2017, Volume:15 Issue:1


Effect of lime content of the soil on Its spectral Reflectivity of the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammad ,Wissam A. Abed , Azhar A. Has

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

An experiment was achieved in laboratories of college of Agriculture / Anbar University. A sample of clay loam soil with 50% lime content was brought from sefen mountain, Shaqlawa district / Erbil province, to study the effect of lime percentage on soil spectral reflectivity. Different lime percentage were removed from origin soil using 0.1 N HCl to obtain same soil texture with 40%, 29.5%, 24.5%, 20%, 15.8% and 9.4% lime contents. Spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of the soil with different lime levels at 22% soil moisture content. The result showed an increasing of the soil reflectance with increasing of lime content. Also the result showed an absorption band at 2350 nanometer was appeard, which may be attributed to the presence of lime in soil. It was noted that the depth of the band was increasing with increasing lime percentage in the soil. Results also showed that a significiant correlation between lime content and reflectance in the all studied bands, especially with the two near infrared bands (B6 and B9) was found, whereas the correlation coefficient (r) for the two bands were 0.968 and 0.958, respectively. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was also found. The linear, quadratic and cubic models were efficient to forecasting lime content from reflectance data at near infrared band (B6). The determination coefficient (R2) for the three models were 0.93, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. While the standard error values were 3.8, 4.8 and 2.7, respectively.

Evaluation desertification state in East Al-Haffar project

Abdulsamei J. A. Al-Hiti , Muthana K . Ibrahiem

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

A study was carried out and included ninety two soil series in east of Al-Haffar project and were distributed within sub-physiographic: Levee – basin – depression. Semi soil survey maps with scale of 1:50000 were used to cover an area of 50000 ha. The aim of this study was to use quantitative analysis methods for information through the linkage between the curves of geographical–geological- pedological and through depending on some pedo-geo-morphological indices which include (parent material; slope gradient; soil depth and soil texture, all these indices represent soil quality index (SQI) in addition to the index of vegetation cover; index of erosion protection and index of drought resistance which represent vegetation quality index (VQI); and salinity of irrigation water; soluble chloride ion ratio and sodium exchange ratio, which represent irrigation water quality index (IWQI). All these indices used to characterize and evaluate the environmental sensitivity to desertification. All indices were calculated by used specific mathematical equations according to the European commission system were used for rating and classification sensitivity for environmental desertification based on multiplying method between measured indices values and the maps were made for it. Results showed varied erodibility factors of wind which distributed in range of 0.09-0.37; water erodibility factor in range of 0.45 - 0.52 and soil crust factor in range of 0.08-0.73. Soil quality index varied and distributed in a range of 1.35-1.70. The areas of study were classified into three degrees and distributed from high quality to low quality. As well as vegetation quality index varied and distributed in a range of 0.07-0.26 and the location of the study was classified into four degrees, described between very low to good quality, water irrigation quality index is value of 3.35 mm and did not vary because there is only one sources of water Irrigation within the study area. In addition, the results also showed restricted three main location varied to desertification sensitivity which are classified between very low sensitive to medium sensitive.

The micro morphological properties of some illuviation horizons in Pripj region within Iraqi southern desert

Ahmad S. Muhaimeed , Ali H. Al-Bayati , Saleh A. S

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

To study the genesis and developments of illuviation horizons in Iraqi arid region, three pedons were selected in the Pripj region bottom, which formed the larger region in Iraqi southern desert in Muthana governorate, the pedons were morphologically described and obtained disturbed soil samples from every horizon for the purpose of conducting some physical and chemical analysis, in addition to undisturbed soil samples from second horizon to study the micro morphological property. The result of micro morphological properties examination emphasized existence development in studied soils, through some micro morphological appearances like Argillans and Calcians, which emphasis the movement for some soil composed from above horizon to the lower as result to active some soil formation process. Also the results showed absence the clay skin clearness in some cases because its crashed by swelling and shrinkage process for clay minerals and to additions for some materials as carbonates in alluvial horizon. The examination for thin section showed supremacy microstructure type complex with existence the pores type Vahgu which covered partly with carbonate minerals accumulation sometimes clay minerals. We showed difference in nature of sub surface diagnosis horizons, the supremacy was to Argillic and Calcic horizons in all pedions. These results indicated the roll of dominant ecological factor in activation some pedological process, which contributed to formation and development that horizons like the darkness development process and loss and illuviation process in addition to salinity remove Calcification and Decalcification. Studied soils classification within Aridisols order, Argids and Calsids sub orders, also within Haplacalcids and Haplargids great soil group and sub great soil group Typic Haplacalcids and Vertic Haplargids in the region.

