2016, Volume:14 Issue:2


Effect of injected organic matter extract in soil on some soil physical properties

Ali M. Alalusi , Wathib S. S. Alnuaymy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A laboratory experiment was carried out in Agriculture College-Anbar University (Abu-Ghriab) in silty clay loam soil in order to study the effect of organic matter extract on the some physical properties of soil. Data were statistically analysed using factorial arrangement in CRD with three replicates for each treatment. The first factor was organic matter extract and the second factor was wetting-drying sequences. The treatment of organic matter extract was divided into two sub treatments, complete addition and partial addition at 5% organic matter as well as control (without addition). Statistical analysis results showed a significant increase in mean weight diameter at two methods, fast and slow wetting and decrease in bulk density and increase porosity in addition treatments. Wetting-drying cycles significantly affected on the average of mean weight diameter at two methods, fast and slow wetting, bulk density and porosity. Soil aggregates that treated with organic matter extract under scanner electronic microscope showed bigger aggregates in size while non treated soil showed smaller aggregates in size.

Effect of injected organic matter extract in soil on some soil physical properties

Ali M. Alalusi , Wathib S. S. Alnuaymy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A laboratory experiment was carried out in Agriculture College-Anbar University (Abu-Ghriab) in silty clay loam soil in order to study the effect of organic matter extract on the some physical properties of soil. Data were statistically analysed using factorial arrangement in CRD with three replicates for each treatment. The first factor was organic matter extract and the second factor was wetting-drying sequences. The treatment of organic matter extract was divided into two sub treatments, complete addition and partial addition at 5% organic matter as well as control (without addition). Statistical analysis results showed a significant increase in mean weight diameter at two methods, fast and slow wetting and decrease in bulk density and increase porosity in addition treatments. Wetting-drying cycles significantly affected on the average of mean weight diameter at two methods, fast and slow wetting, bulk density and porosity. Soil aggregates that treated with organic matter extract under scanner electronic microscope showed bigger aggregates in size while non treated soil showed smaller aggregates in size.

Soil fungal population study related to oil pollution along different distances from kawrgosk oil refinery of erbil-iraq

Nashmeel Saeed Khudhur , Nareen Q. Faqi Abdulla

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

Soil fungal population along different distances from Kawrgosk Oil Refinery was analyzed in relation to physicochemical characteristics and residual oil contents. Fourteen species belonging to twelve genera were isolated. The total number of fungi from sixteen studied sites was 243×103 cfu g-1 dry soil. Maximum fungal population 41×103 cfu g-1 dry soil was in site 6 and minimum population 2×103 cfu g-1 dry soil was in the refinery center. The most frequently isolated fungi were yeasts 96×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil with a percentage of occurrence 41.03 %, followed by Aspergillus ochraceous 43×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (18.38 %), Rhodotorula sp. 24×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (10.26 %), Penicillium spp. 23×103 cfu g-1 dry soil (9.83 %) and A. niger 12×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (5.13 %) and the least frequently isolated species was A. terreus 1×103 cfu.g-1 dry soil (0.43 %). The correlation between total cfu of fungi with oil residue was negative by r value of -0.092 and its correlation with silt and clay contents, pH, total P, K, and S were also negative by r values of -0.005, -0.135, -0.290, -0.090, -0.255 and -0.227 respectively (p<0.05). The correlation between total cfu of fungi with moisture, sand, EC, total organic C and total N were positive by r-values of 0.005, 0.143, 0.355, 0.161 and 0.152 respectively.

Role of irrigation scheduling and irrigation interval on consumptive use and growth of cowpea at middle of Iraq

Saifulldeen Abdul Razaq Salim , Isam Kudhaier Ham

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A field experiments was conducted during spring season 2015 at the Agricultural field of Veterinary College - Baghdad University. In order to study the effect of irrigation interval in water requirements growth and yield of cowpea by using irrigation scheduling based on applied irrigation water (IW) and accumulative pan evaporation (CPE) which represented empirical pan factor (Ef). Six-irrigation treatment ware chosen (Ef 0.6, Ef 0.8, Ef 1.0, Ef 1.2, Ef 1.4, and Ef 1.6). The results showed that the irrigation interval was variable values and is decreased by increasing Ef value and with the progress of growing season. The 1.2 IW:CPE and 1.0 IW:CPE treatments with approximately 3-4days irrigation interval was achieved the best in subsequent results. The results showed that the total amount of water applied of Cowpea grown during spring season was 254.82mm, as a mean based on IW:CPE ratio. The data showed that there were significant differences in vegetative growth of cowpea crop such as plant height, number of branches per plant, biological yield. Pod length, pod circumference, fresh pods yield weight of loosed and number of seed/pod. The results of the effect of irrigating treatments on cowpea seed yield and its components showed that treatment Ef 1.2 was superior in fresh seed yield by, 5.13 6.88 and 7.33 ton hec-1.

Geochemical Distribution of Heavy Metals in some Soils of Waist Governorate

Naseer A. Al-Saadie , Kamal B. Nada , muneer .n ah

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

Several soil samples 36 were collected from different areas (residential, industrial, commercial, major roads and agriculture) to investigate some heavy metals concentration (Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) and their geographical distribution inside Waist city one sample has been selective for each area with depth 0-30 cm. Results showed that there is a differences in the level of accumulation in some of the soils, particularly with Lead and Nickel, which was probably caused by human activities. The increase of elements concentration (Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) are associated mostly with industrial areas, locations where sewage water are released and points were household waste are disposed. Concentration averages of (Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) in collected soil samples from waist province residential areas recorded 38.9, 46.9, 59.1 and 0.231 mg kg-1 respectively. Meanwhile, the rates of same metals in the industrial areas soil were 81.2, 83.7, 87.6 and 1.78 mg kg -1, respectively, and 66.8, 79.0, 72.6 and 1.36 mg kg-1 in soil samples collected from main roads sides. Compared with the commercial sector soils samples 41.4, 47.6, 61.7 and 0.280 mg kg-1. The lowest concentration recorded were 18.2, 22.4, 21.6 mg kg-1 and is perceptible concentrations of Cd respectively, in agricultural collected soils.

