2016, Volume:14 Issue:1


Using x-ray and FT-IR teqencue to study and comparative two methods of carbonate minerals removal

Muhammod .A. Latef

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

The objective of this study was to obtain the of best method carbonate removal from soil without effect in mineralogical properties. Three soil treatments for soil high content in calcite (Tall Keef region).Were used HCl acid (0.2N), sodium acetate pH (5) treatment and control treatment were conducted compared with control treatment.Results showed Bulk X-ray and XRDclay mineral were that use of HCl acid Caused to removal all carbonate without the effecting in quality and quantity of minerals Comparison with first treatment that it was not great influence. The group of mineral were diagnosed for the three treatments by using the Bulk x-ray showed dominate quartz,calcite,palygorskite,feldspar and kaolinite respectively,while the XRD for clay realated the rule of chlorite, illite,semctite and kaolinite respectively,as for FT-IR appearance group are bands important (1450 )cm-1,which represents carbonate group (dolomite-calcite)and Disappearance with third treatment without second,therefore acetate method is considered inappropriate for measurements which means to remove the carbonate. Meaning that use of HCl acid (0.2), N is optimum method.

Using x-ray and FT-IR teqencue to study and comparative two methods of carbonate minerals removal

Muhammod .A. Latef

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

The objective of this study was to obtain the of best method carbonate removal from soil without effect in mineralogical properties. Three soil treatments for soil high content in calcite (Tall Keef region).Were used HCl acid (0.2N), sodium acetate pH (5) treatment and control treatment were conducted compared with control treatment.Results showed Bulk X-ray and XRDclay mineral were that use of HCl acid Caused to removal all carbonate without the effecting in quality and quantity of minerals Comparison with first treatment that it was not great influence. The group of mineral were diagnosed for the three treatments by using the Bulk x-ray showed dominate quartz,calcite,palygorskite,feldspar and kaolinite respectively,while the XRD for clay realated the rule of chlorite, illite,semctite and kaolinite respectively,as for FT-IR appearance group are bands important (1450 )cm-1,which represents carbonate group (dolomite-calcite)and Disappearance with third treatment without second,therefore acetate method is considered inappropriate for measurements which means to remove the carbonate. Meaning that use of HCl acid (0.2), N is optimum method.

Water wells quality assessment for drinking purposes using water quality index and correlation study in Al-qaim City, Al-Anbar, Iraq

Mufid alhadithi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Fifteen groundwater samples have been collected from five sites in the current study for a period of three months (July 2002, October 2002 and January 2003) to evaluate the suitability of water wells quality for drinking purposes using water quality index (WQI) and correlation matrix analysis in Al-Qaim City in the Province of Al-anbar near general company of phosphate. WQI technique requires physical and chemical parameters to hold the calculations. These parameters include Electrical Conductivity, pH, cations and anions. The calculated water quality index (WQI) indicates that only one wells (No.3) fall in class II (good water) while remaining wells (No.1, 2, 4, and 5) fall in class III (poor water). High values of WQI cause by the high concentration of Electrical conductivity, Ca2+, SO42-, K+, and Mg2+. This is evident through the good correlation coefficient between them. The present study indicates that only water well number 3 can be using for drinking purpose and remaining studied wells contain unsuitable water for drinking purpose and need to be treated in the case of use

Effect of combinations of fertilizer of macro and micronutrients on nutrients content of garlic cloves Allium sativum L.

Fawzi M.A. , Hussein J.M. Alhadithi , Haneen Shar

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field experiment was conducted in Silt loam soil at Al-bu-farraj Northern Ramadi (110 km west of Baghdad) to study the effect of fertilization with different levels of macro- and micronutrients on garlic cloves content (Allium sativum L.) of some nutrients, using randomized complete block design( RCBD) with three replicates for treatment. Four fertilizer formulations from nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; i.e. A0: 0, 0, 0, A1: 80, 80, 80, A2: 120, 120, 120 and A3: 160, 160, 160 kg.ha-1 were applied and four concentrations of the nutrient solution microm 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 gm. L-1 were sprayed results showed significant differences among garlic cloves content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium 33.86, 2.578, 32.79 gm. kg-1, iron, zinc, copper, manganese 19.49, 27.00, 18.00, 44.090 mg. kg-1 comparing with control. The increases were significant (0.05) with addition levels of the single treatment and interactions for all studied elements with the exception of copper, in which the interactions was non-significant.

Effect of soil wind erosion on natural vegetation in the east razzazah region

Ali Hussein Al-Bayati , Hussein Zedian Ali , Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

The aim of this research study the impact of wind erosion in the variety and intensity of natural vegetation in the east Razzazah region, for this reason we selected an transect with long 30km and 3km width, three locations for sampling at a distance of 0, 15 and 30km (1, 2, and 3) along the transect were selected, lost soil by wind was measured at every sampling point with World Erosion Equation (WEQ), addition to quantity and quality analysis for natural vegetation. Results of predicting erosion reached 89.5, 92.9 and 100.0 Meg. ha-1. year-1 at location 1, 2 and 3 respectively, which point to present severe erosion in the area with average 94.1 Meg. ha-1. year-1, because the higher percent for fine sand and silt also the weak structure for soil, addition to dry climate predominant with speedy wind and weak vegetation cover, all these factors have clear effect to increasing erosion quantity in the studied locations. At location 1 the perennial species reached 70% in compared to annual species 30% , higher percentage at perennial species was 21.7% for Haloxybn salicornicum Boiss but for annual species 9.9% was recorded for Diplotaxis harra Boiss, second location 2 both perennial and annuals species showed similar percentage 50%, higher percent for perennial species recorded to Atriplex halimus L. and Haloxybn salicornicum Boiss 12.9%, however the annual species Neotorularia torulesa Hedge showed higher percent 6.45%, while at 3 location the perennial species form 40% in comparison to annual species which formed 60% Haloxybn salicornicum Boiss have the higher percent 7.5% however annual species showed Neotorularia torulesa Hedge the dominant with 7.5%. The results showed clear effect for erosion intensity on distribution and density of natural vegetation in the region.

