2017, Volume:15 Issue:2


Exogenous application of Ethephon effects on some growth and yield characteristics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.Moench)

Nihad Mohammed Abood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The experiment was carried out at two locations, the first in Ramadi - Kaldia (80 km) west of Baghdad, the second at the farm of College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during the spring season 2017, in order to study the effect of concentrations and application growth stage of ethephon on growth, yield, and its components of sorghum (cv. Buhooth 70). Split plot arrangement was used according to RCBD. The application growth stage 4, 6 and 8 leaf growth stage, occupied the main plots while Ethephon concentrations 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg L-1, occupied the sub-plots. Results showed at both seasons, that the high concentration (1500 mg .L-1) gave the lowest plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and grain yield, thus reducing the biological yield 2.302 and 2.515 ton ha-1, for both locations respectively, While the concentrations 1000 and 500 mg.L-1, gave the highest grain yield 3.976 and 3.741 ton ha-1, for both locations respectively, the application times according to growth stages also had a significant effect on number of days to flowering stage and maturation also weight of 500 grains and grain yield. Application at 4 and 6 leaf growth stages gave highest grain yield in both locations 3.464, 3.673 ton ha-1 respectively, also the most traits under study were significantly influenced by the interaction between concentrations and application time, the highest yield 5.127 ton ha-1 in Ramadi location, was obtained from interaction treatment (1000 mg L-1 * 8 leaf growth stage) was while in Baghdad location the interaction treatment (500 mg L-1 * 6 leaf growth stage) gave the highest yield 4.623 ton ha-1

Exogenous application of Ethephon effects on some growth and yield characteristics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.Moench)

Nihad Mohammed Abood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The experiment was carried out at two locations, the first in Ramadi - Kaldia (80 km) west of Baghdad, the second at the farm of College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during the spring season 2017, in order to study the effect of concentrations and application growth stage of ethephon on growth, yield, and its components of sorghum (cv. Buhooth 70). Split plot arrangement was used according to RCBD. The application growth stage 4, 6 and 8 leaf growth stage, occupied the main plots while Ethephon concentrations 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg L-1, occupied the sub-plots. Results showed at both seasons, that the high concentration (1500 mg .L-1) gave the lowest plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and grain yield, thus reducing the biological yield 2.302 and 2.515 ton ha-1, for both locations respectively, While the concentrations 1000 and 500 mg.L-1, gave the highest grain yield 3.976 and 3.741 ton ha-1, for both locations respectively, the application times according to growth stages also had a significant effect on number of days to flowering stage and maturation also weight of 500 grains and grain yield. Application at 4 and 6 leaf growth stages gave highest grain yield in both locations 3.464, 3.673 ton ha-1 respectively, also the most traits under study were significantly influenced by the interaction between concentrations and application time, the highest yield 5.127 ton ha-1 in Ramadi location, was obtained from interaction treatment (1000 mg L-1 * 8 leaf growth stage) was while in Baghdad location the interaction treatment (500 mg L-1 * 6 leaf growth stage) gave the highest yield 4.623 ton ha-1

Diagnosis of gypsiferous soil and determination of gypsum content using their spectral properties

Akram A. H., A. M. AlKubisi and A. K. Ahmed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The aims of this study was to electromagnetic spectrum (E.M.S) in determining the spectral signature of the soil according to their gypsum content at different moisture levels, to recasting of the gypsum using the best wavelength and to creation mathematic models for forecasting. The study was carried out at laboratories of college of agriculture, Anbar University. Soil with 42% gypsum content was brought from Salah Al-Den province and washed by distilled water to remove different amount of gypsum and finally to get soils with 3, 8, 17, 28 and 36% gypsum contents. Soils were packed in polyvinyl chloride tubes (PVC) with 7.5 cm diameter and 30 cm height with eight replicates for each gypsum level. Soils were moisten by capillary to maintain homogeneity of soil moisture along the column. Spectral reflectance of soil was measured by spectroradiometer at moisture level of 24%. The results showed an absorption band at 1750 nm wavelength was appeared. The depth of this band was increased as increasing of gypsum content in soil. There is highly significant correlation between gypsum content and spectral reflectance at each of infrared bands (B6) and (S.B). The correlation coefficients at the band B6 were 0.978, 0.979 and 0.972, respectively. Linear, Quadratic and cubic models were represent this relationship. Gypsum was correlated linear, quadratic and cubic by a positive regression relationship with B6. Linear, quadratic and cubic models were the best and more efficient to forecasting gypsum in soil with determination coefficient were 0.99, 0.99 and 0.99 respectively.

Efficient use of the water potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under the effects of stress water and irrigation management in desert soil

Ehab M. Hussein , Bassam Al-deen Al-Khateeb

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted in during the fall of 2016, in terms of Habbaniyah–spend khalidiyah–Anbar province in a sandy clay loam, to study the effect of stress water and irrigation management in efficient use of the water potato, where perfusion has operations at 40, 50 and 60% depletion of available water. Water added in three ways, firstly addition depth once, for added half the depth and the addition of the second half after 6 hours of the first add-on, add a three-included a division of the depth of irrigation to three sections separating them duration of 6 hours, the study treatments distributed in accordance with the randomized complete block design (RCBD) of three replicates. Potatoes were planted on 13-09-2016, Use American evaporation pond Class A at the irrigation time. Calculated total yield and the efficiency of water use. Study has been showed that an increase in the average total yield reached 22.73 Ton h -1, when depletion 40 % of available water and averaged efficiency of water use 12.94 kg m3 when depletion 50 % of available water for any style and added. In addition, the style additive triple is distinction in giving highest value of total yield and used efficiency if it reached 23.90 Ton h -1, 14.17 kg m-3 sequentially

Estimation of Consumptive Water Use of Vicia faba Under Conditions of middle of Iraq – Kut city

J. N. Abedalrahman , M. I. Khalbas and A. D. Macto

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Experiment field was conducted for irrigation scheduling depending on moisture depletion of available water for leguminosae in field of agriculture college-Wasit University at latitudes 32° 30? 31.19?North and longitudes 45° 26? 89? East, Altitude 19 m through the autumn season 2016-2017 in loam soil. the aim of this study to determine the reference water consumptive ETo , actual consumptive use ETa , crop coefficient Kc of leguminosae and water use efficiency at irrigation scheduling on base of moisture depletion of available water at ratios 25, 50 and 75% and effect of climate factors on it. The experiment carried out using random complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The seeds of leguminosae planted at date 10/10/2016, the end of growth season at 15/4/2017. The quantities of added water used to calculate the actual consumptive use ETa by using water-balance equation, the gravimetric water content determined immediately after irrigation and before the following irrigation through the growth season to limit irrigation scheduling of studied treatments. The reference water consumptive ETo calculated by using three empirical equations (Blaney-criddle, Najib Kharrufa, Evaporation pan). The results showed that the Najib Kharrufa equation gave high value of ETo 675.49 mm comparatively with equations of evaporation Pan and Blaney–criddle that gave ETo values 591.92 and 544.77 mm alternately. The treatment of irrigation at depletion of 25% of available water gave high value of ETa 577.95 mm, comparatively with treatments depletion of 50 and 75% of available water that gave ETa values 531.5 and 472.1 mm, alternately. The results showed increasing of crop coefficient Kc, for all treatments, with progress of growth season and reached high value at flowering and spuds formation stage and reduced at maturation stage (end of growth season), the high value of Kc showed at irrigation treatment at depletion 25% of available water, its ranged between 0.62 to 1.44, but the low value of Kc showed at irrigation treatment at depletion 75% of available water, its ranged between 0.38 to 1.29. The irrigation treatments showed significant differences between studied characteristics crop , thus irrigation treatment at depletion 25% of available water increased significantly in comparison with irrigation treatment at depletion 75 % of available water in height plant and leaf area surface , but there are non-significant differences were noted in stem diameter , the irrigation treatment at depletion 25% of available water increased significantly in comparison with other treatments in total yield (spuds) . The irrigation treatment at depletion 50% of available water gave high water use efficiency (WUEf) that equal 1.43 kg m-3.