Measurement of water consumptive use, growth, and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L) under drip irrigation system

B. A. AlKhateeb , B. M. yousif , W. F. Abed Al R

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted during the spring of 2015 in the Al- Chaksaliah village in Hit district - Anbar province in sandy Loam soil texture, to study water consumptive use in different ways under the drip irrigation system, style of addition on growth and yield of potatoes. Water consumption measured in four methods, depending on climatic data using Najib Kharofah equation, depending on evaporation pan and water tensiometer and moisture sensor, water added in two ways firstly addition depth once, for Added half the depth and the addition of the second half after 12 hours of The first add-on, the study treatments distributed in accordance with the randomized complete block design (RCBD) of three replicate. Potatoes were planted on 05/02/2015, was given five irrigations before germination and then was irrigation scheduling, where perfusion has operations at 40% depletion of available water using of tensiometer and moisture sensor with an irrigation intervals of three days when using Najib Kharofah and pan evaporation equation. The water consumption calculation and measurement of plant height, root length, dry weight, total yield and calculated the efficiency of water use. Results showed, that Water consumption values increased with advancing stages of plant growth, and decreased in the mature stage, with the highest water-consumption reached in the swollen tubers stage as it reached values of 533, 405, 360 and 337 mm for the way Najib Khrovh, pelvis, tensiometer and sensors humidity, respectively, while the total is less watery consumption to plant potatoes in the vegetative stage of growth, reaching 85, 74, 60 and 30 mm for the way Najib Khrovh, evaporation pan, tensiometer and moisture sensors, respectively. The Najib Kharofah equation gave the highest value for the consumption of water in comparison with the rest of seasonal treatments reaching 996, 772, 668 and 595 mm Season-1 for the treatment of Najib Kharofah and evaporation pan, tensiometer and moisture sensors, respectively. The Najib Kharofah treatment prevailed for both ways of addition to give a higher yield of tubers and higher dry weight and height of the plant amounted and length of the roots to 40.75 Ton h-1 and 96.74 g Plant-1 and 41.83 cm and 31.31 cm, for complete treatments, respectively. And amounted to 43.19 Ton h-1 and 98.5 g Plant-1 and 43.4 cm and 32.56 cm, for the mid-term treatments, respectively. While the lowest values of the tuber yield, dry weight and length of the roots and plant height under the treatment of moisture sensors amounted to 29.28 Tun h -1 and 65.56 g Plant-1 and 25.93 cm and 28 cm full of treatments, respectively. And 30.46 Tun.h-1 and 65.81 g Plant-1 and 27.6 cm and 29.88 cm for the mid-term treatments, respectively. Tensiometer treatment gave midterm best efficiency of water use for tubers to reach an average of 8.53 kg m-3 compared with other treatments.

Adsorption isotherm of Iron from various sources in calcareous soil

Akram A. H. AL-Hadethi , Ahmed R. A. AL-Ani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

An experiment was conducted in the laboratory to study the effect of artificial chelating source of iron fertilizer made from the interaction between humic+fulvic acid (extracted from peatmoss) with Iron sulfate which added as humate and fulvate (Fe-HA+FA);and Iron fertilizers added in form of Fe DTPA and FeSO4.7H2O on the adsorption of thermally symmetrical Iron. The various iron sources (the mineral, artificial chelating and natural chelating) were applied in 7 concentrations (10, 40, 80, 120, 200, 300 and 400 ?g Fe ml-1) in two replicate each 20 mL of each concentration was applied to 1 g soil. Adsorbed amount of iron was estimated and iron adsorption was demonstrated using Langmuir adsorption model. Results shp[w7.[ed that applying (Fe-HA+FA) decreased iron adsorption as the applied concentration increased in comparison to (FeSO4.7H2O) and (Fe-DTPA). The lowest iron maximum adsorption capacity reached 6200 mg kg-1 by applying Fe-HA+FA, while adding (FeSO4.7H2O)increased the capacity to 7734.92 mg Kg-1. The Fe-DTPA was in the middle by showing maximum adsorption capacity of 6800 mg Kg-1. Also highest bonding energy (K) and highest adsorption maximum for the applied Iron was from FeSO4.7H2O while Fe-DTPA was in the middle in term of adsorption maximum and bonding energy between both mineral source and the natural chelating source of Iron

Kinetics of various iron sources in Calcareous soil

Akram A. H. AL-Hadethi , Ahmed R. A. AL-Ani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of artificial chelating sources of Iron made of Fulvic and Humic acid (extracted from peat moss) with Iron sulfate which added as iron humate and fulvaet (FeHA+FA), and the effect of Iron fertilizers applied as Fe-DTPA and FeSO4.7H2O on the iron kinetics. Iron sources were incubated to understand the physiochemical behavior of the various sources whether it was mineral (FeSO4.7H2O) or artificial chelate (Fe-DTPA) or natural chelate from plant residues (Fe HA+FA). The incubation periods were 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 days in two replicates for each period. Iron extracted by DTPA with time from these sources was determined. The results indicated that the DTPA extractable iron were decreased with time for all sources Linear equation, which was the best to describe the relation between iron concentrations with the time compared to other formulas Artificial and natural chelating sources, were distinct by keeping on the highest level of available iron for two months compared to the mineral source of iron (FeSO4.7H2O).