Compared to the modified pivot irrigation and irrigation Alchrista in some water standards for soil and yield of wheat.Triticum aestivum L.

Mustafa S. Abd AL- Gabbar , Abd Al-Whhab I. Al-Aba

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Afield experiment was conducted in a silty loam soil at Anbar University, College of Agriculture, in Ramadi city in fall season 2013-2014 to study the compared to the modified pivot irrigation and surface irrigation in some water standards of the soil. The study also aimed to find a crop coefficient values following the style of the modified pivot irrigation. The lay out of the study was according to RCBD with three replicates. It was to determine the water consumption actual of crop wheat calculated way gravimetric and calculated theoretically evaporation data E pan Class A in determining the value evapotranspiration system mobile drip irrigation, compared with the calculated following the surface irrigation of and calculated according equation AL-gbare- Samhan modified for equation Blany-Criddle based on data climate available from the body poker by Iraqi air in Ramadi, and the possibility of their application in accordance with the climatic conditions of our country. The results showed that the rate water consumption calculated gravimetric way through the growing season wheat crop decreased when you follow the method of the modified pivot irrigation 336.4 mm. compared to 443.15 mm at surface irrigation and 328.7 mm when applying equation AL-gbare- Samhan. After calculation the water consumption actual according to the depleted soil moisture the way the weight, and then the crop coefficient were obtained on the new values of the climate of this region are: 0.65 and 0.80 and 0.92 and 0.39 for the four stages of growth of stage vegetative growth stage of endometriosis and stage of flowering stage maturity respectively. Increased productivity was significantly in the treatment of the modified pivot irrigation, reaching 5.360 compared with 4.230 tons. Ha-¹ in continuous irrigation Alchrista.نفذت تجربة حقلية في تربة ذات نسجه مزيجة غرينية صنفت الى Typic Torrifluvent

Comparing between the performance of mobile drip irrigation and surface irrigation on some soil Physical properties and yield of wheat Triticum aestivum L.

Mustafa S. Abd AL- Gabbar , Abd Al-Whhab I. Al-Aba

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Field experiment was conducted in a silty loam soil at Al-anbar University, College of Agriculture, in Ramadi during fall season 2013-2014 to study the Compared to the performance of mobile drip irrigation and continuous surface irrigation in some physical properties of the soil (moisture distribution curves and hydro saturated conductivity and infiltration average). The study included two main factors: mobile drip irrigation and Continuous surface irrigation. The lay out of the study was according to RCBD with three replicates. The moisture distribution was studied for the treatments during three stages from plant growth stages between 0 - 0.40 m in horizon and vertical directions from the drippers and depth 0 - 0.40 m in Beginning, middle and end of the board bar Continuous surface irrigation .The moisture curves were blotted by surfer software; some of the physical properties for the treatments, As well as some of growth and productivity of the crop wheat. The moisture content was increased at source of dripping and decreased away from the dripper horizontally and vertically after ending irrigation process, The treatment of drip irrigation reduced the vertical & horizontal distribution of water in soil as compared with the surface irrigation. mobile drip irrigation caused density values rate reduction as it reached to 1.38 in comparison with 1.44 Mgm.m-3 for continuous surface irrigation, and increase soil porosity to 0.45 in comparison with 0.4treatmentsrespectivel. The irrigation system had a vital role in hydro saturated conductivity, however the mobile drip irrigation had led to significant increase in this average, the highest average was 9.18 cm.hr-1 at the mobile drip irrigation comparing to 8.15 cm.hr-1 for Continuous surface irrigation The mobile drip irrigation had a role in average increase of infiltration which gave 9.4 and 8.6 cm.hr-1 for continuous surface irrigation treatments. It was significantly increased productivity in the treatment of mobile drip irrigation if reached 5.360 ton. ha-¹ compared with 4.230 ton. ha-¹ in continuous surface irrigation.

The Effect of addition different levels of organic matter for soil in some infiltration standards

Sh. M. AL-mehmdy , Zaid F. H. , Omar S. Kh.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

The experiment was conducted during spring season 2016 in two type's soils textures, the first one was held in college of agriculture-Baghdad University (abu-Grhaib) which is silty clay loam, The second texture of soil was silty loam. The purpose is to study the effect addition for different levels of organic matter in some infiltration rate and basic infiltration rate, the experiment includes two factors; first factor includes two levels for organic matter, addition 20 tan. ha-1 L1, 40tan. ha.-1 L2 and control treatment L0 (without organic matter), the other factor includes two texture of soil , Silty clay loam T1 and silty loam T2, these levels of organic matter was mixed of the surface soil until the depth 0.75m before measuring the infiltration. The results showed that values of accumulative infiltration were increased at 18.80, 23.00% by addition of highest levels of organic matter to the silty clay loam soil and silty loam soil, respectively. The values of infiltration rate were increased up to 31.97, 34.74% for the two texture of soil silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively. The values of basic infiltration rate were increased up to 18.00, 31.82% by addition of the highest level of organic matter to the two textures of soils silty clay loam and silty loam, respectively.

