton fed with 3 levels of barley 12, 22 and 32 % of diet. The Biotronic SE was used at a level of 2 kg / ton fed with the presence of 3 levels of barley 12, 22 and 32 of the diet and 3 levels of barley 12 , 22 and 32% of the diet without any additive. Using 5 kg/ ton local probiotic and 2 kg / ton Biotronic SE in this experiment according to the manufacturing company of these products. The results of this experiment showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in egg production rate , accumulative egg per hen, feed conversion coefficient, feed intake, egg mass and accumulative egg weight with increasing the level of barley in the die. whereas, treatments of adding Biotronic SE and local probiotic with different levels of barley were improved significantly (P < 0.01) as compared with treatments contained the same levels of barley without any additives in productive traits of laying hens. Morever, Biotronic SE treatments were significantly improved over local probiotic treatments with these levels of barley 22 and 32% of the diet in productive traits of laying hens. Morever, local probiotic treatments were significantly improved over Biotronic SE treatments with the level of 12% barley of the diat.

Effect of foliar application of Boron and magnetized water on flowering and tuberous root characters of Dahlia variabilis and Ranunculus asiaticus

Sami K. M. Ameen

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2009, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 262-272

This study was carried out from March/2005 to March/2007 to investigate the effect of Boron concentrations and magnetized water in flowering and tuberous roots production of Dahlia and Ranunculus. Plants were irrigated by either Tap water or magnetized water. Boron Concentrations tested were (0, 29.5, 59.0, 88.5) mg/ L.

البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستير للباحثة الثانية
Boron concentrations were improved most flowering and tuberous root characteristics. Dahlia plants, Boron levels fastened flowering date and enhanced no. and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stem; vase life; fresh weight of flowers and length and diameter of tuberous roots (188 days; 5.29 flower/plants; 6.57 cm; 24.04 cm; 2.76 mm; 9 days; 9.53 gm; 5.96 and 3.53 cm) respectively. Ranunculus plants, Boron levels increased no. and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stem; fresh and dry weight of flowers and length and diameter of tuberous roots (3.08 flowers/ plants; 6.18 cm; 29.38 cm; 3.01 mm; 2.43 gm; 0.39 gm; 2.32 cm and 3.24 cm) respectively.
Flowering characters were improved by using magnetic water as well. Watering Dahlia plants by magnetized water increased no. and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stems and no.; length and diameter of tuberous roots. (5 flowers/plants; 6.93 cm; 23.38 cm; 2.76 mm; 11.54 root/plant; 5.66 cm and 3.25 cm) respectively. In addition, flowering characters of Ranunculs plants were enhanced. Number and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stems; vase life and length and diameter of tuberous root were increased (3.15 flowers/plant; 4.97 cm; 28 cm; 3.11 mm 10 days; 2.84 cm and 2.28 cm).

Evaluation of two methods, the direct method and sweeping– net for sampling of some arthropoda insects associated with foliage of some cotton varieties

Intisar M. Amen Al-Jboory; Hasnawy; Musa M. Al; Hameed H. Al; Karboli

ANBAR JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 2011, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 207-214

Afield experiment was conducted at the field of the College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad to evaluate the efficacy of two sampling methods, the direct method and the sweeping – net , to estimate the population density of some insects and mites associated with the foliage of three cotton varieties (Abu-Ghraib , Daes and Ashur). A sampling program on a regular basis has been developed during the season. Results showed clear differences in the types and numbers of insects collected in every method way. The main species collected by the two methods were: the whitefly, Bemesia tabaci, leaf hopper, Asymmetrasca decedents and cotton thrips, Thrips tabaci. There were no significant differences in the numbers of the whitefly for the three varieties by the direct method which amounted to (3.89, 4.39, 4.09) individual/ 5 leaves respectively, while there were significant differences when using the sweep– net, in which the highest numbers was recorded on Daes (6.05/ 5 leaves), which/ differed significantly from the numbers on the varieties Ashur and Abu-Ghraib (11.7 and 13.00)/ 5 leaves respectively. There were no significant differences in the numbers of leaf hopper, A. decedents and cotton thrips T. tabaci colleted in every way for the three varieties. The leaf hopper numbers ranged between 15.39 to 16.19/ 5 leaves by the direct method and 1.80 to 1.39/ 10 sweep-net, while thrips numbers ranged between 1.29 to 1.39/ 5 leaves and, 1.19 to 1.42/ 10 sweep– net. In addition to the main insects species collected above, other species collected by the sweep– net alone included: the cotton seed bug, Oxycarenus hyalipennis, bud and flower bug, Crenotides pallidus (Rambur). Among insect predators collected both methods on all varieties the ladybird, Coccinella septumpuntata L., the ladybird with 11– spots, C. undecimpuntata L., numbers of the last species have been higher on Abu– Ghraib variety (1.32/ 5 leaves), compared 0.89 and 0.99/ 5 leaves for the varieties Daes and Ashur respectively. The anthocorid bug, Orius albidipennis (Reuter) numbers were higher on the variety Ashur (1.06/ 5 leaves), compared with (0.79, 0.89)/ 5 leaves on the varieties Abu-Ghraib and Daes, respectively. Numbers of syrphid fly was relatively similar on all varieties and ranged between (2.18– 2.39)/ 5 leaves. The, aphid lion, Chrysoperla sp. and Scymnus sp. Were collected in low numbers from the varieties by the sweeping– net. The possibility of benefit from the use of the two sampling methods for detecting the presence of insect pests and their predators and to assess vital numerical density in cotton fields also discussed.

Publisher: University of Anbar

Email:  ajas@uoanbar.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Thafer Thabit Mohammed

Managing Editor: Assist. Prof. Dr. Salwan Mahmood Abdulateef

Print ISSN: 1992-7479

Online ISSN: 2617-6211

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