Efficiency evaluating of different materials in the wastewater treatment for use in agriculture

Y. K. AL-Hadithi , F. M. Al-Hamdani , K. H. Ahmaid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A study was conducted at the College of Agriculture / University of Anbar during the autumn season of 2013 to study the effect of wastewater treated by organic matter and phosphate Rock. The experiment was carried out using a four filter materials (organic matter , phosphate rock , limestone rock and l bentonite) and three time intervals are 2, 3 and 4 months. making 12 column-using sheets of aluminum, of 1 m height and 20 cm diameter and filled with filter materials are added daily sewage treatment and the next day the pool water from the bottom of the column (Tap) and conducted by the requisite analyzes. Results of wastewater analysis showed that Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb were higher than permitted for agricultural use worldwide fell border International Limits values after treatment .Which were 7.10, 5.74, 6.40, 0.71, 2.67, 1.45 mg.L-1 and decrease by using the organic matter and rock phosphate pre-treatment compared to their value after reaching 1.95, 0.42, 0.56, 0.21, 0.43, 0.01, 2.67, 1.22, 1.13, 0.50, 0.62, 0.02 mg.L-1. While heavy metals concentrations were high by using for each of the Bintonite and Limestone rock, 4.27, 2.70, 3.16, 1.66, 1.18, 1.18, 0.63 and 5.82, 3.50, 5.24, 2.38, 1.92, 0.86 mg.L-1 respectively. And shown that the removal efficiency was higher during the first days of work, processed materials and then took to decline with the passage of time and the order was processed materials by removal efficiency as follows:Organic matter > rock phosphate > limestone rock > bentonite

Effect of treated sewage effluent by different material and Levels of Organic matter on growth of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

F. M. Al-Hamdani , Y. K. AL-Hadithi , K. H. Ahm

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

The study was conducted at the College of Agriculture-University of Anbar during the autumn of 2013 to study the effect of treated sewage effluent by decomposed hay waste and Rock phosphate on growth of Barley. The study included four quality of irrigation water (w): fresh water (w1) sewage effluent treated by decomposed hay waste (w2), treated by Rock phosphate (w3) and untreated sewage effluent (w4). Second factor is poultry manure levels: (O0) no added, (O1) 10 mt ha-1 , (O2) 20 mt ha-1, (O3) 30 mt ha-1 with three replication using (RCBD). At end of the experiment, dry weight and plant heights were measured, in addition to concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb for Barley seeds. Results showed a significant increase in shoot dry weight and plant heights with treated sewage by decomposed hay waste and Rock phosphate with values 50.44, 46.70 gm and 54.0, 50.58 cm respectively compared with fresh water and untreated water and increase in shoot dry weight and plant heights with levels of poultry manure. Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb concentrations decrease in Barley seeds with irrigated sewage treated by decomposed hay waste and treated by Rock phosphate, with 41.35, 31.0, 11.09, 1.31, 0.275, 0.621 mg kg-1 and 40.84, 29.5, 10.95, 1.30, 0.295, 0.635 mg.kg-1respectively. Compared with untreated sewage water and increasing of poultry manure levels resulted in increase of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu concentration in Barley seeds giving 43.34, 33.40, 11.75, 1.63 mg kg-1 respectively compared with control , while concentration Cd, Pb decrease with poultry manure addition.

Study Wells water quality and its suitability for Agricultural use in Al-Anbar Governorate

Yass K. AL Hadeth , Raghad B. ALAsafee

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

The study of selected well's water, quality and suitability for agricultural purposes in Al-Anbar governorate, has been conducted in Soil Science and Water Resources Department - College of Agriculture Al-Anbar University. After physical, chemical and biological analysis, the results shows according to pH value that the entire well's water studied were suitable for irrigation. 9% of total studied water were slight salinity (C1) 14% within class (C2) were suitable for moderately tolerance crops 29% within class (C3) were suitable for highly tolerance crops while 48% within class (C4) were suitable for very highly tolerance crops to salinity. All well's water classified as slightly sodium (S1) suitable for most crops and Remained Sodium Carbonate RSC were negative for all wells. Accordingly, all wells water studied was suitable for irrigation.

Effect of Spraying Peat Reeds Extract, Irrigation with Saline Water on Growth of Corn (Zea mays L.) and Some Soil Properties