Prophylactic treatment of uterine prolapse in dairy cattle

Audai Sabah Asker , A. F. Majeed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

The study was undertaken on 33 cows of Holstein_Friesian breed, suffering from uterine prolapse in previous calving, presented in Al_fayhaa station, Gbala area, Musiab, Babel province. The age of animals ranged between 4-5 years. The animals were randomly divided into four groups after parturition and treated as follows: The first group (n=9) which regarded as a control group given placebo treatment (Normal saline).The second group (n=10) were treated with 22.5 mg of PGF2? I.M (prosolvin, Intervet, B.V. Boxmeer, Holland). The third group (n=8) were treated with 50 I.U. of oxytocin I.M. (Intertocin, Intervet, B.V. Boxmeer, Holland). The fourth group (n=6) were received 250 ml of calcium borogluconate S.C. All prophyloctic therapy were given directly after parturition. The animals were followed at morning and at night for seven days, in order to show the prognosis of those cases; the results showed that the 2nd group, which were treated with pGF2?, give the best results with a response of 100 % (1010). The 2nd group showed a response of 63% (58).While the fourth group showed a response of 83%(56).The control group showed 56% of animals not affected with uterine prolapse . It was concluded from this study that prophylactic treatment of uterine prolapse give the best results with pGF2?, followed with calcium borogluconate in dairy cattle previously affected with uterine prolapse.

Effect of liquid nitrogen vapor technique and omega-3 on mitochondrial apoptosis and DNA fragmentation sperm

A. Y. Saieed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

This study has been conducted in college of agriculture – University of Baghdad with cooperation of High institute of Infertility Diagnosis Assisted Technology - Al-Nahrain University and Ministry of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Center. Five Awassi Rams were exposed to study semen samples were diluted in tris extender, tris, cooled slowly up to 5 C? and equilibration period for 2 h. Semen was packed into 0.25 ml cryovial, The cryovial were placer horizontally on a rack and frozen in a vapor 4 cm above liquid nitrogen vapor (LN2) for 15 min or 7.5 Min then dipped in liquid LN2. Frozen cryovial were thawed media at 37C for 1 min. The results of this study There were a high significant (p>0.01) increasing of exposing samples to nitrogen vapor technique for the period of 15min in for the studying characteristics semen in comparison with 7.5min of exposing samples to nitrogen vapor. The adding concentrations of omega-3 0.5, 1% to thawing solution due to enhancing in studying characteristics in comparison with concentrations of omega-3 0%. There was a significant effect of the interaction between the exposing samples to nitrogen vapor technique and concentration of omega-3 in thawing solution for the studying characteristics, additionally, no significant differences between 0.5 and 1% concentration of omega-3 in 15min period of nitrogen vapor exposing was observed to the property of motility, membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial apoptosis. As conclusion from the previous above using of nitrogen vapor exposing technique for period of 15min and using of omega-3 concentration 0.5, 1% due to an enhancing in the studying characteristics semen.

Effect of testosterone injection to native layer breeder Mezo on primary and secondary sex ratio, fertility and hatchability

Mohammed A. AL-Bayar

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

This study was conducted at the Poultry Research Station (Abu Ghraib), General State Board of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, for the period from 22 April to 30 June 2015 to study the effect of increasing concentration of blood hormone Testosterone on sex of embryos, hatching chicks sex, fertility and hatchability. 75 birds at 54 weeks age from native layer breeder (Mezo breed) were used. The birds were distributed randomly for 3 treatments add to 2 control groups each treatment contain 15 hens with 3 replicates per each treatment. Each replicate consists of 5 hens; we used 10 roosters separately for artificial insemination. Treatments were distributed as follow: First treatment C1: Control group: without injection. Second treatment C2: Control group (2), Injection subcutaneous in back of neck with 0.5 ml sesame oil/hen/week. T1, T2 and T3 treatments were injection subcutaneous in back of neck with 125, 250 and 500 µg of testosterone dissolved with 0.5 ml of sesame oil/hen/week. We used artificial insemination one time weekly. Primary and secondary sex ratio, fertility and hatchability from all and fertile eggs were studied. Significant increasing (P?0.0001) in hatching males and embryo males compared with two control group. Significant decreased (P?0.0001) in fertility for T2 and T3 compared with C1, Significant increased (P?0.0009) in hatchability from all eggs for all treatments compared with C2, significant increase in (P?0.0001) for hatchability to fertile eggs at T2 and T3 compared with controls, while it decreased for T2 compared with C2.

Estimation several genetic parameters for corn ear characters

Baktash , F. Y. , Nadhem , Y.A

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field trails were conducted at the experimental field of Crops Science Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during spring and fall seasons of 2004 and spring season of 2005. The objective of this research was to evaluate daillel crosses developed from 10 inbred lines , Bk26, Bk43, Bk25, Bk39, Bk3, Bk41, Bk65, Bk16, Bk55 and Bk11 (recommended from last research) and estimate several genetic parameters for corn (Zea mays L) ear characters. Inbred lines propagated and full diallel crosses carried out. Varietal trails were conducted using Latice Design with four replications to evaluate single crosses , their reciprocals and parents in fall season 2004 and spring 2005 .The diallel crosses Bk25xBk55, Bk55xBk26, Bk39xBk3,Bk65xBk55 and reciprocal cross Bk16xBk41 in fall season and Bk16xBk55, Bk3xBk16 and reciprocal crosses Bk39xBk65, Bk65xBk3 in spring season superior in ear length . Several daillel crosses and reciprocals produced plants with higher number /ear and number of grains /ear, in both seasons. The highest number of grains/ear produced from daillel cross Bk26xBk25 and reciprocal Bk39xBk25 in fall season and daillel cross Bk43xBk55, reciprocals Bk3xBk41, Bk3xBk25, in spring season. Several crosses superiored in grain weight. The results showed importance of cytoplasmic effects and significance of general and specific combining ability in all the studied traits. The average degree of dominance more than one for daillel and reciprocal crosses in both seasons. All the studied traits under non-additive gene action