Comparison of effect of irrigation exudation and surface drip irrigation in some physical properties of soil growth and cucumber yield (Cucumis sativus L.)

S. E. H. Aldulaimy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted in AL – Anbar Governorate-AL- Ramadi –Sufia district during the spring season, in a silt loam soil, to study the effect of exudation irrigation and surface drip irrigation in some physical properties, growth and cucumber yield: Bulk density and porosity, water infiltration, leaf area, dry weight of vegetative part and root, root and stem length and stem diameter, cucumber yield class Beit Alpha. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replicates, statistically analysis using the Genstat program. The results showed improvement in the physical properties studied when exudation irrigation, with significant in the rate density and porosity at the depth 0 – 20 cm, which reached 1.24 Mg m-3, 50.38% compared to 1.38 Mg m-3, 46.87% when drip irrigation, while significant, while non-significant were found in rate of Bulk density and porosity at depth 20-40 cm, increase in basic infiltration rate when exudation irrigation percentage by 36% at reached 8.9 cm h-1 compared to 5.7 cm h-1 when drip irrigation. The results showed significant in rate of leaf area, as it was 173.93 dm2 plant-1 when drip irrigation, 207.77 dm2 plant-1 when exudation irrigation statistical analysis showed significant in dry weight of vegetative part and root which reached 104.4g at drip irrigation compared to 57.5, 8.5g for exudation irrigation. The rate of stem length, root, stem diameter and total yield were found to be statistically non-significant.

Effect of physiographic position on the suitability of land for Cotton production in some Agricultural projects within Iraqi Mesopotamians

Ali Hussein Ibrahim Al-Bayati and Hayder Hassin fa

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The objective of the study was identification the effect of the physiographic position on how suitable the land is for cotton cultivation within Mesopotamian, three Agricultural projects were selected and they are 7 Nessin, North kut and Al-Majar Al-Kabeer within Baghdad, Kut and Messin Provinces respectively, with consideration In the selection, the situation of all projects within Tigris river sediments ecology. Morphological and some soil physical and chemical properties for represented pedons of every secondary physiographic unit within the projects above were studied. The land agro-ecological characteristics which directly affect the land suitability for Barley cultivation were circumscribed, which included Eco-climatological characteristics, the evaluation of these characteristics was carried out by interconnection between parametric method and limitation method which was suggested by (20), according to the results the lands were classified according to their suitability for barely cultivation Results showed that the moderately suitable for climate in the three-studied project to cotton production, its reached 83.8% and %79.7 for 7 Nessin and North Kut& Al- Majar Al-Kabeer projects respectively, which means that climate was not the limit factor for the suitability of the studied regions for cotton cultivation. While the results about land properties evaluation showed that soil content from CaCO3 was the major limitation to cotton cultivation at studied projects, with presence the drainage class as limited factor within North Kut& Al- Majar Al-Kabeer projects, addition to soil salinity. The land suitability of the studied projects was distributed as class S3s (Marginally suitable land for cotton cultivation) %100 at 7 Nessin project, while its recorded %48.33 from total North Kut project area, decreased to 6.45% from Al- Majar Al-Kabeer project area. While the class N1 Unsuitable land for cotton cultivation because of the physical and chemical limitation was recorded 3.35% from total area for studied projects, with 14.66% at North Kut, while this class not recorded at 7 Nessin and Al-Majer Al-Kabeer projects. The class N2(Unsuitable land for cotton cultivation) was recorded a large percentage of %62.53 within all studied projects, which was presented increasing to North Kut and Al-Majer Al-Kabeer project, recorded 37.01% and 93.55% respectively. From a study we can understands priority 7 Nessin project and North Kut with limited degree to cotton cultivation, which was resistance to salinity in comparison to Al-Majer Al-Kabeer project, which showed unsuitability for cotton cultivation.

Evaluation of Land suitability for AL-Maymounah project within Missan Governorate for sunflower cultivation using geographic information systems

Salah M. Al-Juraysi and Ibrahim R. Mhede

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Maymounah project was chosen in Missan governorate. The project area about 57500 hectares, Twenty five pedons were selected as representing of the soil series in study area, Geo reference was used for pedons map by geographic information systems. The limitations method was used in land evaluation for sunflower crop... The results showed the climate was simple limiting factor, the class of suitable was moderate (S2), the lands were unsuitable (N1) about 100%, because of some limitations factors such as the salinity, drainage and ESP. The land has been classified, there for, in accordance with its suitability for sunflower production after remove salinity into marginally suitable S3 6167.5 hectare 10.73% and moderately suitable S2 51332.5 hectare 89.27%

Evaluation of Land suitability for AL-Maymounah project within Missan Governorate for sunflower cultivation using geographic information systems

Salah M. Al-Juraysi and Ibrahim R. Mhede

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Maymounah project was chosen in Missan governorate. The project area about 57500 hectares, Twenty five pedons were selected as representing of the soil series in study area, Geo reference was used for pedons map by geographic information systems. The limitations method was used in land evaluation for sunflower crop... The results showed the climate was simple limiting factor, the class of suitable was moderate (S2), the lands were unsuitable (N1) about 100%, because of some limitations factors such as the salinity, drainage and ESP. The land has been classified, there for, in accordance with its suitability for sunflower production after remove salinity into marginally suitable S3 6167.5 hectare 10.73% and moderately suitable S2 51332.5 hectare 89.27%

Effect of humic acid on the kinetics of phosphorus of triple super phosphate fertilizer and growth and yield of corn

Akram A. Hasan and Ahmed T. Irzeq

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Two experiments were conducted, the first laboratory experiment (incubation) was conducted to study the chemical Kinetics of phosphorous release, and the other was field experiment to study the effect of Triple super phosphate and different levels of humic acid in growth and yield of corn. Laboratory experiment was carried out to study the Kinetics of phosphorus release triple super phosphate with levels 0, 60, 80 and 100% P of recommended fertilizer dose and three levels of humic acids 0, 20, 40 Kg.h-1. After eight time of incubation, the available phosphorus was measured in the soil. The data were subjected to mathematical analysis using five kinetic equations. The field experiment was carried out in silty clay loam soil to study the available phosphorus added from triple super phosphate to soil with humic acids and their impact on growth of corn cultivar (fijer 1), using factorial experiment with design of randomized complete block, with three replicates, and two factors: four levels of triple super phosphate 40, 60, 80, and 100% P of recommended dose of fertilizer and three levels of humic acids 0, 20, 40 Kg h-1. Results of the laboratory experiment indicated that decreased concentration of available phosphorus release with the time for all levels of phosphate fertilizer. The addition of humic acids at the levels of 20 and 40 kg ha-1 increase available phosphorus for any time of incubation. Second order equation gave the highest determination coefficient and the lowest standard error, the half time of phosphorus disappearance increased with the increased level of humic acid, it increased from 35.71 days to 38.46 and 41.66 days for 20 and 40 kg h-1 levels respectively. Results of the field experiment showed a significant increase in plant height, dry weight, plant yield, weight of 300 grains and total grain yield with increased levels of phosphorus and humic acid added. A significant increase were obtained in plant height, dry weight, plant yield, weight of 300 grains, total grain yield with increasing levels of humic acids for about 4.9, 9.99, 10.6, 3.82 and 10.61% respectively by adding the level of 40 kg h-1 comparing with control treatment