Y. K. AL – Hadithiy , W. B. AL- Kalifawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

Pot experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture / Anbar University during the Fall 2014 season as the study included two factors: the first is the irrigation water and three types: water and river water with salinity 4 dS m-1. In addition, with salinity 6 dS m-1, and the second factor is the organic extracts (Peat reeds) and three levels: 10, 20 g L-1 and it was sprayed three times. The study was conducted using three replications and randomized complete design sectors (RCBD). 2014 to study the effect of salt water and peat reeds use in some recipes the soil and the growth of corn, the results showed the following: - Plant high and dry weight were decreased when irrigation done with salty water 4.0, 6.0 dS m-1 since they were 33.11 cm and 9.80 g pot-1, respectively, comparing with river water 0.92 dS m-1, which showed 33.94 cm and 10.27 g pot -1 respectively. Increasing organic extracts led to increase in dry weight, since it was 8.74 g in no- spray and increased to 11.21 g in spray level 20 g L-1., plant height increase with in organic extract spray level from 32.72 cm to 34.55 cm. Increasing salinity of irrigation water has led to a decrease in the concentration of each of the elements nitrogen and phosphorus in soil, reaching 63.74 and 1.31 mg. kg-1, respectively, comparing with control 103.71 and 2.14 mg kg-1. Potassium was non- significantly, increase was 32.37 mg kg-1 in the level of 6.0 dS m-1., comparing with irrigation with sweet water 0.92 dS m-1. Which was 24.57 mg kg-1 in the soil after planting Decrease in concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the dry weight of corn in the level of 6.0 dS m-1. It amounted to 10.56 and 1.97 and 32.3 mg.kg-1, respectively, an increase of salinity levels in irrigation water comparing with sweet water 11.12 and 2.76 and 4 0.07 mg kg-1 respectively. Increase concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium when sprayed organic extracts (Peat reeds) in the dry weight of the plant maize the highest concentration 12.10, 2.90 and 38.8 mg kg-1, respectively, were obtained from comparing with control 9.45, 1.95 and 32.5 mg kg-1 respectively. Concentration of nitrogen of potassium, phosphorus, Increase in the soil after planting organic levels of organic extracts (Peat reeds) of the level 20 g. L-1, they were 96.39, 1.85 and 33.93 mg kg-1, respectively, comparing with control 69.53, 1.53 and 19.89 mg kg-1 respectively. Values of soil pH were decreased with increases of organic extract levels and irrigation water salinity they decreased from 7.65 to 7.56 and from 7.65 to 7.51 respectively. Values of electrical conductivity in the soil was increase with salinity of irrigation water it become 1.62 dS.m-1. In the level of (6.0 dS m-1). After it was 1.24 dS.m-1. In the irrigation with sweet, water 0.92 dS m-1. Value of electrical conductivity was increase when using organic extract, it decreased from decreased from 1.47 dS m-1. Spray level of 10 g L-1 of the organic extract to 1.33 dS m-1, at the level 20 g L-1.

Classification of some soils from province of Kirkuk and the statement extent of their sensitivity to desertification

F. M. Jasem , D. R. Azeez , N. J. Hindi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

This study was conducted at several soil location in Kirkuk Governorate between length lines 44° 16? and 44° 29? north and two width circle 35° 7? and 35° 46? east to determine land deterioration conditions especially soil and vegetation deterioration within this location, In addition it is characterized with variety of geomorpholical patterns and physiographic units, in addition to their use in agriculture. After choosing locations of study, detection of soil pedons their number was 6 was done. Every pedon was divided in to horizons according to some morphological characters, as a first step in determination horizons of the soil. Among these characters, are variation in soil contents of stones, Soil texture, formulation and color and the separated lines between horizons as mentioned? Then it was described morphologically according to standards of American soil survey Index and its changes. Classification was completed to a level of soil series according to classification of soil according to the formula G.T.B.P.C.D. Geomorphologic map and displine photos were used determine the study district and locations of pedons with help of GPS instrument. Semi –detailed survey was done to cover an area advocating the free method. Key soils within the margins of the selected area were detected and they found to be 6 series with determining of their locations on soil survey map. The results of the study revealed that vegetation quality index indices of soil series of studied location were within the class very weak and they included the soil series 451CCW, 431CCW.The class weak included the soil series 432CCW, 453CCW, whereas the series 433CCW and 441CCW were within the class moderate. Results of study indicated that soil quality index of soil series of the studied location was within the class very low for series 441CCW whereas the series 432CCW, 431CCW was within the class low, whereas the series 433CCW, 451CCW were within the class moderate. Sensitivity of the district environment to desertification was described. Results showed that the most sensitive series was 443CCW, which was very sensitive and series 453CCW, 431CCW was sensitive, whereas the series 441CCW, 432CCW were within the class moderate and low sensitive respectively. The lower series sensitivity is the series 451CCW.

Ecological and biological study of groundwater in Al-falluja city-West Iraq

Abdullah Abdul Jalil

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

This study has been on wells water and river to detect some quality and biological properties of groundwater and river, within Alfalluja City. In addition, start examined the environmental characteristics (physical, chemical and biological factors) during the study period from June 2013 to April 2014. From result was narrow variance in plurality wells water temperature, EC values almost wells high recorded and the total dissolved solids in wells was recorded high values too. compared with unacceptable for drinking use as standard world values, The PH values were narrow ranged because buffering capacity to bicarbonate, And almost wells water were hardness, Almost wells were high recorded values to calcium, magnesium, sodium. Plurality wells water to Chloride values was did not walk past. The acceptable boundary and sulphates values was high recorded but nitrate, phosphate values low recorded. In the qualitative study of phytoplankton it's found in four wells only 2-5-7-8, The algae diagnosis six genus, Four genus from diatoms algae class (Gomphonema sp, Navicula sp, , Cymbella sp, Fragilaria sp) and one genus from blue-green algae (Oscillatoria sp) and last genus to Euglena algae class (Euglena sp).