Diallel crosses and some genetic parameters for corn agronomic characters

Nathem, Y. A , Baktash , F. Y.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field trails were conducted, at the experimental field of Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during spring and fall seasons of 2004 and spring season of 2005. The objective of this research was to evaluate daillel crosses developed from 10 inbred lines, Bk26, Bk43, Bk25, Bk39, Bk3, Bk41, Bk65, Bk16, Bk55 and Bk11 (recommended from last research) and estimate some genetic parameters for corn ( Zea mays L) agronomic characters. Inbred lines propagated and full diallel crosses carried out. Varietal trails were conducted using Lattice Design, with four replications to evaluate single crosses, their reciprocals and parents in fall season 2004 and spring 2005.The diallel crosses, Bk39xBk3 and reciprocal crosses, Bk55xBk5, Bk39xBk43 in fall season, took up lowest period days to tasseling 50.5, 50.8 and 50.8 days , respectively , while in the spring season the daillel cross Bk43*Bk65and reciprocal Bk65*Bk26took lowest days (59.3 and 52.3 days).The shortest slinking time in fall season (52.3 days) was for daillel cross, Bk3*Bk41and reciprocal Bk43*Bk39, While in spring was 62.3 for daillel, Bk43xBk55 and reciprocal Bk39*Bk25.The daillel Bk41*Bk55 and reciprocal Bk39*Bk25 produced the tallest plants in the first season (218, 210 cm.), in the fall season the tallest plants (212, 197 cm) produced from daillel cross Bk25xBk55 and reciprocal Bk39xBk25, respectively. The plants of daillel cross Bk25xBk65, reciprocal Bk39xBk25 in the first season and daillel Bk25*Bk55, reciprocal Bk55*Bk11 in the second season produced higher ear height. The higher leaf area 0.62 m2produced from the plants of daillel cross Bk26xBk55 in fall season. The results showed importance of cytoplasmic effects and significance of general and specific combining ability in all the studied traits. The average degree of dominance more than one for daillel and reciprocal crosses in both seasons. All the studied traits under non-additive gene action.

Genetic Analysis for Combining Ability and Estimation some Genetic Parameters for Inbred lines and Single Cross Hybrids of Maize

Nasser M. Al-Amery , Hashem R.Latheth , Abed M.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Six inbred lines of maize have been used (1- Syn-1, 2-MGW-3,3- S-165,4-Syn-22,5- Zm-9,6- M-17) entered in program were crossed in half diallel cross to produce 15 F1 cross in Field Crops Research Station of General Board Agricultural Research, Abu-Ghraib in fall season 2013. Seeds of genotypes (6 parents and 15 cross) have been planted in field of a farmer in Almusaib project in fall season 2014, using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates. The results Have been analyzed according to method 2; model one of Griffing (6). The objective of this study was estimating of general and specific combining ability for parents, their hybrids, respectively, and some genetic parameters for growth, yield and its components characters. Results of statistics analysis showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all studied characters. Results of genetic analysis showed that Mgca. In addition, Msca. Were highly significant in all studied characters and the ?2gca / ?2sca were less than one for all the studied characters. The effects of GCA were positive and negative among parents for all studied characters , the inbred line syn-1 was found as the best gca effect for ear height 6.122, leaf area 24.885cm2 300-kernel weight 3.499 gm and grain Yield 7.018, While the effect of SCA for single crosses were positive significant for all studied characters. The single cross hybrid (MGW-3×S-165) had highest SCA effect for 300-kernel weight 15.816 gm and the single cross (Syn-22× ZM-9) had highest SCA effect for ear length 2.697cm and for grain yield per plant 51.212 grain. The values of (?2D) were more than that (?2A) for all studied characters. The broad sense heritability was high between 85.55% for ear high and 99.39% for 300-kernal weight, while narrow sense heritability was low for all studied characters. The value of average degree of dominance was more than one for all studied characters.

Evaluation of several genotypes of wheat and triticale under rain fed conditions in Sulaimaniyah province

Mohammed Mahmoud Al-Amiry , Mohammed Owaid Al-Ubai

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Two field experiments were carried out in a farmer’s fields in Sulaimaniyah Governorate (Bakra Joe region) in winter season of 2014-2015. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) were used with three replicates, in order to evaluate 14 genotypes with local cultivar (Araz) as a control of Wheat (Triticum spp) and 6 genotypes of Triticale (X. Triticosecale wittmack). The study results were summarized as following: the genotypes of Wheat significantly varied in all studied traits. The genotype AL-LSSN 108 in highest average of number of grains in spike 49.77 grain spike-1 and grain yield about 4.29 ton ha-1, and the genotype AL-ESW 139 was superior in spike with 442.7 spike m-2 and average of protein percentage in grain %17.15. The genotype AL-LSSN 143 has recorded highest average of 1000-grain weight 26.73 gm. The genotypes of Triticale varied in most of studied traits where the genotype Triticale 49 was superior in number of grains in spike 47.12 grain. spike-1, weight of 1000-grain weight 31.14 gm, grain yield 5.27 ton.