A Morphometric Analysis of Horan Valley By Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Emad Telfah Abdelghani , M. K. Ibrahim , I. M. Abd

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

This study was conducted to know the possibility of creating morphometric geo database for Horan valley which is the greatest valley in western desert by using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used to measure the cadastral, morphological or hydrological morphometric properties using the ArcGIS V.10.2 program. These properties considered an important database to make the future planning for dry or wet valleys and rivers basins, which reduce time, expenses and efforts to study the wide area regions. The values of longitudinal section, average of circumference, circularity ratio, circumference compactness factor, elongation factor, form factor, length to width ratio, relief ratio, relative relief, hypsometric integration, basin tissue, the value of rugged, drainage longitudinal density, numerical drainage density, and the Constant of Channel Maintenance, in the Horan valley are 2.562 m km-1, 1307 km, 0.13, 2.77, 0.47, 0.13, 7.3, 2.32 m km-1, 0.64 m km-1, 21.26 km2 m-1, 8 valleys km-1, 0.77, 0.92 km km- 2, 0.61, and 1.08 km2 km-1, respectively.

Effect of seed priming with Pyridoxine and foliar application Of Boron to enhance SOD activity and some of growth and yield traits of Sunflower

B. H. Al-Duleimi , H. S. Ali , M. I. K. AL–Fhadoy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

A field experiment during spring and fall seasons of 2015 was carried out, the spring season experiment was conducted in general commission of agricultural researches (Abu-Ghariab) while the fall season experiment in Field crops department research station- University of Anbar (Abu-Ghariab region) that located on latitude 33.22 ? N and longitude 44.24 ? E and altitude 34.1 meter from sea level in silt loam soil. The experiment included the study of seed Soaking by four concentration of pyridoxine 0, 2, 4, 6 P g L-1 with foliar application with four concentration of Boron 0, 75, 150, 225 mgB L-1 in form of H3BO3 (17% B) in order to study SOD content and some of growth and yield traits for sun flower (Helianthus annuua L. cv. Luleo). The experiment was conducted in arrangement of Split plot in RCBD with three replications, where the Boron concentration occupied the main plot while the Pyridoxine concentrations occupied sub plots. The results summarized as following: The seed priming with 4 Pe g L-1 led to give highest activity of SOD enzyme at the beginning of flowering, highest average of leaf area, B concentration in leaves, weight of 100 seed, yield in area 4.46, 3.32 ton ha-1, oil content 52.00, 47.00% in the two seasons respectively, while the concentration 6 P L-1 recorded highest activity of SOD after 30 days from planting date. The foliar application Of 150 mg B L-1 significantly affected in giving highest average of leaf area, boron concentration in leaves in the first seasons, while the concentration 225 mg B L-1 gave highest activity of SOD at the beginning of flowering, number of seed in disc, weight of 100 seed 7.60 and 7.31 gm and seed yield 4.33 and 3.44 ton ha-1 for both seasons, as well as it gave highest average of leaf area and boron concentration in leaves for the second season only. The interaction between P and B concentrations significantly affected in most traits under study, the treatment of 4 g Pe L-1 X 150 mg B L-1 and 225 g B L-1 gave highest average of seed yield for both seasons 4.86 and 3.95 ton ha-1 respectively.

Estimation of Genetic Diversity among Inbred lines and Single Hybrids of Maize (Zea mays L.)