Effect of humic acid in some soil properties and growth of irrigated Squash with different saline water

Yass K. AL-Hadithi and Maysam A. Al-Mashhadany

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The study was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture - Anbar University during the autumn season of 2016. The study included the effect of humic acid in some soil properties and the growth of squash with different saline water. The study included two salinity irrigation water and four levels of S0, S1, S2 and S3 salinity 1.1, 2, 3.8 and 5.6 dS m-1 and factor 2 addition of humic acid spray on plants at four levels F0, F1, F2 and F3 Spraying, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g L-1. The results showed a decrease in dry weight and plant yield when irrigation with saline water, with a value of 0.00 at salinity of 5.6 dS m-1, Compared with fresh water use 16.72 g Plant -1 and -1.66 g Plant-1, Levels of humic acid spray increased significantly in dry weight as it increased from 8.74 g Plant -1, at the level of non-spraying to 12.44 g Plants -1, at the level of spraying 1.5 g L-1. Also increased the plant yield of 64.41 g. Plant -1 when compared to 111.06 g Plants -1 at the spraying level of 1.5 g L-1. The salinity of irrigation water caused differences in the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the vegetative parts of the zucchini. The concentration of nitrogen increased from 2.075 mg N kg-1 to 2.225 mg N kg-1 while the concentration of phosphorus decreased by increasing salinity levels from 0.38 to 0.28 mg P Kg-1 potassium concentration decreased from 3.36 to 2.65 mg Kg-1. The concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increased in vegetative parts of the plant by increasing the levels of the humic acid spraying by 1.11, 0.29 and 2.48 mg kg -1 respectively on the spraying level 1.5 g L-1 compared to the comparison treatment 1.11, 0. 19 and 1.10 mg kg-1 respectively. Increase the values of electrical conductivity in the soil after planting by increasing the salinity of irrigation water as it increased to 3.60 ds m-1 after it was 1.11. ds m-1 when irrigated with fresh water. However, the spraying of the humic acid caused the decrease in the values of the electrical conductivity as it decreased from 2.16 ds.m-1 when the comparison was compared to 2.16 ds.m-1 at the spraying level of 1.5 g L-1.

Effect of methods of addition of humic acid and the levels of fertilizer recommendation in growth and yield of wheat

Fawzi M. A. Al-Hamdany and Reem Y. K. Al-Hadethi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A pot trial study was conducted during agricultural season for 2016-2017 at College of Agriculture - University of Anbar-Abu Ghraib, alternate location. To study of effect method addition of humic acid and level of fertilizer recommendation in growth and yield of wheat Triticum ssp. Ibaa type -99. The experiment was conducted with two factors the first factor was four levels of the fertilizer recommendation it's: F0 without adding, F1 50%, F2 75% and F3 100%, from fertilizer recommendation. The second factor was ways to add the humic acid in four ways to add H0 Without adding, H1 add spray, H2 add ground and H3 add (spray + ground). The study was conducted with three replicates with using with design of randomized complete block design (RCBD). The result of the study showed that The highest yield of wheat grains in the fertilizer recommendation 50% and the ad The addition of levels of the fertilizer recommendation led to increase the concentration N, P and K in wheat seeds as a percentage addition of humic acid spray + ground, it was 30.40 gm.pot-1 and the addition of humic acid lead to increased concentration this element in wheat seeds.

Inoculation of corn seeds with root contents and node root for plant leguminous and their impact in growth and bio-traits

Ali A. Al-Rawi and Sameh A. Al-Nuaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

This study was conducted in the soil silty clay loam SiCL by using CRD design including: inoculation of corn seeds with seven root extracts, clover node PF, roots remains and clover node Pd, bean node LF, bean node and root remains Ld, bean node with root fungi LMF, bean node and root remains with root fungi LMd, control treatment distilled water CO and four levels of recommendation of fertilizing for nutrients NPK T0 0%, T1 25%, T3 50% and T4 %100. The results showed a significant increase in plant height and dry weight of plant when inoculation in root extracts for stages first and second, it gave highest value for extract LMF it was 66.58 and 96.10 cm, 60.23 and 143.05 gm plant -1 consecutively. While gave this treatment a significant increase in the concentration of the nitrogen in the vegetative total and available nitrogen in soil, it was 12.83 and 11.54%, 21.73 and 22.53% consecutively, however the results showed a significant increase in numbers rhizobium bacteria within the plant root of the corn for the same treatment, it was increase ratio 455.10 % and significant increase in the density of the bio-community in the soil it was 114.55% for second stage. Regarding recommendation of fertilizing there were a significant increase for T3 to traits in plant height, dry weight, nitrogen of leaves and available nitrogen in soil for both stage it was 52.44% and 36.84%, 41.30% and 58.27%, 14.97 and 7.19 and 30.22 and 27.87% consecutively. While the infection rate of rhizobium bacteria gave a significant increase for T1 it was 6.66% in the second stage, whereas the microbial density gave significant increase for T3 it was 57.69%.

Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and organic matter on the readiness of soil nutrient, growth and yield of potato plant Solanum tuberosum L

Hadi M. Abood, Qutaiba S. Thwaini and Ali A. Kadhe

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The plant growth promoting rhizobacteria were isolated from the soil of several agriculture fields planted with various crops (Azotobacter chroococcun, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens) for the purpose of use with organic matter and knowledge of its impact on the readiness of soil nutrients and growth, yield of potato plant, Three sources of organic matter were used (sheep residues, horse residues, poultry residues). A global experiment was carried out within design of Completely Randomized Block Design RCBD in Radhwaniya south of Baghdad governorate and the results showed the treatment of the mixing of three bacteria species with organic matter in all studied traits was superior as the element concentration Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potash was recorded 63.40 , 18.43 and 163.50 mg.kg-1 soil sequentially and plant height , number of stems , yield was 75.75cm ,3.47stem plant 1 and 30.36 ton hec-1 sequentially .The mixing of three bacterial recorded the highest results in the element concentration was 53.55, 16.25 ,149.00 mg.kg-1 soil and 62.55cm ,2.86 stem plant1 and 23.32 ton hec-1 sequentially. The results showed that concentration of elements increased with the addition of organic matter and reached 61.50, 15.25, 129.33 mg.kg-1 soil and a significant difference from the comparison treatment which recorded the lowest results.