Effect of sowing and cutting date on growth and green fodder yield of Oat

Nihad Mohammed AL-dulami , Mohammed Saeed AL-khali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2014-2015 in a private farm near AL- Khalidiyah district of west of Ramadi city 43° longitude and 33° latitude, to in vistigate effect of sowing date (10th Oct, 20th Oct, 30th Oct and 9th Nov) and cutting date (45, 60, 75 day from sowing) in some of growth characteristics, fodder yield and quality of oat (cv. Shofan 11). Split-plot arrangement was used in RCBD with three replicates. Sowing dates occupied the main plots, while the cutting dates occupied the sub-plots. The results were summarized as follows: Cutting date after 75 day from sowing was superior in most traits in first cut; however, plant height 87.66 cm, number of leaves 6.97 leaf plant-1, stem diameter 5.40 mm, fresh and dry weight of fodder 46.58 and 6.27 ton. ha-1 respectively, As for second and third cutting dates, the first date was superior in most traits under study (e.g. plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter and fresh fodder) their averages were 21.90, 19.90 ton. ha-1 and dry fodder 2.69, 2.72 ton. ha-1 for the first and second cut respectively. The sowing date 10th Oct in most studied traits for the three cuttings. As for the two way interaction between the cutting dates and sowing dates, plants sown at 10th Oct and cut after 75 days in most of studied traits e.g. number of leaves, stem diameter, fresh and dry fodder where the means were 7.46 leaf plant-1, 5.99 mm, 57.49 ton ha-1 8.29 ton ha-1 in first cut. Plants sown at 10th Oct and cut after 45 days was superior in plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, fresh and dry weight which recorded 69.90, 71.90 cm, 5.26, 4.63 leaf plant-1, 5.03 and 4.52 mm, 28.78, 28.68 ton ha-1, 3.25 and 4.30 ton ha-1 for the second and third cut.

Evaluate the effectiveness of the weed herbicide Atlantis WG for some varieties of wheat which be approved in Iraq and associated weed and its impact on the economic quotient

Ahmed. T. Mohammed , Reasan K. Shati , Abdulkaree

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field experiment was carried out during the season 2014-2015 in the Field belongs to the college of Agriculture, Baghdad University – Jadiriyah in order to assess the effectiveness of the herbicide Atlantis WG which used to control weed wheat. Six varieties of wheat were used, namely, (Iba’a 99, Abu Ghraib 3, Fateh, Rasheed, Tahadi and Iraq). A concentration of 200 g.h?¹ and 300 g.h?¹ of herbicide was used including control line (without application). Results of the experiment revealed that, Atlantis has high efficiency in manage wheat weeds in which the density of weeds after 90 days of the application was respectively reduced as, 179.7, 67.4 plant.m?² for the two concentrations 200, 300 g.h?¹ respectively above in comparison to that of the control group which amounted of 427.7 plant.m?². Consequently, the outcomes of wheat were increased from 4.892 tans.h?¹ to 5.345 and 6.076 tans.h?¹ for the two previously mentioned concentration with percentages of 8 and 16 % respectively. Iba’a 99 class has achieved significantly the highest average with 5.860 tans.h?¹ of wheat cereals, which exceed class Abu Ghraib 3 with amount of 5.678 tans.h?¹. Such results may be attributed to the genetic variation of nature for wheat classes as well as Iba’a class has wide distance of the flag leave with 1000 grain. All of these factors may contribute to the variation of wheat class's response to the application of the herbicide. All these classes of wheat were positively responded to Atlantis WG during the application.

Estimating of Pesticide Residues (Atlantis WG) in the Wheat Triticum aestivum L. Crop and the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammed , Reasan K. Shati , Abdulkareem

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field experiment was carried out during the winter season 2014-2015 in the field belongs to the college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad – ALJadiriyah in order to assess pesticides residues after harvesting of wheat crop (Cultivar Iba’a 99) to find out the degradation Atlantis WG {Mesosulfuron-methyl + Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium} in soil. A concentration of 200g.h?¹ and 300 g.h?¹ of herbicide were used in addition to control line (without application). Results showed that, non -pesticides residues were found in wheat after one hour of application due to the nature of Atlantis WG since it is a systematic herbicide; that is, it needs simple time to be absorbed by the plant at which it will start distribute in every single part inside the plant. Residues of this herbicide were appeared after one week of application and then in a high concentration two weeks later. The pesticide residues were started to decreased after four weeks of application and continue vanishing after few weeks of application until it approached the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg.L?¹ after 19 weeks which is much lower than the allowed concentration. In addition, the chemicals analysis results of pesticide residues in some soil samples revealed that the active ingredient of Atlantis WG (Mesosulfuron) was found in soil but in small amounts ranged between 0.0087 mg.L?¹ and 0.0.99 mg.L?¹ as MRLs (Maximum Residue limits) which as a result cannot effects subsequent crops in future.

Estimation of General Combining Ability for Parents and Specific for Single Hybrids and Correlation Coefficient for Studied Characters of Maize using Simmonds Method

Mustafa Iskander Zaid Al-Wardy , Ali Hussein Jasim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Eight inbred lines of maize (1. Inb–6, 2. Pio – 17, 3. Syn– 9, and 4. Zm–17) as female and lines (5. Pio–3, 6. S–10, 7. MGW–1 and 8. Ast–B) as male parents were entered in program for hybridization in factorial mating system to produce 16 single cross in field crops Research station of general Board of Agricultural Research- Abu – Ghraib.Seeds of gene types (4Femal + 4Male + 16 Cross) have been planted in field of a farmer in Kut, using randomized complete block design R.C.B.D. with three replicates in fall season 2015 to estimate general and specific combining ability and their effects and correlation coefficient between observed and expected values for each trait, using (22) methods for factorial analysis, The results revealed that there were significant differences for mean squares of genotypes for all studied traits The hybrid 3*5 gave mean highest for ear length 20.42 cm, number of grains per row 35.75 and for grain yield per plant 381.24gm. Results of genetic analysis showed that the variance of the SCA was more than the variance of the GCA for ear length 0.668, number of rows per ear 0.628, number of grains per row 0.738, ear diameter 0.631 and for grain yield per plant 0.570. The effects of GCA for the females and males parents were positive and negative for cross in all traits. The line 2 found effect highest GCA for ear length 0.871, ear diameter 1.409, number of ears per plant 0.152 and for grain yield per plant 43.271, and ear length 0.769, number of rows per ear 0.731, number of grains per row 2.276, 250 grain weight 13.770, and for grain yield per plant 25.017. In addition, the SCA effects for crosses were positive and negative for all the cross in all studied traits, the single cross hybrid 3*8 was the effect highest of SCA for ear length 2.826, number of grains per row 6.011, and for grain yield per plant 90.513. The correlation coefficient between the observed values and expected values for each trait was high for all studied traits.