A. M. Ahmed , A. H. A. Sweed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

Six inbred lines (1-S10, 2-Zn12, 3-Sy24, 4-Zm17, 5-O18, 6-Mgw7) of maize were crossed in half diallel to produce 15 single cross in Field Crops Research–Abu Ghraib in fall season 2014. Seeds of genotypes (6 lines +15 single cross) have been planted in field of a farmer in Abu-Ghraib, using randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D), with three replicates in fall season of 2015, to evaluate the performance of these lines and hybrids and to estimate genetic diversity among 6 lines and 15 single cross by using Mahalanobis D2 statistic for 10 morphological traits Viz. days to silking, plant height, ear height, leaves number, leaf area, ear number per plant, ear length, rows number per ear, 250-kernel weight and yield kernel per plant. Statistical analysis showed significant variation among maize genotypes for all studied traits. The six inbred lines were grouped into three different clusters by using cluster analysis. The cluster I contained the highest number of lines 1, 2, 5 cluster II contained towlines 3 and 4 and cluster III contained one line 6. The highest ‎mean values for all traits, which, in clouding grain yield per plant about 146g ‎were observed in cluster III, except ear height with 69.83 cm, and the lowest ‎mean value for days to 50% silking as 61.50 day were found in cluster II. The inter-cluster distances were larger than intra-cluster distances, ‎suggesting wider genetic diversity among the lines of different groups. ‎The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and ‎cluster III with 6.49, and lowest between cluster II and cluster III with 3.85. The highest intra-cluster distance was noticed in ‎cluster I as 3.3%. and lowest for cluster III. Fifteen hybrids were grouped into six clusters, The ‎cluster I contained the highest number of hybrids 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11 cluster II, III, V, and VI contained one hybrid for each one 7, 8, 13 and 15 respectively, while cluster IV contained tow hybrids 21 and 14. The highest mean ‎values for plant height, leaves number per plant, leaf area, ear length, rows number per ear by17.34, 250-kemel weight with 65.00 g and grain yield per plant as 174.17 g ‎were observed in the cluster IV. The mean of ear height with 82.33cm was the highest in cluster II and the mean highest for number of ears per plant about 1.30 was the highest in cluster VI. The lowest mean value for days to silking with 58.00 day was found in cluster V and cluster VI. The inter cluster distances were larger ‎than intra-cluster distances, suggesting wider genetic diversity among the hybrids of different groups. The highest inter-cluster distance was ‎observed between cluster IV and cluster VI with 7.03, and the Lowest between cluster I and cluster II about 3.54. The highest ‎intra-cluster distance was noticed in cluster I abut 3.76.

Response of several genotypes of faba bean by effect plant density

Lana jamal w. Alani , Zeyad A. Abdul Hameed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

A field experiment has been accomplished during the winter season 2015-2016 at the research station of the college of agriculture-Field Crops-University of Anbar-Alternative location (previously the College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad) which is located in Abu Ghareeb, the longitude ?44 and latitude ?33. The field is designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) at the arrangement of split plot dissident panels; with three Replicates. The effect in growth of three plant (Vicia faba L.) densities 55.555, 83.333, 166.66 a thousand plant ha-1 has been studied which is a total of five genotypes and Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) (local (Iraqi)), Spanish, Giza, Hammat and Nobari). Plant density has a significant effect on all of the growth traits and qualities of the plant. Therefore it has been recorded that the 166.66 plant ha-1, the growth average is 7.73 gm.m2 day-1, and a seed yield with 5.60 ton ha-1. As for the 55.555 plant ha-1 plant density, it has the best qualities such as the average of leaf area by 4096 cm2 plant-1, and active fertility ratio in flowers about 10.46%, the number of pods which is 13.09 pod plant-1, the weight of 100 seeds is 148.5 gm. In all of the studied characteristics, the genotypes varied significantly; as the Spanish genotype has the best average in quality, so it produced about 7.06 ton ha-1. The impact of inference between global studies was significant for most of the qualities if given plant density 55.55 plant ha-1 with genotype Spain's highest effective fertilization in flowering with 11.54 % and the number of cores in the plant 16017 pod. Plant while gave the plant density with genotype spain highest average yield growth rate of 8.93, so we recommend 8.55 ton ha-1 in the use of Spanish class with high densities.