Estimation of heterosis, combining ability and expected genetic advance in maize by using half diallel cross

N. A. Mussarbat and H. J. H. Aldulaymy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Field experiment was carried out at field of Agriculture College-University of Baghdad- Abu-Ghraib in spring and fall seasons of 2016. Six inbred lines of maize Sy-33, ART-B17, Sy-52, Inb-27, MGW-16 and Pio-36 entered in half diallel cross to produce 15 hybrids in spring season of 2016. Seeds of parents and hybrids have been planted at the farm in fall season of 2016, using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates, to study the genetic behavior of parents and hybrids to improve the same traits, by using the best hybrid vigor, combining ability and estimate some genetic parameters, according to Griffing method 2, model 1, in growth and yield components traits. Results of analysis of variance showed that mean square of genotypes was significant in most of studied traits. The inbred line Sy-52 was the best in most traits and gave the highest mean in grain yield per plant 173 g. The hybrid Inb-27×MGW-16 was gave highest mean for number of grains per row 41.8 and for grain yield per plant 163 g. The hybrid MGW-16×Pio-22 was the superior than the hybrids others for heterosis measured as a deviation of F1 from best parents and gave highest hybrid vigor for grain yield per plant 47.82%. Results genetic of analysis showed that mean square due to GCA and SCA were highly significant differences in most traits. The variance ratio of ?2sca ?2gca appeared less one for all traits, indicating to be that dominance effects controlled these traits. The parental line Sy-52 had the significant GCA effect for number of rows per ear 0.67 and for grain yield per plant 13.15, the hybrid Inb-27×MGW-16 showed the highest significant SCA effect for grain yield per plant 27.98. The values of dominance genetic variance were more than values of additive genetic variance for all studied traits. The broad sense heritability was high for all studied traits, while the narrow sense heritability was low in most traits. The average degree of dominance was more than one for all studied traits. The genetic advance percentage ranged between low and medium for all traits.

Effect of Foliar Application of Thiamine on green Forage Yield in some Sorghum Varieties (Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench

Nihad M. Abood and Waleed K. Horey

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out in fields of Department of Field Crops/ College of Agriculture- University Of Anbar in replace location (Abu-Ghariab) during 2016 in order to study the effect of sprayed of Thiamine Vitamin (B1) on green forage yield and quality four concentration of Vitamin (B1) 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L-1 in three cultivars of sorghum (Bohoth Sabaaeen, Kafeer-2 and Mabrook). The study factors were randomly distributed according to split plots arrangements in RCBD with three replications. The CV. Bohoth and Mabrook was superior in yield of fresh and dry fodder and its quality 50.40, 54.56, 39.31, 10.74, 54.56 and 19.63 ton ha-1, for three cuts respectively. The cv. Bohoth was also superior in first cuts in %protein and also the cv. Kafeer-2 was superior in the % fiber for the first cuts.in then the CV. Bohoth was superior in %ash for first cuts. The aqua solution of Vitamin (B1) led to significant effect in most traits of green and dry fodder yield and its quality. The concentrations 200 and 300 mg L-1 in most studied traits such as plant fresh fodder 50.76, 33.35, 30.11, 48.45 and 49.22 ton ha-1, and dry matter with 18.48 ,12.52, 10.84, 16.94, and 10.90 ton ha-1, for the same concentrations and for three cuts. The interaction between cultivars and Vitamin levels significantly affected in yield of fresh and dry fodder, percentage of protein in third cut and fibers and ash percentage in third cuts.

Effect of bio fertilizer concentrations on the qualitative and quantitative traits of three cultivars of sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Nihad M. Abood, Muazaz A. H. AL-Hadeethi and Baraa

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A field experiment was performed during the spring season of 2016, in the Field Crops Field Experiment, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Anbar (Abu Ghraib location), located at longitude line 44.24° east and latitude 33.22° north at 34.1m above the sea level. To study the effect of three Cultivars of sorghum (Enkath, Rabeh and Giza113) and forth Humiforte 0, 3, 5 and 7 L ha-1 in some traits of growth, yield and quality, the experiment ,was Applied by using split–plots Design according to (R.C.B.D) with three replicates. The main plot included bio concentration and cultivars as sub-plots. The results showed that Giza 113 was superior to the height of the plant and the weight of 500 grains and the percentage of protein and the lowest mean of number of days from planting to 75 % flowering. While the highest yield of the total grain yield, 6.99 ton ha-1 was given to the Enkath cultivar. Rabeh was superior in leaf area, chlorophyll content and number of grains in the head. The spraying with Humiforte improved the growth, yield and quality characteristics and gave the highest 7 L ha-1 concentration of plant height, number of head grains, grain weight, total grain yield 7.21 tons ha-1and protein ratio and the lowest mean of number of days from planting to 75 % flowering. Spraying at 5 L ha-1 Give the highest average leaf area and chlorophyll content in leaves. Interaction between cultivars and biomass concentrations had a significant effect on the traits of plant height and total grain yield, with the cultivar record saving at 7 l ha-1the highest average yield of grain 7.86 tons ha–1.

Response of several cultivars of maize to soaking seeds wit pyridoxine (Zea mays L.)

Shaker S. Mreer and Yas A. Mohamad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Experimental field has been conducted during the spring season 2016 at the Field Trail Station of the Field Crops Department, College of Agriculture-University of Anbar (Alternative Site-Abu Ghraib) to know the effect of seeds soaking with four concentrations of Pyridoxine 0, 2, 4 and 6 g l-1 on the yield and its components, oil percentage and yield of three maize cultivars (Alrabeea, Alsafa and Alnoor) according to Random Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D). Results cleared that all studied traits were significantly affected by soaking with Pyridoxine, and the concentration of 6 g l-1 gave the highest means for ears no. per plant, grains per ear, 300-grain weight, grain yield, oil percentage and yield 1.61 ear plant -1, 552.4-grain ear-1, 47.86 gm, 6.75 t h-1, 4.64% and 0.31 t h-1, Respectively. In addition, cultivars have significantly differed, and Alnoor cv. Recorded, the highest means for ears per plant 1.68 ear plant-1, grains per ear 515.4 grain ear-1, grain yield 5.97 t h-1, oil percentage4.43% and oil yield 0.26 t h-1, while Alsafa cv. recorded the highest mean of 300 grain reached 47.35 gm. The interaction between Pyridoxine concentrations and cultivars was significantly affected most of the studied traits except ears per plant trait.

Response of many maize cultivars to weed control treatments

AbduL- Lateef M. A. Al –Kais and Saif N. N. AL –He

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out in fields of Field Crops Department- Agriculture College/ University of Anbar (Abu-Gharaib) and spring seasons of 2016 in order to know the effect weed control treatments in some growth, yield and its components and protein percentage of some maize genotypes (Sarah, Maha and Baghdad 3). The experiment was conducted as split plot arrangement in RCBD with three replications of each treatment. The study included four treatments: weed treatments W1, no weed treatment W0, spraying Guradian herbecide with required recommend concentration C2, and a half required recommended concentration of herbicide C1 and these treatments occupied the main plots while the genotypes represent the sub plots (Sarah, Maha and Baghdad 3). Results showed that there is a clear effects of different weed control treatments in most studied traits under the study. The treatment of full concentration of recommended herbicide achieved lowest of weed density at harvest 4.67 and 5.44 plant m-2 in comparison with the control (weed treatment) which achieved highest mean of weed density 32.11 and 28.33 plant m-2 for both seasons respectively; therefore the full concentration recommended herbicide treatment achieved the best weed control at harvest, 87.1 and 82.7% for both seasons respectively. This has led to reduction in weed dry matter and increase in inhibition in it and that has which reflected positively in improvement of growth traits and yield and its components. As for genotypes, Sarah genotype was superior in showing its ability in reduction of weed density and their dry matter and increase in control of weeds and increase in most growth traits and yield and its components in a best degree in comparison with other genotypes under study. Sarah genotype was superior in achieving highest average of plant height 167.3 and 169.7 cm, plant dry matter 1306 and 1458 g, number of grain in ear 605 and 673 grain ear-1, weight of 500 grain 134.21 and 195.7 gm in turn all has been reflected to total yield in this genotype that gave highest average of total yield 4.08 and 4.37 ton ha-1. This is an indicator that this genotype is a very good accompanied weed competitor in comparison with Maha that gave the lowest average of most of studied traits. The treatment of hand weed control (no weed) showed the clear response of maize genotypes more than other weed control treatments and followed by treatment of herbicide at recommended rate. It can be concluded from the current study that the variance between maize genotypes in most growth traits and yield and its components and protein percentage can be an important parameter in the determination of the variance between these genotypes and their ability in the competition with accompanied weed.