Estimation of genetic parameters of Sorghum genotype under population density

Zeyad A. Abdul-Hamed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field experiment was carried out at field of Dept. of Field Crops Science- Coll. of Agric. - Univ. of AL- Anbar during spring and fall seasons 2015, using RCBD in a split-plot arrangement with replicates three, using three different population 66.66, 88.88, 133.33 thousands plant. ha-1 (main plots) and six genotype Babel, Inkath , Rabih , Giza and E22 (sub plots). Values of genetic, environmental variance genetic, phenotypic coefficient variation and heritability of studied traits sorghum were calculated. The highest genetic variation-environmental variation were 13, 11 and 10.1 for number of grains per head, 1000-grains weight of grains and plant growth rate respectively, the highest heritability was for number of grains per head and 1000 grains weight of grains 92.95%, 91.68% respectively. In spring season, the genotype Giza gave mean highest grain yield 6.27 t.ha-1, but in fall season, the results showed that the cultivar Inkath gave mean highest grain yield 7.72 t.ha-1 and gave mean highest for number of grains per head 2810 grain. The population density has significantly of affected, we conclude that most of yield components traits are affecting more by the genetic factor considering number and weight of grains as a criteria in measuring grains production ability of sorghum.

The Effect of herbicides and Agriculture spacing, on yield components of wheat Triticum aestivum L. and on accompanied weeds

Senan A. AL. Salmane , Adel H. A.-Alghafoor , Na

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A field experiment was conducted at the farmer field near Ramadi city /Al-Anbar governorate during the growing season of 2007-2008 to investigate the effect of herbicides and row spacing on weeds accompanied with wheat and on growth characteristics , grain yield and yield components of wheat . The factorial experiment was carried out according to RCBD design with three replication . Two herbicides were included Pyroxsulam and Chevalier at rate of 0.3 L. ha-1, 0.3 kg ha-1 respectively. The bread wheat was planting at three row spacing 15, 20, 25 cm. Results showed great effect of herbicides in controlling weeds. The dry weight of weeds decreased in a percentages of 98.9% and 98.5% with Pyroxsulam and Chevalier respectively as compared with the weedy plots. While the grain yield of wheat increased in the same herbicides treatments. There was non significant deference between herbicides and hand weeding in almost all of the studied characters. The row spacing of 15 cm caused significant reduction in the dry weights of weed with 17. 36 gm.m-2 as compared with 20 and 25 cm with 19.71and 25.03 gm. m-2 respectively. However, row spacing of 25 cm was superior in number of spike. m-2, weight of 1000 grain and wheat yield which reached to 36.6 cm2, 406.04 spike . m-2, 46.6 gm and 5.3 t. ha-1 respectively. The results also showed the positive interaction between the herbicides and row spacing in decreasing the dry matter of weed that grown with the crop. The treatment of 25cm row spacing with Chevalier application gave grain yield of 6.36 t/ha with an increase percentage reached to 57.7% compared to 2.69 t. ha-1 recorded for the same raw spacing with no herbicide application .

Effect of spraying the nutrients in the vegetative growth and yield of potato Solanum tuberosum L. CV. Savanna at spraying season

Mead L. A. A Aldulime , OMAR H. M. ALMEHEMDI

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

This experiment was conducted in a field at Hameed Shaaban, Abu Ghraib during the spring season 2015. Seeds of Elite rank of Savanna potato were planted in 4m rows …75 cm between each other and 25 cm between tubers. The depth of cultivation was 10-12 cm. The field was divided into three blocks with 11 treatments randomly distributed and thus there were 33 experimental units within randomized complete block design (RCBD) to test five types of nutrients; i.e. Biohorm, a growth regulator and enzymatically activator; Foliartal, a neutral leaf nutrient; Grow more, a leaf nutrient high in potassium; Multisource- N, a leaf nutrient high nitrogen and Foliartal, a phosphorus-rich fertilizer. Each was applied in two concentrations 100 and 250 ml.L-1. The treatments were assigned as (F0 to F10). Results showed a significant superiority of Biohorm treatment at 250 ml. L-1 for most traits as dry weight of vegetative 153.43 g , leaves content of chlorophyll 92.10 (mg 0.100 g-1 fresh weight) , leaf area 28.59 dm2 , tuber average weight 116.56 g and plant yield 1220.1 g.plant-1. Foliartal (neutral) treatment at 100 ml. L-1 rivaled significant tubers per plant 6.487 tuber. Plant-1.