Selection Index Efficiency For Roots Traits In Drought Tolerance Of Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes,

M. S. Ahmed , F. A. Kadhem

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

To study the possibility of adopting root system properties as a selective function for drought tolerance of different mays genotypes. This study included 18 genotypes, planted by using plastic columns, 120 cm height and 50 cm diameter, under two levels of plant available water consumption and use Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates, the main plots were for water stress, 25% and 75% plant water available consumption, while the subplots were for genotypes in both field experiments. In addition, G10 gave higher root length of 131.33 and 134 cm in spring and autumn, respectively. G15 gave a higher root dry weight at Yp and Ys treatments, while G13 gave a higher dry weight at Ys and Yp treatments autumn seasons. Through experimental results shows no significant correlation between some recipes root and guide stress tolerance Index (STI) recipe dry weight has been marked by the roots of a high correlation between indicators of drought tolerance and both seasons. So can plant breeders use recipes dry weight of the root and the vertical angle electoral evidence to withstand dry.

Effect of seeds priming treatments in viablity and vigour of soybean (glycine max l.) seeds under salinity stress

Ahmed H. Saudi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

Two factorial experiments were conducted. One of them was laboratory experiment which was carried out at the Laboratory of Agriculture and Marshes College, University of Thi-Qar during laboratories of certification and test of seeds office in Thi-Qar governorate–Nassiriyah district during 2015. The other was conducted at the lath house with used the pots during spring season of 2016. The aim was to investigate the effect of soybean seeds priming before sowing on seed vigour and seedling growth characteristics under salinity stress. The design of Lab. experiment was (CRD) while for the other experiment was (RCBD) with four replications. Each experiment consisted of two factors. The first factor included seeds soaking treatments for 24 hours with KCL 10 g L-1, KCL 20 g L-1 and seeds soaking in distilled water, in addition to un soaked seeds treatment. The second factor was seeds planting in four levels of salinity 0, 2, 4 and 6 ds m-1. The results of Laboratory experiment showed that superiority soybean seeds soaked with KCL 20 g L-1 in given highest averages of germination speed, standard germination percentage, radical length, plumule length, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour index. Soybean seeds were germinated in distilled water media (control) gave highest averages in all of studied traits. The results of Laboratory experiment also showed that soybean seeds soaked with KCL 20 g L-1 led to improved the seeds germination and seedling growth traits under salinity stress. The results of pots experiment showed that superiority soybean seeds soaked with KCL 20 g L-1, in given highest averages of field emergence percentage, plant length and plant dry weight .Soybean seeds were sowed in distilled water media gave highest average in all of studied traits. The results of pots experiment also showed that soybean seeds soaked with KCL 20 g L-1 led to improved emergence percentage, plant growth under salinity stress.

Allelopathic Effect of Root Exudates of Barley on Companion Weeds

Alaa A.J.Albehadili

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

The field experiment was conducted during 2014-2015 season at the Research Farm of Department of Biology, College of science, Baghdad University to test if the variation in weed population and growth in stands of Barley cultivars was due in part to allelopathic mechanism. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Results revealed that Samer significantly reduced weed density by 54, 42, 42, 40 % and weed dry weight by 61, 68, 58, 45 % after 55, 75, 95 and 115 days from planting, respectively, followed by Rahan and Forat cultivars. Cultivar Arevat showed the lest inhibitory effect to weeds. Subsequent stair-case experiment indicated that root exudates of the Samer cultivar suppressed the test weeds (Malva and wild oat) more than Arevat cultivars giving additional evidence that allelopathic mechanism is involved in weed suppression and the differences in the inhibitory activity between the test cultivars was due to differences in their allelopathic potential. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolics in root exudates of both cultivars (Samer and Arevat) Chemical analysis on these phenolics by HPLC indicated the presence of several allelochemicals, viz, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatecheuic, vanillic, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid and syringic acid with higher concentration in Samer cultivars compare to Arevat cultivar.