Response of varieties of maize to bio-fertilization of Bread yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae L.)

Moayad H. I. AL-Ani and N. D. A. AL-Obeidi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted in experimental field of Department Of Field Crops- Agriculture College/ University Of Anbar (Abu-Ghariab) during spring and autumn season of 2016 to study the effect of three maize cultivars (Massara, Sarah, and Maha) and four levels from bread yeast extract (Saccharomyces Cervisiae L.) 0, 10, 20, and 30 g L-1 were sprayed on the foliar. The two factors of the study were organized as split plot within RCBD with three replications. However, cultivars occupied the main plots while the yeast levels were put in the sub plots. The results of the study showed the following: In spring season, the level 30 g L-1 was significantly in plant height, number of ears, plant dry matter weight, weight of 500 grain, and the level 20 g L-1 gave significant differences in leaf area. While level 10 g L-1 showed a significant difference in grain in number a row total and grain yield of. In autumn season, 30 g L-1 level recorded significant in number of ears, leaf area and plant dry matter weight. While the level of 20 g L-1 was superior in plant height, number of rows and total yield grain. However, the level of 10 g L-1 was prominent in 500 grain weight and number of rows. In the spring season, Maha cultivar was significantly superior in the plant height, plant dry matter weight, and number of grains in row. While Sarah cultivar was significantly superior in leaf area, number ears in plant, and number of rows in ear, weight of 500 grains, total yield grain. As for autumn season, Massara cultivar was significantly superior in leaf area number of ear, and plant dry matter weight. While Sarah cultivar was significantly prominent in number of rows in ear). While Maha cultivar was significantly superior in plant height, weight of 500 grains and total yield. As for the interaction between the study two factors, it significantly affected in most studied traits, however Sarah cultivar plants that treated with 30 g L-1 gave the highest values of most traits means and for the two seasons of the study.

Effect of growth regulator (kainten) in the yield and components of three genotypes of wheat growing in saline soils

Imad A. W. AL-obaidy , Mohammed O. G. Al- Ubaidi a

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out in the growing season 2016-2017 at the Zubaidia Research Station of the Agricultural Research Department-Ministry of Science and Technology in saline soil with salinity between 20-25 ds m-1, to study the effect of the growth regulator kainten in the product and components of three genotypes of wheat growing in saline soil. The R.C.B.D is used to implement the experiment. The results showed the important role of the kainten growth regulator in the improvement of plant traits. The effect of kainten in the treatment of cleavage was clear in the number of spikes m-2 and it was superior compared with treatment of spray and without spray treatment, with a total of m2 263.9 g m-2 compared with spray and without treatment 225.6 and 190.0 g m-2 respectively, and for the number of spikes m2, the clearance treatment was 298 sb. -2 compared to the treatment of spray and without treatment 279 and 225 spike m-2, respectively .The weight of 1000 seeds was 27.6g compared with the soaking treatment and 25.6 and 23.5 g respectively. The number of grains in the spike was 43.3. Spike-1 compared with treatment of spray and without treatment 39.3 and 37 tablets Spike-1 respectively. The results showed that 2H genotype was superior in all studied traits of al-furat and 3H through the mean of all treatments, with the highest mean in all studied traits.

Effect of seed Priming of KCl on germination characteristics and vigor seedling of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

M. I. Habeeb and A. R. M. AL-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The study carried in seed technology laboratory of department of field crops/ Agriculture College- University of Anbar during season of 2016, in order to study the effect of seed priming of three cultivars of sunflower Aqmar, Esihaqi 1 and Esihaq 2 in improvement of their lab and field performance, seed were soaked in four concentrations of KCl 15, 20, 25 and 30 g L-1 in addition to control treatment without soaking. The experiments were laid as factorial experiments, according to CRD with four replications for experiment. The results of this study as follow: Cultivar Aqmar were significantly superior in all lab traits in both lab experiments that seeds were primed in KCl. It recorded highest values of germination percentage at first count 58.05%, standard germination percentage 80.65%, radicle length 15.49 cm, plumule length 9.89cm, seedling vigor index 2091, plumule fresh weight 1.430g and plumule dry weight 0.064 g. The concentration 20 g L-1 of KCl was significantly superior in giving the highest means of germination speed 79.92%, standard germination percentage 89.92%, germination rate 8.99, radical length 18.90 cm, plumule length 12.11 cm, seedling vigor index 2792, plumule fresh weight 1.68 g and plumule dry weight 0.075 g. The two-way interaction between sunflower cultivars and KCl concentrations was significant in most studied traits. Seeds of Aqmar cv. That treated with 20 g L-1 KCl achieved the highest means of germination velocity 81.50%, seedling vigor index 3083, plumule fresh weight 1.83 g and plumule dry weight 0.083 g.

Test of three-way hybrid summer squash effect combining ability with heritability and hetrosis

K. H. Mohammed and H. A. AL-Zabaee

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The research was carried out in the Department of Research and Studies of the Department of Horticulture - Ministry of Agriculture in Abu Ghraib. The genetic diversity of six locally derived pure strains of the summer squash 1001, 1003, 1004, 1005, 1009 and 1010, the two genetically diversity strains were identified 1001and 1009 there doer used as parents (Testers) for three-way hybrids. Four inbred 1003, 1004, 1005, and 1010 in half diallel cross to get six single hybrids 1003*1004, 1003*1005, 1003*1010, 1004*1005, 1004*1010, 1005*1010, for use by mothers (lines) for the production of three-way hybrids, Triple hybrids produced according to the program of subtraction. (Line*tester) To estimate the hetrosis and the combining ability and some of the genetic parameters in the three-way hybrids for their studied traits. The results showed that the best triple hybrid ((1004*1005) *1001) in plant yield, weight fruit, number of branches, weight of dry plant, number of female flowers, and ration bloody flowers. Which gave 5.08 Kg plant-1, 42.66 fruit plant-1, 4.17 branch plant-1, 71.30%, 30.65 female flower plant-1 and 27.95 bloody flower plant-1, On gave the hybrid vigor as compared to best parent 52.64%. The first parent 1001, showed highly general combining plant yield, weight fruit, number female flowers per plant, number of bloody flowers, While showing parent 1009, showed highly general combining weight fruit, fruit set percent, plant height, Wile brood sense heritability was high in all characteristics. In addition, narrow sense heritability was low in several traits important of which plant yield and weight fruite, the relation method of breeding to improve these traits is hybridization.

Effect of genotypes and potash spraying in the yield and quality of the cucumber cucumis sativus L.