Effect of spraying with Bark extracts and Grofalcs on physical characters of fruits of sours orange Citrus aurantium L

Zainab Oudah Oubed Al-augany

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

This study was carried out in a private orchard at AL-Kefl. Babylon during the growing of season 2014 on the local sours orange fruit 12 years age. The trees were sprayed at 1 / 10 / 2014 with three concentrations of Bark extracts 20, 30 and 40 % and Grofalcs (200, 300 and 400) mg. L-1. The results indicated that spraying trees with treatments caused a significant increasing in the rate of length, diameter, weight, size, percentage of peel, peel thickness, percentage of juice. There was significant differences between these treatments. The treatments of concentration of Grofalcs 400 mg /L gave the best results of studied characteristics

Predation efficiency of Nephus duransis to two mealy bug species Nipaecoccus viridis and Planococcus citri with determination of its functional response

Hussam aldin A. Mohmmd , Khamees A. Aliwey

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A study was conducted in the Biological Control Unit College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad (Abu-Ghraib). Results indicated that the predation rates of egg stage were 66.5 and 66.3 for both species respectively with no significant differences at 0.05%. Predation rates of crawlers for both mealy bug species were 47.9 and 38.7 respectively while 2.4 and 1.9, respectively for adults. Results of statistical analysis indicated the variation of predation rates according to the prey stage and species with significant differences. Results of this study also revealed the differences in consumption depending the prey phase and the predators. The functional response of the natural enemies towards its preys considered as an important indicators of its success or failure in biological control programs. The predator N. viridis followed the second mode of functional response according to the figures and tables obtained which means that the mentioned predator is able to organize the population of mealy bug at appropriate environmental conditions.

Yearly occurrence of maely bug Nipaecoccus viridis on citrus trees in Abu-Graib in Baghdad- Iraq

Khamees A. Aliwey , Hussam aldin A. Mohmmd

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

A study was conducted in orchard at Abu-Ghraib county located within Baghdad province for a full year starting from the beginning of June 2014 to the end of June 2015. Three peaks appeared, the first peak was in the first week of July as reached 77.5 insect/tree and the degree of the upper and lower temperature and relative humidity were 44 C°, 27.3C° and 22%, respectively. While the second peak was in the second week of October reached 141 insect/tree when the degree of the upper and lower temperature and relative humidity were 39.2 C°, 17.9 C° and 41%, respectively. Then the mealy bug (Nipaecoccus viridis) numbers decreased until the insect has entered the hibernation stage in early January of 2015 which continued for three months till April, after that mealybug begun to spread and reached its highest peak in the second week of July which was 21.4 insect/tree when the degree of the upper and lower temperature and relative humidity were 42 C°, 25 C° and 21%, respectively. Then, numbers of mealybug declined and fluctuated till the end of July. The environmental studies which study of factors affecting the increase in the population of the pest and bio-number occupies privileged position between studies because they represent the main pillars in integrated pest management programs.

Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda

JASIM M. A. AL-ISAWI , SALIH H. SAMER

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Evaluation of chemical agents Salicylic Acid(SA) and Beta Amino Butyric Acid (BABA) agents to induce systemic resistance Results indicated that when BABA sprayed on foliage at rate 1000 and 2000 mg .L-1 and SA in 200 and 400 mg .L-1 highly reduced disease infection to 13.33 ، 10.00 ، 20.00 and 13.33% respectively with efficiency use 63.3 ، 72.5 ،50.0 ، 63.3% respectively compared to control(no treatment in presentence of pathogen without addition of inducing agents) with percentage of infection 36.33% . Biochemical analysis showed that treatment maize with 2000 mg.l-1 of BABA increased peroxidase activity the change in absorbance 44.10 min-1.gr-1 fresh weight after 5 days of treatment ،while treatment with SA at rate 400 mg.L-1 increased peroxidase activity the change in absorbance was reached 44.33 min-1.gr-1 fresh weight after 8 days. When BABA was use at 2000 mg .L-1 achieved phenols and prolin accumulation to rate 306.7 mg-1 .gr-1 fresh weight and10.33 µM-1. .gr-1 fresh weight after 10 days of treatment respectively.

Effect of inoculum type, infection method and determination response of some maize hybrids to common smut infection caused by Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda

JASIM M. A. AL-ISAWI , Salih h. SAMER

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

The inoculum type and infection method are effecting of percentage and severity of common smut disease on corn .Result of Field study indicated that the type inoculum mixture (Teliospores and Basidiospores) for Ustilago maydis was the best inoculum to achieve highest infection for two periodes after 10 and 20 days of inoculation. Percentage of disease infection was 40% for both periodes and disease severity was 5.17 for both periodes too, compared to control (no treatment) was 6.7% and disease severity was 1. Result of method of inoculation indicated that injection of silk channel with suspension of (teliospores and Basidiospores) gave highest percentage of infection 40% after 10 and 20 days with disease severity 4.67. Regarding the study of sensitivity 10 foreign hybrids (wich cultured in wide area in Iraq). Result demonstrated that Abgaro and Dijla hybrids were more resistance to the disease. Percentage of disease sinfection were 16.7 and 16.7% on foliage respectively the percentage .However, percentage infection of ears were 23.3 and 26.7% and disease severity was 2.5 and 2.5 respectively. Also, result indicated that local corn variety was most sensitive among corn hybrid, percentage of infection was 33.3% and 40% on foliage and ears respectively, disease severity of ears was

The Optimum Conditions for Extraction of Mucilage from Tamarindus indica L. Seeds

Ahmed H. A. Al-Jobouri , Raed S. Suhail , Zahraa S

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

In this study the optimum conditions to extract the mucilage from Tamarindus indica L. Seeds powder was determined. The extraction procedure was conducted at different temperature, mixing ratio of distilled water with seeds powder and seeds defatting as well. The results revealed that the temperature was found to be superior in mucilage yield. While defatting and mixing ratio was less effective. The extracted mucilage appeared in dark brown color at 100 C° in compared with other heat treatment. The highest yield of mucilage was achieved by extracting defatted seeds powder with distilled water using 1:40 (w/v) mixing ratio at 100 C° which resulted in 21.45% , While extracting the whole seeds powder and defatted seeds powder at 25 C° and 60 C° yielded 0.25 , 1.38 , 0.83 and 2.75% respectively .