Effect of Electric shock on growth characteres yield and yield component of two varieties of sorghum

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

To investigate the effect of electric shock on growth variation of sorghum. Seed of two Varieties Inkath and Gezea113 of crop were germinated. Seedling were socked in 1% NaCl solution for 6h then transferred to container with same solution. Wire with two polar were connected to the container and AC current 220V was switched with 2, 4 and 6 Amber for 5 minutes. Seedling then washed and planted at the field. Electric shock induced significant variations in most of agronomic traits studies. Inkath variety showed response to electric shock an increase 35% in grain yield. Electric shock induced an increase in plant height, leaf area per plant, number of pod per plant, number of head per plant, plant dry weight and grian weight per head for SH3 treatment in M1 and M2.

Effects of foliar application of yeast extract on seed yield, and seed yield components of five sorghum cultivars.

W. K. A. Al-Maeini , Y. J. A. Al-Isawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, College of Agriculture, Al-jadrea, Baghdad, Iraq during spring season of 2016 to study the effects of foliar application with yeast extract on grain yield, yield components of five sorghum cultivars. The layout of the experiments was split plot design with three replicates , The five cultivars it is kafeer, bohooth 70, rabih, inkath and local, occupied the main plots while yeast extract concentrations 0, 5, 10,15 gr L-1 occupied the sub-plots. Results of this experiment are summarized as follows: number of seeds per head, seed yield increased with the increase of yeast extract concentrations and the best concentration in most of yield characters was 15gm L-1. The cultivar buhooth 70 was superior in 1000 seed weight, seed yield while the cultivar Rabih was superior in number of seeds per head.

The effect of foliar application boron and salicylic acid in the Production and quality characteristics of two genotypes of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

Ehab J. J. Al-Dabbagh , Basheer H. A. Al-Duleimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

A field experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn season of 2016 in fields of Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Anbar,( Abu Gharib), in soil with a clay-silty texture, to determine the effect of foliar application with three concentrations of Boron; 0, 90, 180 mg L-1, and Salicylic acid; 0, 150 and 300 mg L-1, in the productive and quality traits of two mung bean genotypes, local and Indian cultivars. The experiment was took place using Split-Split Plot arrangement in randomized complete block design, where genotypes occupied main plots while salicylic acid concentration occupied sub plot and Boron concentration in the sub-sub plot. Obtained results were summaries as follow: The concentration of 90 mg B L-1 in the two seasons showed the highest average fertility rate in pods and seeds with 696.90 and 789.70 kg-1, and protein about 188.50 and 191.30 kg-1 respectively, Concentration of 180 mg B L-1 in the same season achieved the highest mean weight of 100 seeds and protein ratio in seeds 25.15%. Boron did not significantly affect the length of the pod in the two seasons. The concentration of 150 mg SA L-1 in both seasons gave the highest fertility rate in the pods as 69.76 and 77.53%, and the highest average yield of the seeds with 698.4 and 760 kg-1 respectively, and recorded in the spring season the highest weight for 100 seeds, In the protein content about 185.50 kg e-1, and the concentration of 300 mg SA L-1 exceeded in the autumn season in the number of seeds by pod. The genotypes differed significantly in the studied traits except for the percentage of protein in the seeds and both seasons. The local genotype showed the highest mean number of seeds by pod and seed yield by 789.20 and 791.5 kg e -1, and protein with 210.20 and 187.30 kg-1, While the Indian genotype in both seasons showed the highest average length of pod and 100 seed weight 6.74 and 7.02 g, for the two seasons respectively. The effect of triangular interference (genotype * salicylic * boron) in the two seasons was significant in the weight of 100 seeds, seed yield, protein content and yield. The local genotype with spraying with concentrations 90 mg B + 150 mg SA L-1 achieved the highest mean yield of 988.6 and 1092.9 kg e-1 for the seasons respectively and for the protein yield in the autumn season 239.9 kg h-1 protein Indian genotype with the same treatment spray highest protein content in seeds by 29.48%.