The effect of organic fertilize level, extract and drip discharge on the availability of nutrient and properties of Cucurbita pepo L

M. H .munajed , B. Al Khateeb Husham , K. J. Farh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out in a clay soil in the district of Daquq, south of Kirkuk province, to study the effect of the level of organic fertilization and emitters discharge in some properties of the soil and the growth and holds pumpkin squash. The Organic fertilizers were added with four different amounts 0, 10, 15 and 20 ton per hectares, Organic Fertilization extract with two different levels 0, 20 gm per Liter, the irrigation was supplied by using drip Irrigation System. Water was supplied with two Discharge levels 3.93 and 7.86 Lh-1.Some of the chemical properties of soil such us of N, P, and K have been calculated. Number of foots and yield have been measured as a properties of the plant and the efficiency of water use have been calculated. The results showed an increase of the concentration of N, P, and K that available within the soil at 20 ton h-1 of fertilization level, which is 23.50, 108.70, and 203.7 respectively. The concentration of N, P, and K increase in the plant, which is 2.64, 0.39, 2.32% respectively. The 20 gm per liter has a significant of N, P, and K concentration in the soil with an average of 94.55, 19.80. 170.62 mg kg-1 respectively. Similarly, this concentration has an increase of N, P, and K concentration in the plant, which record 1.97, 0.41 and 2.11%. The result have showed that the best growth of the number of fruit and a total yield ,which is 8.87 fruit per plant and 25.11 ton h-1 respectively, at 20 ton h-1 fertilization level and 20 gm per liter extract concentration. In addition, at this result, combined with best water use efficiency that is 10.60 kg per meter

Effect of seed priming with Salicylic acid and foliar application with Zinc to enhance SOD activity and some growth and yield traits of Sunflower

Basheer H. Al-Duleimi , Hesham S. Ali , Mohammed I

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out in silty loam soil in General commission of agricultural researches station in spring season and in Field crops department research station- University of Anbar (Abu-Ghariab) in the fall season of 2015 that located on latitude 33.22 ? N, longitude 44.24 ? E and altitude 34.1 meter from sea level, in order to study seed priming with salicylic acid 0, 150, 300, 450 mg SA L-1, with four concentration of foliar application with Zinc 0, 50, 100, 150 mg Zn L-1) on form of ZnSo4.H2O (Zn 35%) in enhancing SOD activity and some of growth and yield of sunflower crop (cv. Luleo). The experiment was carried out in arrangement of Split plots in RCBD with three replications. The results of the experiment were summarized as following: The seed priming with 150 mg SA L-1 has led to give highest activity of SOD after 30 days after sowing date, weight of 100 seed and seed yield 4.65 ton ha-1, while the concentration 300 mg SA L-1 led to give highest activity of SOD at the beginning of flowering stage and Zn concentration in leaves in both seasons as well as the same concentration has led to highest average of leaf area, number of seeds in disc, weight of 100 seed 6.91 gm and seed yield 3.91 ton ha-1 in second season. The foliar application with Zn led to significant increase in most studied traits, the concentration 100 mg Zn L-1 gave highest activity of SOD at the beginning of flowering stage, highest average of number of seeds in disc, weight of 100 seed and seed yield 4.56 and 3.92 ton ha-1 in both seasons respectively. The same concentration recorded highest average of oil content in seeds 48.31% in second season, while concentration of 150 mg Zn L-1 gave highest average of this trait in the first season 51.78%. The two interaction between SA and Zn significantly affected in most studied traits, therefore the treatment of 150 mg SA L-1 with 100 mg Zn L-1 gave highest average seed yield in the first season of 5.04 ton ha-1.

Effect of Pyridoxine Spraying in Growth and Yield of four Cultivars of Broad Bean ( Vicia faba L. )

Anwar Sabah Ahmed Al-Janabi , Hamdi Jassim Hommad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out in winter season of 2015-2016 in department of field crops farm-Agriculture college- Anbar University (alternative site) in Abu Ghuriab, to study the effect of spraying with different concentration of pyridoxine (Vit B6) 0, 100, 200 B6 mg L-1 in growth and yield of four broad bean cultivars (Spanish, Holland, Italic and local variety). The experiment was conducted in split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD where the main plots were occupied by cultivars while the sub plots were occupied by pyridoxine concentrations. The results were summarized as follows: The increment in B6 concentration 200 mg B6 L-1 led to increment in most studied traits namely: plant height 75.19 cm, leaf area 3542 cm2, 100 seed weight 141.07 gm, seed yield 6.025 ton ha-1, protein yield 1.4 ton ha-1 and biological yield 10.613 ton ha -1 . The Holland variety achieved highest in plant height 93.47 cm, leaf area 4145 cm2, while Spanish variety achieved highest in weight of 100 seed 166.36 gm. and Italic variety achieved highest in number of seed in pod 5.89 seed pod-1, seeds yield 6.371 ton ha-1 , protein yield 1.501 ton ha-1 and biological yield 12.189 ton ha-1.

Response of Two Varieties of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to Plant Density

Yaseen Abd Ahmed , Nihad Mohamed Abood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

Afield trial was carried out at the Experimented farm College of Agriculture، university of Anbar Abu – Ghraib، during spring and fall seasons 2015.The objective was to know the effect of plant distribution (distances between rows and plant) in some traits growth، yield and yield components for two cultivars' of Sorghum (Abu-ALSabeen and Rabeh)، using split- split plot by Randomized complete Block Design with three replicates. Rabeh cultivar had superiority in all studied traits except plant height and biological yield in which Abu -Alsbeen cv. was superior recording 203.65 and 280.9 cm for plant height in both spring and autumn seasons، respectively and biological yield reached 37.85 ton h -1 in autumn season only. While the cultivar had superiority in weight yield and biological yield. The plant density in all of studied traits. The narrow spaces of (10 cm) among row and (50 cm) among line had superiority in each of plant height، leaf area index ،biological yield and grains yield in compared with large distance (20 cm) among hills and (70cm) among line which had superiority in each of leaf area and stem diameter، Distance 10 cm gave significant in height of plant abut 179.89cm، in spring season. Nevertheless, distance 20 cm had largest leaf area of 3544 and 4234 cm2 in each season, respectively. The interaction between cultivars and spaces effected significantly, for Abu- ALsbeen with (10cm) agricultural spaces indicated the highest average for grain yield with 10.87 ton ha-1, only in autumn season.