Effect of composite edible coating from gelatin and glycerol triacetate on prolonging shelf life of refrigerated strawberry

Layla A. Fatah , Alaa A. K. Muhsen , Hmeed A. Jab

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Postharvest treatments of strawberries are necessary to maintain high quality of the product for longer periods, to reduce postharvest losses and to add quality value .The ability of three solution of edible films (6%gelatin-6%gelatin with 10% glycerol triacetate - 6%gelatin with 20% glycerol triacetate), to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit over 12 days was studied. Strawberries were immersed in the films solutions for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 ?C for 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration .The quality of coated and non-coated strawberries was evaluated by weight loss , titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total sugar concentration ,vitamin C and visible decay during over a 12-day storage period. Results showed that the merge of fat material with gelatin films extend shelf-life of strawberries and keep the quality of the strawberries during storage, when compared with control fruits, but it did not delay of visible decay during refrigerated storage.

Impact of tomato lycopene on the chemical and physical properties for beef burger, which was preserved by cooling for 3 weeks.

Mohammed Abd Hemed Al-esawi , Ethar Zaki Naji Al-

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

Each of concentrated extract of tomato by-products with addition ratio 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%, signed as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively and crude tomato by-products with addition ratio 3, 4.5, 6 and 7.5%, respectively, signed as T5, T6, T7 and T8, respectively as additives in beef burger manufacture. Results of sensory evaluation of manufactured samples did detect any significantly differences between them in studies characters whereas T8 was the highest in color, treatments T1 and T8 showed its strike in flavor and the juiciness character was relevant in treatments T2 and T8. Tenderness was high for temperature T2 and T8, general acceptance in treatments T2, T7 and T8 and odor was not affected by treatments. Study of chemical and physical characters of manufacture burger through storing times which is ranged between 0-3 weeks confirmed in that samples T5-T8 maintained hydrogen number not more than 6.12 comparing samples T0 , T1, T2 , T3 and T4 which in their hydrogen numbers was increase to higher than 7.28 in the first week from storage. Water holding capacity (WHC) in samples T1, T4 and improved by 7.44% as compared with control sample (T0) which lost 12.56%. From WHC. The WHC in samples T5-T8 increased with adding percent of crude by-products and reached 7.67%. Also, the results showed that free fat acids (FFA) increased in control sample (T0) more than in other samples that increased in its peroxide value discriminately but less share; the most stable sample peroxide value was the treatment T8 that included the highest proportion of by-products 7.5%. Results of peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value insured free fat acids tests. Whereas all samples showed stability in peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid with special superiority of samples T6, T7 and T8. For lycopene and concentration test all samples maintained saved at concentrations of lycopene and which increased with addition value. According to this, T8 had higher concentration 20.760 mg. g-1 than control sample (T0) which reached 1.285 mg. g-1 of lycopene.

Extraction of Peroxidase from Seeds of Some Plants belonging to Gramineae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae Families and Study of Biochemical Characteristics from the Selected Source

Khalid F. Al-Rawi , Gazi M. Aziz , Abdulhakem D.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

This study was conducted in order to extract peroxidase from seeds of 10 plants belonging to 3 families; Fabaceae (Mung bean, Lentils and Peanut), Solanaceae (Chili pepper, Bell pepper, Datura and wild eggplant),Poaceae (Oat, pearl millet and proso millet).the enzyme was qualified and its kinetic constants were assessed. Extract prepared from proso millet seeds using phosphate buffer 0.1M at pH7 contained the highest specific activity 3.35 U. mg.protein-1 as compared with seeds of other plants. In determination of optimum condition of enzyme extraction, three kinds of buffer solutions at two concentrations 0.1 and 0.2M within pH range 4.5-9 were used. Sodium acetate at pH 6 at 0.1M concentration gave the best results for enzyme extraction with specific activity of 8.06 U. mg.protein-1. The ratios of 1:4 recorded the best specific activity 5.98 U. mg.protein-1. Results showed that the optimum period of extraction was 30 min. with specific activity of 7.11 U. mg.protein-1. Precipitation with saturated solution of ammonium sulfate (30-90%) was used. the highest specific activity was noticed in saturation percent 80% and was 11.29 U. mg.protein-1 with purification fold of 1.66 and enzymatic yield of 70%

Economic analysis for effective factors in supply response of wheat crop in Iraq in Anbar province from 1990 to 2013

Faiq J. yasseen , Noor Y. Othman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:14 Issue:1

The importance of the study of the supply response of agricultural crops they diagnosed the most important influencing factors in motivating farmers to expand the area cultivation of the crop particularly crops that demand is more than the domestic production such as wheat crop, which was covered by this research. It has been selected Anbar province, the area to search their relative importance for the production of the crop and because the analysis at the provincial level may be more accurate than analysis at the country level because of the different of the response in different regions. For the estimating supply response cultivated wheat crop area has been the adoption of the partial amendment to Nerlove for the estimation of supply response functions through multiple regression analysis by multiple formats in order to reach the most conciliation signals formula with economic and statistical logic. Through the analysis and display the results have been a better formula, a dual logarithmic using absolute price where were identified the most important factors affecting the supply response cultivated , which includes the price of wheat crop for the year earlier , the price of barley crop( crop competitor ) , area response for the year earlier , cultivated area prior to the year , and productivity the former , productivity risk, irrigation water , and time , it turned out that the combination of these variables explain about 95% of the variances in the area cultivated through the coefficient of determination R-2 .. It was found that the price elasticities of supply in the short-run is less than one, this means that the wheat crop is described that is flexible, this is consistent with economic theory that agricultural commodities is inelastic be supply for biological nature