Influence of date palm wastes fertilization on some growth and yield of cucumber parameters under protected cultivation

M. M. Muslat , Saad Ali Saleh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

This study was conducted during spring season 2016 in plastic houses of horticulture department College of agriculture–Baghdad University (abu ghraib) alternative site for Anbar University in nonheated plastic houses. To evaluate effects of using organic fertilizer with date palm waste (grinder) date palm leaf and seeds date on growth and yield for Hybrid cucumber F1 Reem ccompared with the chemical fertilization. The treatments include T1 Control treatment fertilizing, with recommended chemical fertilizer, T2 2.5% fertilizing with, date palm leaf waste , T3 5%, T4 7.5%, T5 10% grindery seed date palm fertilizing with T6 1%, T7 2%, T8 4% and T9 2% grindery + 5% palm leaf waste. Treatments were distributed randomly according to (C.R.D) Completely Randomized Design, used and all data were statistically analyze and the means of, treatments were examined by L.S.D (P>0.05), The results were Treatment outweigh T8 recorded the highest average number of fruits reached 85.7 fruit plant-1 and fruit weight average 98.56 gm. fruit and higher average for plant yield records 8.436 kg plant-1 and It recorders lowest nitrate in fruit 0.4600 mg-1gm were T8 (4% date seeds wastes) records high result of leafs area was 67.4dcm2 and in leaves contains of chlorophyll records 92.80 spad unit plant heights records 253.6 cm and the same treatment. T8 outweigh average of nitrogen rates in leaf records 1.2867% and height of phosphor in leafs records 0.3733% and higher potassium rates in leaf records 1.7567%, On the other hand outperformed organic fertilizers waste of date seeds in recipes vegetative growth and yield compared to chemical fertilizer.

Effect of spraying with seaweed jump start and phosphorous fertilizing on growth and yield of two spinach varieties

Eman G.Taha , A. A. Ismaeil , C. H. Mahmood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

The research was conducted in bakrajo district, sulaimaniyah governorate in 2015-2016 season for studying the effects of spraying with seaweed jump start in three levels 0, 0.3 and 0.6 ml L-1, and three levels 0, 20 and 40 kg P2O5 donum-1, of phosphorous fertilizing on growth and yield of two spinach varieties (local and French variety). Factorial experiment conducted with randomized completely block design with three factors. Seeds sown on 26/10/2015 in blocks 6m2 area in lines with 3 gm m-1 and the fertilizer super phosphate was applied once and the seaweed was sprayed three times the first when the seedlings get to a four-leaves stage and after that each three weeks.Results showed that the two varieties differ in all characteristics however their response to the extracts and phosphorous are the same, as there were a significant effect of the extract and phosphorous fertilizer and the interaction between them in improving of yield characters and seeds, the treatment P2S2 preeminence significantly in total yield, single leaf area, number of clusters and seed weight.plant-1. percentage gave the best results about 4.35 Ton donum-1, 90.49 Cm2, 43.06 and 6.06 gm plant-1 respectively according to control P0S0 which gave 3.14 Ton donum-1, 71.08 Cm2, 34.19 and 4.59 gm plant-1 for the characteristics respectively.