Effect of Electric shock on some growth traits, yield and yield component of two varieties of maize

Abd Al-Lteef Mahmood , Omer Ismail Khalaif , Muja

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

To investigate the effect of electric shock on morphological variation of maiz. Seed of two varieties Fajer1 and Baghdad3 were germinated. Seeds were treated with 1% NaCl solution for 6h then transferred to container with same solution. Two polars were connected to the container and AC current 220V was switched on with 2, 4 and 6 amber for 5 minutes. Then seedling washed and planted at the field. Electric shock induced significant variations in most of studied agronomic traits. Electric shock caused decreasing plant height in most traits of M1 except Fajer1 under SH2 an increase in plant height 182.33 and183.67 cm for M1 and M2 leaf area per plant 4810.38 cm2, number of ear per plant 16.13 leaf per plant and dry weight per plant, While M2 the same variety with SH3 an increase 19% grain yield and with SH2 gave increasing in height plant, leaf area per plant and grain weight per ear 96.93g.

Effect of plant spacing and foliar feeding of iron in growth and yield traits of maize.

Ismail Ahmed Sarhan Al- Jumaili

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

ield experiment was carried out in a loamy sand soil mixture, at Al-Naemea region, Fallujah City of Al–Anbar province, during the spring and autumn seasons of 2013, to study the effect of three plant spacing between plants10, 15 and 20 cm and four concentrations of foliar feeding of iron 0, 50, 75and100 mg Fe L-1 in growth and yield of maize Ipa 5018. Factorial arrangement was use with R.C.B.D.in three replicates. The results showed that a distance of 10 cm of planting gave the highest mean for each of the plant height, leaf area index and total grain yield 4.75 and 6.15 t ha-1 for two seasons respectively. While the distance of 20 cm planting gave the highest mean for each of the leaf area in autumn season, ear number per plant, number of rows per ear and weight of 500 grain for two season respectively. The concentration 100 mg Fe L-1 gave the highest mean for each of the leaf area ,leaf area index, ear number per plant, number of rows per ear, weight of 500 grain and total grain yield 4.82 and 6.38 t ha-1 for two season respectively. While the concentration 75 mg Fe L-1 gave the highest mean of plant height. The interaction between planting distance of 20 cm and a concentration of 100 mg Fe L-1 was significant effect in ear number per plant and number of rows per ear in autumn season and leaf area and weight of 500 grain in both season respectively. While the interaction between 10 cm distance with concentration 75 mg Fe L-1 significant effect in leaf area index and total grain yield in both season respectively.

Estimation of genetic parameters in cowpea

M. M. Muhammad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

An experiment was carried out in the fields of Agriculture College-Baghdad University during spring and autumn of 2015 by using a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The first season hybridization was established among three pure cultivars of cowpea (Vigna uniguiculata L.) which: Ramshorn, California black eye and Rahawya in full diallel crosses according to Griffing with first method and fixed model (3 parents+ 3 diallel hybrids +3 reciprocal hybrids) and a comparison experiment was in autumn season. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference among the parents and their hybrids for all the studied characters. The parent 1 was the higher for root nodules number , leaf number, pod number average pod weight , and pod yield per plant .The diallel cross 1*2 was the higher to pod number 33.27 pod/plant and 2x3 to average pod weight 8.10 g pod-1 and the reciprocal cross 2*1 was higher for green pod yield 285.40 g plant-1. The values of average degree of dominance was 0.873 cm/plant for plant height in diallel crosses while it was more than one for plant height and pod weight average in reciprocal crosses. The heritability in broad sense was high to all characters while in narrow sense it was high to plant height in diallel crosses 68.78% while it's values were high to moderate for most the traits in reciprocal crosses.

The Effect of planting date on growth and yield of five potato varieties Solanum tuberosum L.

Maath. M. Al-Abdaly , Ahmed Abood Al Zobaay

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

The experiment was conducted in the field of Agriculture college _Baghdad University, Abu Ghraib. Alternation location for Anbar University during spring season 2016. The objective was to evaluation of five varieties performance of potato Solanum tubeorosum L (Volare, Arizona, Hermes, Riviera, Arnova) imported recently seeds of elite rank. The study was done as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replicates (R.C.B.D) under effect of three punting dates (15 december,1 January,15 January ) the field experiment was divided into three blocks with 15 treatments randomly distributed and thus there were 45 experimental units. Within R.C.B.D the plants of (Volare) growing in first date were significant superiority in, plant height, number of stems per plant, dry weight of vegetative and leaf area, with 81.76 cm plant-1, 2.733 stem plant-1, 203.5 gm, 49.08 dm2) respectively. The plant of (Volare) growing in fittest date were surpassed in most of yield traits as tuber weight average, plant yield, marketable yields and total yields, with 242.0 gm, 1801.7 gm plant-1, 96.209 ton ha-1, 97.341 ton ha-1, respectively. The plants of (Arizona) growing in first date were significant superiority in characters of yield quality as dry weight percent , starch percent ,specific gravity, protein percent and T.S.S, with 17.67%, 19.67% , 2.068 gm.(cm3)-1, 8.76% , 7.987%, respectively.