Idrees H. M. AL-Jaf and Kudhaier A. A. AL-Jubouri

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The study includes Diallel cross of three varieties of Cucumis sativus L. in a way Full diallel cross. An experiment was conducted using 3 males + 6 hybrids + control hybrid. The experiment was carried out in the Horticulture Research Field, College of Agriculture, Baghdad University, and Layout according to split plots arrangement in (R.C.B.D.) with three replication. To study the effect of spraying potassium sulphate at the level of 0, 3000, 6000 mg L-1, on some of the quality and yield males and hybrids cucumber. Results showed out there is a moral effect in fluency of genotypes a male 3 gave the highest number and weight of fruits, the total plant yield and fruit hardest 22.33 fruit, 92.51 gm, 1.86 Kg, 10.47 gm cm-2. As the a male 2 gave the highest crust diameter 0.56 mm. that is refluxed on hybrid 2*3 gave the highest number of fruits and the total plant yield 28.33 fruit, 2.08 Kg and hybrid 1x3 gave the highest weight of fruits 116.03 gm and hybrid 2*1 gave the highest of crust diameter 0.61 mm, and control hybrid gave the highest hardest of fruit 10.49 gm.cm-2. The interaction a many the male 3 on the level K6000 gave the highest number of fruits, the total plant yield and fruit hardest 29 fruit, 2.38 Kg ,10.47 gm.cm-2 , Also the male 3 on the level K3000 gave the highest weight of fruits, and fruit hardest 143.31gm, 10.47 gm cm-2 and level K6000 the male 1 gave the highest crust diameter 0.59 mm. The level K6000 hybrid 2*3 gave the highest number of fruits and the total plant yield and fruit hardest 36 fruit, 2.88 Kg, 10.50 gm cm-2, the level K6000 hybrid 1*3 gave the highest weight of fruits 161.62 gm, and level K6000 hybrid 2x1 gave the highest crust diameter 0.70 mm.

Estimation of some genetic markers by full diallel – cross-fertilization in the female option of protected agriculture

N. S. Yassen and M. M. M. Al-Abdali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

This research was carried out in the Department of Horticulture - Ministry of Agriculture in station of vegetables research in Abu Ghraib under greenhouse 500m2, this study two experiment, the first experiment was conducted in the spring season 2016 and included a full diallel- cross between five inbridlines of the female to the production of hybrid seeds (F1). The second field experiment (performance evaluation experiment) was conducted in the spring season 2017 and included evaluation of hybrid production produced in the previous experience and compare with the hybrid adopted (kanz) within the design of the RCBD and the three replication. Significant differences were observed between the inbred lines, F1 hybrids, and control in all traits under investigation Th F1 hybrids, showed a promising hybrid vigor in most of the traits under investigation The results showed that The best hybrid in the 2x3 plant height and the reverse 3*2 was given the highest value 300.15, 300.12 cm respectively, The hybrid 1*3 best the highest value for the flowering period of 35 days, the best F1hybrid in the yield per planet fruits number and fruit set percent was the Hybrid F1 2*3 which give 3.21 kg plant-1 31.22 fruit plant-1 103.33 gm and the Hybrid 3*2 which give in the yield per plant 31.31 kg plant-1 and fruite number give 32.41fruite plant-1 and the fruit set percent 101.96 gm. The analysis of general combining ability showed that both parents 2, 3, and 4, inbred lines were the best combiners in most of the traits tested. Most of the F1 hybrids showed a significant specific combining ability in most of the traits tested. Most of the traits examined were controlled by the non-additive gene action Heritability in its broad-sense perspective was high in most traits of F1 hybrids. However, heritability in narrow-sense perspective was low in most traits of diallel hybrids and high in most traits of reciprocal hybrids

Study the effect of chemical changes in fertilized and unfertilized hatching eggs during hatching period

Muna A. H. Al-Fhdawi , Ziyad T. M. Al- Dhanki and

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

This study was carried out at Poultry Researches Station – Livestock Department in the Agricultural Researches Directorate in Baghdad Province/ Abu Gharib from 28/12/2015 to 26/1/2016, The aim of the study is to find out an important chemical changes in fertilized and unfertilized eggs during storage and incubation, the eggs were used in experiment from a local laying hens flock of the same station. 360 fertilized eggs and 360 unfertilized eggs had been used and distributed into four treatments, 180 eggs for each treatment. The eggs of each treatment had been labeled and weighted, then two groups of fertilized and unfertilized eggs had been labeled and weighted, then two groups of fertilized and unfertilized eggs had been stored for 7 days while others two groups for 4 days on the temperature 15-18 and 70-75% relative humidity. The eggs of treatments had been carried into the hatchery and incubated on (37.8 99.5 Fahrenheit) and 60-65% relative humidity. The results of experiment showed that the store period 4 and 7 days have not significant differences in the internal quality specifications of eggs because of low evaporation of water from the inside of egg into the external space, Also the results of (Electrophoresis) showed changes in the concentration of protein during the store period, the concentration of albumen proteins had lowered more than yolks protein in fertilized eggs.

Study of Changes of Protein Secondary Structure in Fertilized and Un-Fertilized Hatching Eggs during Storage and Incubation

Muna A. H. Al-Fhdawi , Abd-Al- H. Daham and Ziyad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

This study was carried out at Poultry Researches Station – Livestock Department in the Agricultural Researches Directorate in Baghdad Province/ Abu Gharib from 28/12/2015 to 26/1/2016, The aim of the study is to find out an important chemical changes in fertilized and unfertilized eggs during storage and incubation, the eggs were used in experiment from a local laying hens flock of the same station. 360 fertilized egg and 360 un-fertilized egg had been used and distributed into four treatments, 180 eggs for each treatment. The eggs of each treatment had been labeled and weighted, then two groups of fertilized and un-fertilized eggs had been stored for 7 days while others two groups for 4 days on the temperature 15-18 and 70-75% relative humidity. The eggs of treatments had been carried into the hatchery and incubated on 37.8 (99.5 Fahrenheit) and 60-65% relative humidity. The results display that the effect of store 4 and 7 days were not different significantly in the values of (pH) for eggs whites and yolks, the results of (FTIR) showed certain changes in the minor formation of Protein in the fertilized egg yolks and whites in processing of store period because of protein change into the form which could be utilized by living creature.

Effect of pre-incubation and pre-storage for short periods of incubation during egg storage (SPIDES) and thermal manipulation during incubation period on chick quality of broiler breeder (ROSS 308)

E. Kh. E. AL-Samrai and Z. T. M. AL-Dhanki

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

This study was conducted from 16/1/2017 to 23/2/2017 to show the effect of the different storage period on the specifications of the specific chickpeas by exposing the eggs to sporadic incubation processes during the storage period of the broiler eggs ROSS 308. The eggs were brought from Al-Manar Company for poultry production and breeding - Diyala and were in the form of two separate experiments where the duration of the first experiment was 29 days and the second 37 days. The first experiment 7 days storage, and the second 14 days storage included four transactions storage only, storage with pre-incubation + pre-incubation for short periods SPIDES, storage with pre-incubation + heat stimulation and storage with pre-incubation for short periods SPIDES + thermal stimulation. The results showed significant differences (P<0.01) in the body mass, where the first and third treatments were superior to the rest of the experimental factors, while there were no significant differences in the rest of the external specimens of the white hatches of the eggs stored for 7 days. The results did not show any significant differences the internal characteristics of the white hatched eggs were stored for 7 days only in the ratio of the weight of the liver to the body weight, which exceeded the second treatment on the rest of the experiment. The external characteristics of the eggs from the eggs were stored for 14 days. The weights and body mass in the first treatment exceeded the rest of the experimental parameters. The internal characteristics of the chicks also exceeded the first treatment in the body weight on the rest of the experiment. The weight of yolk to the body weight by the first and second treatments on the rest of the experiment, the ratio of weight of the liver and intestines to the weight of the body has exceeded the fourth treatment on the rest of the experiment. This study showed no effect of pre-incubation of 6 hours and pre-incubation for short periods during the storage of SPIDES in addition to thermal stimulation 39.5% in days 16, 17 and 18 of brood, on the specifications of the quality chick and the characteristics of internal chicks regardless of storage time.