Effect of added processed poultry manure and spraying humic acid in growth and yield of two cultivars lettuce

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

Afield study was carried out during fall season 2016, in vegetable field in Horticulture Department Horticulture, Agriculture College-University of Baghdad (Abu Ghraib). In order to study the effect of the application poultry manure and humic acid in growth and yield of two cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The study included two factors: the first factor is the cultivars, Local and Foreign cultivar (Polaris), and second factor which included 12 treatments. That is Control treatment fertilizing by recommended chemical fertilizer, 10 g plant-1 poultry manure, 20 g plant-1 poultry manure, 40 g plant-1 poultry manure, 1.5 ml L-1 humic acid, 3 ml L-1 humic acid, 10 g plant-1 poultry manure + 1.5 ml L-1 humic acid, 20 g plant-1 poultry manure + 1.5 ml L-1 humic acid, 40 g plant-1 poultry manure + 1.5 ml l-1 humic acid, 10 g plant-1 poultry manure + 3 ml L-1 humic acid, 20 g plant-1 poultry manure +3 ml L-1 humic acid and 40 g plant-1 poultry manure +3 ml L-1 humic acid. The experiment factorial (2×12) and three blokes the treatments were randomly distributed according to (R.C.B.D) and means according to L.S.D (P>0.05) and the important results were summarized as following: The application at poultry manure and humic acid led to superior produced cultivar over local cultivar for all studied traits, treatment T12 by giving highest average of leaf area, number of leaves, leaf content of chlorophyll, leaf content of nitrate, percentage of head folding, mean of total head weight and total yield recorded 1202 cm2, 51.278 leaf plant-1, 58.57spad, 88.58%, 1.771 kg and 118.61 ton h-1 respectively, Concludes this is manures characterize given results positive in vegetative growth and contain leaves from nutrient elements and yield mount.

The accumulated effect of alcoholic leaves extract of huds plant(Mentha longifolia L.) and henna plant (Lawsonia inermis L.) in the life performance of immature stages of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae)

M. Q. Khlaif --- S. H. Abid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

The aims of this study were to know the accumulated effects of alcoholic leaves extracts of henna and huds plant in some biological aspects of immature stage Musca domestica .four concentrations have been used, 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 mg L-1 for both two plant extracts and four replications for each concentration, their effect on life cycle ,growth stadium of immature stages (eggs, Larvae, and pupae), pupae weight .There was no significant effect for both extracts in egg incubation period, where it was 1.50 and 1.75 days at a concentration 1250 mg L-1. There was an increasing in duration of 1st,2nd ,and 3rd larvae phase ,whereas it reached 1.50, 2.75, and 5.75 days, and 1.75, 2.75 and 6.25 days respectively for huds and henna at a concentration 1250 ppm, when it compared with control which were 1, 2, 4.25 days for 1st, 2nd, 3rd larval respectively. The mortality increased with increasing of concentration, where the maximum egg mortality % was 20% and 22.50% in huds and henna extracts ,and in first larval phase (most effected) the mortality came to 26.26 % and 27.82% for both huds and henna extracts at aconcentration 1250 ppm respectively, and a reduction in pupae weight that reach 0.038gm and 0.036gm in huds and henna respectively, wheas it was 0.092 gm in control.

Using Protein Hydrolysate Prepared from Siluris glanis Viscera in Microorganisms Growth

Khalida A. R .Shaker , Akram T. Mohamed , Zena B.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

This study aimed to test the protein hydro lysate prepared by enzymic treatment of Siluris glanis viscera with serine proteases in microorganism's growth. The processing methods included four treatments, namely T1, T2 fish samples were digested with 0.2M acetate buffer and pH 4.5 at 6 and 12 hours, and T3, and T4 were digested using the crude extract of serine protease 120 unitml and pH 6.5, 0.2M at 6 and 12 hours, respectively. The undigested residues were removed by centrifugation, the clarified digests were pasteurized at 80c°10min, cooled, and the solidified fat layer removed then pH was adjusted to 6.5. The obtained hydro lysate was dried under vacuum at 50c°, and four samples were obtained and designated as P1, P2, P3 and P4. The percentages of moisture, ash, fat and protein were for P1 6, 1.10, 0.40, 92.5%, respectively, and for P2 6.2, 1.45, 0.45 and 91.9 %, also, P3 5.4, 1.62, 0.48, 92.5% and P4 were 5.3, 1.70, 0.5, 92,5%, respectively. The percentages of peptone nitrogen, total protease nitrogen, secondary protease nitrogen , primary protease nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen were 3.1, 1.95, 0.30, 1.65 and 0.4% respectively for P1,also, 4.5, 3.01, 0.36, 2.65 and 0.6 % for P2, in addition, 5.1, 2.5, 0.37, 2.13 and 0.65 % for P3, for P4 7.3, 3.5, 0.40, 3.1 and 0.8%. The above hydro lysate were applied to some growth media such as MRS that prepared for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Davis´s Yeast Salt that prepared for Kluyveormyces marxianus and Potato Dextrose Agar that prepared for Aspergillus nigir. The results showed that hydro lysates contained media were more effective in promoting the growth of the experimental organisms as compared with that of standard media.