Polymorphism of AA-NAT gene and its relationship with the productive and reproductive performance in Turkish Awassi ewes

Gheni N. Addin , Thair R. Mohammed , Nasr N. Al-A

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

This study was conducted in the sheep farm of Department of Animal Production Sheep Field /Faculty of Agriculture University of Baghdad in the Jadiriyah area, as well as laboratories of Genetic Engineering and the Institute of Life Technologies Graduate Studies-University of Baghdad, during the period from 01/04/2015 to 01/02/2016, in order to identify genetic manifestations gene AA-NAT and its relationship with some of reproductive and productive traits among a sample of 30 Turkish Awassi ewes and offspring of 38 births. There was a genetic variation in polymorphism manifestations of the gene AA-NAT depending on the different genetic packets that generated by enzymatic digestion, which showed to be of three appearances (3 packs AA; 5 packs GA and 4 packs GG). The distribution of genetic manifestations attributed to gene AA-NAT in a sample Awassi sheep 56.67 and 33.33 and 10.00% for each of the genotypes AA and GA and GG respectively, and it was the contrast between these highly significant proportions, it was observed that the influence of appearance hereditary gene AA-NAT in the prolificacy and twining rate highly significant, while there was no significant difference in the fertility percentage. The results of the current study showed that the daily and total milk production of Awassi ewes was morally affected (P <0.05) genotype appearance, as ewes achieved with genotype AA the best rates, while those registered with genotype GG lowest rates. It can be concluded from this study of gene expression for gene AA-NAT possible adoption in the development of genetic improvement strategies for the sheep to maximize the economic returns of the election and crossing genotypes that have achieved the best prolificacy rate, twinning percentage and milk production.

Efficiency of some pesticides of control the disease root knot nematodes caused by Meloidogyne spp. on tomato plants

Shamyel Sahab Muter

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness Abamctin, Garland, Resyst three concentrations of 1, 2and 4 ml L-1 in against nematode roots on the tomato. The results showed the effectiveness of each of them in reducing the percentage of the guide patients and the severity of the injury and significant differences for treatment comparison .as achieved treatment before the infection concentration of 4 ml L-1 highest percentage cut to guide patients reaching 1.33 for Abamectin and Alcarlnd compared the treatment of the comparison, which amounted to 4.66. While disease severity amounted to 20% of Abamectin and 26% for Carlnd while the treatment of 95% in comparison. The results showed that all treatments concentration of 4 ml L-1 positively to growth standards for plants tomato of weight mild and dry plants compared with the comparison treatment. Appearance results and there were significant differences for the numbers of adolescent superiority of the treatment before the infection concentration of 4 ml l-1 less number of second stage juveniles. As it recorded 10.33, 50.33, 73.33 young in comparison with the comparison, which reached the highest, number of J2 increased by 106.66.

Efficiency of egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis and larval parasitoid Bracon sp of the cotton worm spinal Earias insulana (Boisd)

Juhina A. Mohammed Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

studied bio-efficiency for each of the parasite eggs Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) and larvae Bracon sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of the cotton worm spinal Earias insulana (Boisd) It was found that the egg parasitoid role in reducing the intensity of the pest eggs .And increased parasitism rate the greater the intensity of the pest eggs reaching the highest percentage of parasitism 96.5% when the density of 30 eggs of the pest and preferred females lay their eggs on the fetus advanced two and three for the modern age and the age of the egg a day،The external parasite that infects larval stage of the lesion Bracon sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) show that the highest proportion of sexual parasitism rate was at education under the conditions of 20 o C and relative humidity 67 ± 3%, reaching 93.6% and 78% nationality female lives have spanned an average of 20.3 days under the same conditions.

Detaction of gray mold disease in some Iraqi governorates, its pathogen identification and test of pathogenicity in laboratory

Theyab Abd Al-Wahed Al-Esawee , Ali Kareem Moham

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

The field survey results indicated to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis spp fungus on different vegetable crops under green house agriculture in different regions of Iraqi governorates (Baghdad, Anbar, Babil and Salah Eldin), that the disease is prevalent in all surveyed regions with incidence ranged from 10-43%. In addition, Isolation and diagnostic results showed that the fungus Botrytis spp was associated for all samples collected when conducting field surveys. Estimated tests indicated pathogenicity on seeds of cauliflower that all isolates fungus Botrytis spp achieved a noticeable reduction of seed germination of cauliflower rate ranging between 41 – 68% compared with control treatment ,which has the rate of germination in 86%.Some tests revealed that the isolates fungus Botrytis spp on different vegetable crops leaves plant’s on PDA that fungus isolates varied in the % infection zone between 16 – 51% compared with the control treatment with of % infection zone was 0%.

Effects of two biological agents Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride in control of gray mold disease in tomato and eggplant under greenhouse condition

Theyab Abd Al-Wahed Al-Esawee , Ali Kareem Mohamme

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

Results indicated that using tests of double culture between B. cinerea and isolates of bioagents Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride showed that most isolates effect was T. harzianum (T1, Bioconte), In inhibition the pathogen. Results also revealed that the volatile substances for same isolates of T. harzianum and T. viride achieved the (T1, Bioconte) highest inhibition rate against B. cinerea which reached 77%. Also resulted demonstrated that both bio control agents T. harzianum (A1), T. viride (A2), achieved a reduction in the rate of infection and severity of gray mold infection on tomato (wijdan variety )and eggplant (Barcelona variety) compared to control treatment contaminated by using different addition methods (B1 = B. cinerea, B2 = T. harzianum or T. viride + B. cinerea, B3=B2 + T. harzianum or T. viride after 5 days addition B. cinerea and B4 = B3 + after 10 days from addition of B3) All the best methods treatment was B4.which reduced the infection and severity of gray mold disease on tomato(wijdan variety )and eggplant (Barcelona variety) .