The Effect of Exogenous fibro lytic Enzymes On The milk production and chemical composition Of Awassi Lactating Ewes

G. M. N. AL-Rubaie , S. S. Khalaf and H. M. Ajil

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The experiment was conducted in the field of animal production of the research ruminants – Office of Research - Ministry of Agriculture in the region of Akrokov 25 km northwest of Baghdad for the period from 16/3/2016 to 4/6/2016, and the objective of the experiment was the effect of addition of different levels of fibro lytic enzymes .The concentrate diet on production and physiological performance lactating Ewes Awassi, In the first experiment, 26 pregnant sheep were used In the late stage and before birth and at the age of 3-5 years, With a weight of 67 kg, The first experiment lasted 42 days preceded by 10 days introductory period The ewes were divided into four groups, each with 6 ewes, of which 15 were born, Treatment control 3 ewes, first treatment 5 ewes, second treatment 4 ewes, third treatment 3 ewes, The trial period was divided into three successive periods from birth every 14 days, Control group without enzyme and treatment of the first, second and third enzyme concentration 1,3,5 kg t-1, respectively. The preliminary period is 10 days ahead, the results showed that: The addition of fibrolytic enzymes to the concentrate diet of the fodder resulted in a significant increase P<0.01 in the first treatment and in the second period and the general average and a significant increase of P<0.05 in the third period in milk production. The chemical composition of the milk was significantly higher P<0.01, the percentage of milk fat for the first and second treatment compared to the control treatment, and significantly higher P<0.05. All treatments were treated with milk protein control in the second period, and the percentage of milk lactose was significantly reduced P<0.01 for all the treatments compared to the control treatment. The results showed a significant increase P<0.05 in the overall rate of the second treatment compared to the control treatment of the percentage of Ash in milk, The first period showed a significant increase P<0.05 for Ash in milk for the second treatment compared to control, In the second period, the second and third treatment was significantly higher P<0.05compared with the control treatment.

Effect of alcoholic leaves extract of the plant Salix acmophylla L. in some biological aspects of mosquitoe Culex pipiens molestus (Forskal) (Diptera:Culicidae)

Noor M. H. Al- Shujlawe and Saadoon H. Abed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

This study was conducted to know the effect of alcoholic extract of Salix acmophylla leave in some biological aspects of mosquitoe Culex pipiens molestus, three concentration have been use 500, 600 and 700 Mg mL-1 for Salix acmophylla to determinate the lethal concentration for half number of 4th instar larvae LC50, the effect in the life of the insect, the time of growth of every stages, Adults longevity and mortality. The results showed that the LC50 of 4th instar larvae was 600 Mg mL-1 Salix acmophylla ,the longest time of the insect growth was concentration 700 Mg mL-1 21.5 days. There was a significant increasing in larval duration at the some concentration for Salix acmophylla, but have no significant effect for the time of the growth of pupal phase, the highest level of the death larvae in the accumulated effect 41.66% at concentration 700 Mg mL-1, on the mortality percentage adult at concentration 700 Mg mL-1 100%, there was a congenital relation between concentration and mortality percentage

Effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) oil extract on cotton leaf worm instars Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Hind Ibrahim Al-Khazraji and Enas Hamied Majeed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The study was conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture / University of Baghdad 2015 - 2016 for the purpose of knowing the effect of oil extract of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in some aspects of life of different roles of cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) concentrations of 1.25, 2.5 and 5%. The highest percentage of egg hatching was 36.7% when exposed to 24-hour eggs to 5% concentration. The results showed that the larvae of the second phase were more sensitive to the oil extract and the highest percentage of Mortality was 32.6% compared with the sixth stage larvae, which were less affected. The effect of exposure to aromatic extracts was reduced in adult productivity. The number of eggs tested was 720.3, 885 and 917 eggs / female for each of the mature females from the treatment of larvae of the second and sixth stages and the comparative treatment, the percentage of egg hatch in each treatment was affected. When adults were exposed to the smells of the oil extract directly, they caused a 100% Mortality rate after 24 hours of exposure to 5% conc. while the adult mortality rate in the comparison treatment was 0%.

Study of optimum conditions for alkaline protease production from a local isolate of Bacillus cereus MH12

H. A. Jabber and M. M. Omar

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

An isolate of Bacillus cereus MH12 isolated and identified in a previous study and found to be highly producer of alkaline protease during the primary and secondary screening processes, which were used. In this study optimal condition for production of the enzyme by submerged culture were determined of the enzyme by submerged culture. Effect of medium components such as carbon sources and their concentration, the source of nitrogen and the physical factors were investigated which included primary pH, incubation period, incubation temperature, inoculum size and agitation speed. It was found that optimum of enzyme production achieved by using of Galactose as a carbon source in a concentration of 1% and peptone as a nitrogen source in a concentration of 0.5% under pH 9.0 through incubation time 96 hours at 37 °C with the use of a inoculum 3 ml per 50 ml contains 107 cells per ml with speed agitation of 150 rpm per min. At the end of the optimization, the enzyme activity was 199.83 in comparison with 81.00 U per ml before optimization. Thus, the productivity of the enzyme Bacillus cereus MH12 was increased 146.70% or about one and half times through this study

Effect of Agricultural Policy on Marketing Wheat Crop in Wasit province

Rami A. Azeez and Mishaal A. khalaf

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The study aimed to study the impact of agricultural policy according to the marketing methods adopted in marketing the production of wheat farmers in Wasit Province, the study relied on data's collected through a random sample questionnaire including 160 farms of wheat in Wasit province divided into three categories by area, which included the first category, which covers an area of 100 donums and less, And the second category included farms with a range of 100 – 1000 donum, while the third category included farms of 1000 dunums and above, The policy analysis matrix was used to show the effect of the agricultural policy on the wheat growers according to the marketing of wheat crop in Wasit Province in- 2016. The marketing routes of wheat were divided into two types according to the method of sale, which was either sale to the state or sale to wholesalers. The results of the study indicate that the support provided by the state goes 75 %of it to wholesalers in case of going to the course of wholesalers, However, the farmer is forced to conduct this course perhaps because of the routine of procedures and complications, as well as the delay in handing over his financial dues when the farms direct marketing route to the state

Economic Analysis of the demand for poultry Meat in Iraq for the period 1995-2015

Faiq J. Yasseen and Mustafa T. Mohammad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The most important sources of food for human is the poultry meat. The demand for this kind of meat has increased due to the increase of alternative meat such as red meat and fish. So a study is needed to identify the nature of demand for poultry meat in1995-2015, it also demands studying the specific factors of demands. The Estimated of variable in formation was estimate using a standard model in various formats; the result showed that the double logarithmic function is the best of that entire log. Function according to the statistical tests and the second-class tests, which showed free of measurement criteria and its agreement with the demand function that the variable per capita income and the variable price of poultry and red meat were all have moral effect because their elasticity is greater than one. This good have been classified as luxuries goods for their internal elasticity is greater than one. The effect of the price of fish meat is negative on the demand for poultry meat, indicating that it's a complementary commodity and that doesn't correspond to the economic theory for the reasons that may be attributed to the price may rise and fall at same time. The study included the economic forecast of the demand for poultry meat until 2020 and through the results obtained, we note the continuous increase in the average per capita share of poultry meat for the coming years to 2020. Finally, the study contained a group of conclusions and recommendations and the most important of these conclusions and recommendations is that the local production is growing at a rate of growth less than the rate of growth of quantity consumed, leading to increasing the size of food gap, so Iraq meet the need of poultry meat through the import of the product from abroad .the study recommended the necessity of working towards achieving self. Sufficiency and preserving the financial resources from leaking to foreign countries because of the importation of livestock products to fill the deficit in supply.