Influence of spraying by suspended dry yeast bread and soaked licorice root and salsalic acid to resist fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on eggplant

Mena W. Hateem

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

The experiment carried out in the laboratories and fields, of the college Agriculture- University of Baghdad–Department of plant protection, to see the effect of the use of yeast bread and soaked water for licorice and salisalic said on the growth of fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that causes mold white eggplant, results showed superiority of aci salisalic acid in reducing the severity of the infection, amounting to 70.66% concentration of 600 ppm and night soaked licorice intensity amounted infection 25% at a concentration of 4%. while the yeast has the intensity was the infection of 15% at a concentration of 5%, as for criteria growth it has characterized the yeast in both length and width of the paper and the paper weight mild dry weight and plant height as it was 12.05 cm , 9.06 cm, 18.94 gm, respectively, compared with the control treatment deserted fungus.

Measurement of technical and economic efficiency and determine the economic size of wheat farms in Erbil using the data envelope analysis method (dea) in agricultural season 2014-2015

Sura Abbas jasim , Imad Ammar Al-Snbll

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

This research have its importance from the strategic importance of wheat, And that different cases of area for wheat farms reflects on the economic and technical efficiency, As the area impact on production costs with respect to the use of machinery work upon which mainly in rain-fed agriculture in Erbil research topic, And research assumes the existence of at least one class of area is characterized by a high level of total efficiency estimated for the other classes , So was the study of the economic efficiency of utilization of resources as one of the goals of the economic systems to improve the economic performance of farms, In order to determine the optimal farm size within the category achieved the optimum size of the use of resources, Use the envelope method of data analysis (Data Envelopment Analysis) (DEA), Data was collected by the questionnaire and personal interviews to farmers in the sample of 222 farm is divided into five categories according to farm size , And use trends in the analysis of this data type style, first trend is using a method (DEA) on according to variable returns to scale (Variable Return to Scale) (VRS), and according to the constant of returns to scale (CRS), (Constant Return to Scale, The research concluded that where the greater size of the area categories decrease the losing in the of productive resources clearly, which goes with what came in economic theory for it with increased production volume increases the marginal productivity of land unity, Taking that pattern in wheat farmer in Erbil is the pattern of the family farm, which takes into consideration not to break up large areas, especially among members of one family to achieve economic efficiency and technical exploitation of the productive resources, especially with regard to the machinery and agricultural machinery.

Extension training problems for agricultural extension workers in Baghdad governorate

A. A. Zger , A. A. Abed Al-tief

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:15 Issue:1

This research aimed to determine the training problems and its priority for the agaric extension works in Baghdad governorate. A random sample of 120 agaric extension workers in Baghdad were Selected to represent about 323 percent from their population. Data were Collected through a designed questionnaire with interview contained a list of ten main training problem. Data were analyzed by the weighted Mean, standard deviation and percentages. The main study result shouted the inajority of the respondents had a university degree in general acquire and extension. With adquate experiece with and extension jobs. They have a low exposure to training courses in agaric, extension. The respondents indicated ten main problems for training they are arranged as follows: Training drives, residence, trance selection, trainee problems, timing of conducting training courses training content training rooms. They also suggested solutions for each sub problem. To achieve effective extension training it should consider the above menticed problems at the planning stage.