Chemical Physico study on two species of Euphorbia Spp Wildly grown in Anbar Province

Hiba Fouad Abdulfatah , Asma Abd Alamer Bidan , H

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

Analytical laboratory experiment carried out in order to determine some of the chemical and physical properties of the two types of species Euphorbia spp that Euphorbia peplus and Euphorbia helioscopia wildly grown in Anbar province, since some of the chemical characteristics estimated Moisture, with a maximum of 4.50% in the type E. Helioscopia, as well as the case was the largest percentage of the content of dissolved ash in the water and ash dissolved in acid, amounting to 59.43 mg g-1 and 35.06 mg g-1 sequentially in the same type as estimated sugars were highest in type E. helioscopia reached 20% while the percentage in the type E. peplus 16%, either protein has the highest content has reached 1.7% in the type E. helioscopia recorded saponins, phenolic materials a large proportion in the type E. peplus amounted to 0.03 mg and 0.97% sequentially, from the other side was the least content of materials glycosides. The physical properties measured refractive index (RI), density and color reached in the type E. peplus 1.44 and 0.99 g ml-1 and 0.22 sequentially The type E. helioscopia were 1.33 and 0.89 g ml-1 and 0.32 sequentially, also used the technology UV rays to diagnose active membership totals have measured the highest absorption in the alcoholic extract and amounted to 502 nm in kind E. peplus and 325 nm in kind E. helioscopia.

A comparative systematic study of some genera of caryophyllaceous family in western desert district-Iraq

Mohammad O. Musa , Fatimah K. Oleiwi Al-Nasery

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

In this research, the study has five Genera of the Caryophyllaceous family in the western desert province in Iraq, compared to the systematic study and comprehensive for this species follow them. In this research has provided comparative study of all phenotypic traits, it was studied the change characteristics of roots, stems, leaves and parts of flowering and fruiting for all species, The species Vaccaria hispanica was the highest species rise Where the average height of 30.4 cm as the rate of root length of 8 cm the, Basal leaves was characterized by being the longest compared to other species, It was at 49.6 mm length rate. In addition, the case for Cauline lerves where 49 mm in the length rate. These qualities were also discussed and identified systematic significance and role in the isolation of the species, the reproductive organs has been ranked first and then members of vegetative came second in terms of importance systematic, The Androecium in species Vaccaria hispanica was characterized in the biggest being the larger and most obvious Where the dimensions of the filament rate was 0.5 x 5.6 mm and the dimensions of anther 0.7 x 1.5 mm. In addition, the case for the Gynoecium in species Vaccaria hispanica was biggest his deportation rate 3.76 x 4.75 mm, some schemes have been painted and illustrations as well as photographs of laboratory and field. And all fixed details been employed to isolate species, where pollen was ranked first in recruitment of fixed details by being with several different slots (polyporate) prepared and characteristics in terms of dimensions and forms the covers, as well as the existence of the grooves (colpates) in the other species. Where the study has some of the anatomical characteristics of species, including anatomical characteristics sections of leaves and stems, and these sections contributed effectively and supporting the study of morphological, and special qualities of the medium fabric and nature, and the number of classes, and the nature of the vascular bundles, and components of the wood and bark, which divided the species into groups depending on the variation in qualities, where isolated species leaves bilateral (Bifacial) Back abdominal (Dorsiventral)) and unilateral facial face. Interested in current research studying the environment and geographical distribution of the species in the province, in this research was described environments in which species are spread widely, with painted maps showing the distribution of species. It was found that the species Spergularia marina is the most prevalent species and invasion of the different environments, and most infrequent presence is a type Vaccaria hispamia, and general condition of types is that they are the same ups and wide average or sometimes from spreading. This research has explained how it is treated species systematically through a comprehensive classification key to separate species status, has been described species and accurate description and detailed, with mention names synonymous with her, as well as a reference to some samples preserved in some Iraqi lawns. The current study was able to identify six plant species back to five genera of the Caryophyllaceae family spread in the western desert province of Iraq , these : Loeflingia hispanica L., Paronychia arabica (L.) DC., Sclerocephalus arabicus Boiss., Spergularia diandra (Guss.) Helder et Sart., Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb., Vaccaria hispanica (Miller) Rauschert

Optimization functions using poultry meat production fields in the province of Baghdad in 2014 costs

Saad A. Nassir , Marwan Z. Rejab

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

Targeted research to know the cost structure for 14 poultry field work in the province of Baghdad and to identify economies of scale for the production of chicken meat in those working the fields during the year 2014, with the highest percentage of variable costs are for feed, which amounted increase of 67.3% followed by the cost of the purchase of chicks, which amounted to 13.2% of the total costs, followed by medicine and health supervision. The fixed-cost items were the highest percentage of rental halls, which amounted to 2.9% of the total costs. As it has been the total cost estimate and function of which was derived average total cost function to calculate the optimum size investigator economic efficiency in the minimization of costs. As well as the derivation of marginal cost of college costs for a function to calculate the size of the holy profit it is found that the optimal production volume 80, 769 kg Year-1, either the size of the holy production for profit 123 846 kg Year-1, and it is the optimum capacity for civilian costs 76, 192 bird chicken. Year-1 and amplitude binoculars for-profit 115 650 bird chicken Years-1.

Economic analysis of production function broilers productions in Anbar province, the 2014

Mishaal Abid Khalaf , Sahar Mohmad Shartoh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:2

The production of broiler chickens is of great importance and back its importance to the high yield and the speed of capital, As a result of the increasing demand for pottery meat with low volume of production it was necessary to study the reality of the production of broiler chickens and estimate the production functions in order to determine the efficiency of the use of production elements and the study belong to a sample from a breeder broiler chickens in Anbar province. It emerged from the results of the study that the production function of the type of cup dokas passed the standard statistical and economic tests, and found that the sum of the elasticities of elements equal to (0.651) which suggests that producers are working in stages economies of scale.