Impact of Using Laser Land Leveling Technique on Production of Wheat and Factors of Production for Agricultural Season 2016-2015 Empirical Study on the National Program for the Development of Wheat in Iraq

Hassan M. G. AL-Ameri and Imad A. I. Al-Snbll

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Cereal crops are considered as an important strategic crops in the world especially wheat crop, it occupy the first rank in comparison with other crops in the world including Iraq due to its importance as main source of human food and it contain high proportion of protein and calories. In spite the circumstances of Iraq appropriate to be a specialized in its cultivation the wheat, but it is not self-sufficient in wheat and Iraq imports large quantities of it fulfill the need in domestic consumption. That the self-sufficiency of the production of this crop depends on the most important factor is the productivity, which is affected by several factors in the forefront of deployment technologies modern. The objective of the research is to study impact laser land leveling as a new technique on wheat crop productivity, depending on cross sectional sample for the agricultural season 2015-2016 in five governorates covered by the national program for the development of cultivation of wheat in Iraq (Al-Najaf, Al-Qadisiya, Kerbela, Wasit, and Baghdad), the total sample size was 384 farmers covered by the program, 192 farmers who have used laser land leveling technique, 192 farmers who have used traditional methods in land leveling. The research used production function to identify the impact of the use laser land leveling technique on wheat crop productivity. The results showed that estimation of joint production function for the wheat crop through dummy variable that the total factor productivity in the farms that used laser land leveling technique higher than that of the farms that used traditional methods in land leveling by 30%, and the sum of elasticity's were 1,616 which shows that the function has an increasing return to scale. The research recommended an increase of published the use laser land leveling technique, and to do direct farmers adopt it, which has achieved an increase in the productivity of the crop, an increase in profits which aims to farmers, and reducing losses in the irrigation water, and to provision of devices laser land leveling technique by the stakeholders since commensurate with the cultivated areas wheat subsidized prices.

Effect of Using Laser Land Leveling Technique on the Demand for Irrigation Water for Wheat Crop for Agricultural Season 2016-2015 Empirical Study on the National Program for the Development of Wheat in Iraq

Hassan M. G. AL-Ameri and Imad A. I. Al-Snbll

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Wheat is considered the first main crop in terms of the cultivated area allocated to winter crops and its importance of consumer pan-the population in Iraq. The production of wheat crop in developing countries, including Iraq, characterized by insufficient domestic product to fulfill the need of demand that increasing for it, in spite of resources and conditions natural are available to upgrade to the increase it as it in the developed countries, due to low productivity of the crop because of failure of production methods and do not use the technologies modern of production. The objective of the research is to study impact laser land leveling as a new technique on the demand for irrigation water for wheat crop depending on cross sectional sample for the agricultural season 2015-2016 in five governorates covered by the national program for the development of cultivation of wheat in Iraq ( Al-Najaf, Al-Qadisiya, Kerbela, Wasit, and Baghdad ), the total sample size was 384 farmers covered by the program, 192 farmers who have used laser land leveling technique, 192 farmers who have used traditional methods in land leveling. The research used duality theory to estimate the individual demand functions on the demand for irrigation water. The results showed that the laser land leveling technique contribute to reduce the demand for irrigation water by 89.7%. The research recommended that could take advantage of irrigation water excess achieved by farms that are used laser land leveling technique in introducing new areas in the production process to achieve self-sufficiency of wheat crop.

An estimation of individual demand function for meat in Iraq during the period 1995-2014

E. A. Mohamad and M. A. Hamza

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Red meat is an essential and important source of human consumption because it is rich in human protein. It is expected that the consumption of red meat will increase significantly in the coming years. Therefore, the problem of the study is the decline of the Iraqi share of consumption for global and Arab consumption due to high commodity prices resulting from the difference between supply and demand, Alternative products, including fish meat during the current years, the study aimed to estimate the function of individual demand for red meat by studying the effect of explanatory variables (prices of red meat, price of chicken meat, price of fish meat, share of Response from the national income on the dependent variable (average per capita red meat) search time series data was adopted Time series Data Eviews were used and the mean squares method was estimated and the function was estimated. The results showed that the double logarithmic function is the best of these functions according to the statistical tests such as T, F, R2, and the second-degree tests, which proved to be free of standard problems. The elasticity of the price demand was 0.94 - less than the correct one. The elasticity of the demand is 1.78, which is positive to explain the positive relationship between income and quantity, which is consistent with the economic logic A number of conclusions were reached, the most important of which is the Iraqi consumer pattern, which is illustrated by the cross-elasticity of chicken meat and fish meat 1.008 and 0.19, which showed that these commodities are alternative to red meat. The annual growth rates during the study period per capita of red meat the prices of meat, chicken meat prices, fish meat prices and annual per capita income 7, 13, 6, 6, 19%. The study suggested a number of recommendations, the most important of which are the need to pay attention to the animal production sector and provide all means to develop the red meat production sector Available for consumption and reduce the phenomenon smuggling.

Analysis of the impact of government subsidies and measuring the comparative advantage of potato crop production in Al-Anbar Governorate (The district of Fallujah applied state)

Hameed R. Al-Abtan and Farah A. Abdul Latif

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the government intervention on the potato crop in Al-Anbar governorate in Falluja district, An applied model knowledge to show the competitiveness and relative advantage in producing this crop through quantitative analysis of the distortions between input and output prices facing the local product using a series of matrix- Analysis of Policy (PAM) The study reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that Al-Anbar province has a comparative advantage in production and is highly efficient when using local resources. The domestic resource cost factor (DRC) is 0.23, (EPC) of 0.71 indicates that domestic producers receive lower returns than social returns, and this explains the absence of government support for crop production. The study recommended a number of recommendations, the most important of which is land reclamation, expansion of potato crop cultivation, encouraging investors to establish potato-cooling warehouses, and developing plans to activate and increase the role of the government subsidy policy for local products.

Effect of Using Laser Land Leveling Technique on the Demand for Irrigation Water for Wheat Crop for Agricultural Season 2016-2015 Empirical Study on the National Program for the Development of Wheat in Iraq

Hassan M. G. AL-Ameri and Imad A. I. Al-Snbll

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:2

Wheat is considered the first main crop in terms of the cultivated area allocated to winter crops and its importance of consumer pan-the population in Iraq. The production of wheat crop in developing countries, including Iraq, characterized by insufficient domestic product to fulfill the need of demand that increasing for it, in spite of resources and conditions natural are available to upgrade to the increase it as it in the developed countries, due to low productivity of the crop because of failure of production methods and do not use the technologies modern of production. The objective of the research is to study impact laser land leveling as a new technique on the demand for irrigation water for wheat crop depending on cross sectional sample for the agricultural season 2015-2016 in five governorates covered by the national program for the development of cultivation of wheat in Iraq ( Al-Najaf, Al-Qadisiya, Kerbela, Wasit, and Baghdad ), the total sample size was 384 farmers covered by the program, 192 farmers who have used laser land leveling technique, 192 farmers who have used traditional methods in land leveling. The research used duality theory to estimate the individual demand functions on the demand for irrigation water. The results showed that the laser land leveling technique contribute to reduce the demand for irrigation water by 89.7%. The research recommended that could take advantage of irrigation water excess achieved by farms that are used laser land leveling technique in introducing new areas in the production process to achieve self-sufficiency of wheat crop.