2020, Volume:18 issue:1


TEMPORAL VARIATION OF AGRICULTURE LAND DEGRADATION AND ESTIMATION OF RELATIVE YIELD FOR SOME MAJOR CROPS WEST FALLUJA CITY

S. M. Al-Juraisy and M. K. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

The study area is located in the lower part of the Euphrates basin at the modern plain of Mesopotamian at 169 path and 37 row landsat7, the area was 8051.94 hectare. Land degradation was studied using Land Degradation Index (LDI), to determine some of the quantitate parameters of land degradation degree as relative extent, degradation rate, severity of degradation level. in the study area. The Relative yield of some major crops (tractum, bare, zea, and cotton) was assessed using the relative yield equation. The Results showed that there is a continuous increase in the areas of lands with severe and very severe degradation with value of (10.21hactar/year,16.5hectar/year). with a mild increase in the area of land of slight degradation with value of (3.43h/y with ratio of 0.04% year with a significant with decrease in lands with moderate degradation by 30.17 hectare/year with ratio 0.37%. which shows the seriousness of the degradation danger in the study area due to the continuous transformation of lands to sever and very sever degradation areas. Area with 72.42% of total area is very low Relative yield for maize planting and 46.46 % of total area is very low relative yield for wheat and with 43.30% of total area is very low Relative yield for barley and cotton planting.

ROLE OF ADDED PHOSPHOGYPSUM AND HUMIC ACIDS IN THE KINETIC RELEASE OF SALT FROM SALT AFFECTED SOIL (SALINE – SODIC)

Z. S. Al-Alwani* and A. A. Al-Hadethi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

In order to study the effect of phosphogypsum and humic acids in the kinetic release of salt from salt affected soil, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which columns made from solid polyethylene were 60.0 cm high and 7.1 cm in diameter. The columns were filled with soil so that the depth of the soil was 30 cm inside the column, the experiment included two factors, the first factor was phosphogypsum and was added at levels 0, 5, 10 and 15 tons ha-1 and the second factor humic acids were added at levels 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 by mixing them with the first 5 cm of column soil and one repeater per treatment. The continuous leaching method was used by using an electrolytic well water 2.72 dS m-1. Collect the leachate daily and continue the leaching process until the arrival of the electrical conductivity of the filtration of leaching up to 3-5 dS m-1. The electrical conductivity and the concentration of positive dissolved ions (Ca, Mg, Na) were estimated in leachate and the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) was calculated. The results showed that the best equation for describing release kinetics of the salts and sodium adsorption ratio in soil over time is the diffusion equation. Increasing the level of addition of phosphogypsum and humic acids increased the constant release velocity (K) of salts and the sodium adsorption ratio. The interaction between phosphogypsum and humic acids was also affected by the constant release velocity of salts and the sodium adsorption ratio. The constant release velocity (K) of the salts and the sodium adsorption ratio at any level of addition of phosphogypsum increased with the addition of humic acids. The highest salts release rate was 216.57 in PG3HA3, while the lowest rate was 149.48 in PG0HA0. The highest release rate of sodium adsorption ratio was 206.09 in PG3HA3, while the lowest rate was 117.23 in PG0HA0.

EFFECT OF ADDING SOME CONDITIONERS and IRRIGATION LEVELS IN WAER USE EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTION OF MAYZE CROP

S. M. Salih and A. I. Al-Abaied

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

Field Experiment was carried out during the autumn season of 2018 to determine the effect of some soil enhancers on the productivity and growth of maize-fajir-1 in western Iraq (Anbar-Khaldiya) and the study of some indicators of soil enhancers. The experiment included five coefficients to add enhancers: without addition of material A0, as well as coefficients containing different concentrations of polymer (0.2%P1, 0.4%P2) and (2%O1,24%O2) of ceratophyllum powder, respectively, and three levels (Eta I1, 125% of Eta I2, 150% of Eta I3) during one of the main plant growth stages, The distribution of the split plot disign RCPD and three replicates were statistically analyzed and the averages were compared at a lower test Significant difference (LSD) at 5% using the Genistate . Positive results were obtained under the effect of the addition of conditioners mixed with the soil with the highest yield of 8.44-ton h-1and 8.39-ton h-1 for treatment of polymer P2 and P1, respectively, compared with the treatment of comparison A0 where It reached 8.09 tons h-1. The efficiency values of field and crop water increased by increasing the percentage of enhancers, with the highest value for field water use efficiency of 1.44 Kg.m-3 for P1 compared to the minimum efficiency of 1.33 Kg.m-3for O1, while the highest value for crop water use was 1.31 Kg m-3 for P2 compared with the lowest efficiency of O1 treatment at 1.29 Kg m-3. The plant height and dry weight values increased with the increase of the improvement rate. The highest value of plant height was 201.6 cm for the P2 treatment and 8.98 ton h-1 as dry weight for the same treatment compared to the lowest height of 181.7 cm for the treatment O1. The dry weight for the same treatment was 8.73 ton h-1, while the highest value of irrigation treatments was 192 cm for treatment I1. The dry weight of the same treatment was 8.87 ton h-1, compared to the lowest plant height for treatment I3 with 186 cm and the lowest dry weight for the same treatment was 8.7 ton h-1

THE ROLE OF COMPOST AND WATER STRESS AND THE SYSTEM OF SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION VEGETATIVE AND PLANT GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF POTATO PLANT

M. F. Al-Shammari , B.A. Alkhateeb , S. A. Mahmoud

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

A field experiment was conducted in Ramadi, Anbar province, western Iraq, in soil with a Silt Loam soil during the autumn season 2018, to study the role of compost, water stress and the surface and subsurface drip irrigation system. 50, 75 and 100% of the net irrigation depth. In the design of the splintered splinters, the transactions were divided according to the design of the complete random sections and by three replicates. Each sector was divided into two main parts, in which the compost was distributed. 1 - Without adding 2 - Addition of 10 tons’ e- 1. Each was divided into two secondary pieces. 2. Sub-surface irrigation Each secondary subdivision was divided into three sub-sub-sections as experimental units where irrigation levels 50, 75 and 100% of the net depth of the irrigation were distributed. Use the American Type A evaporation pond at the irrigation time. The results showed that the level of addition of 10 tons e-1 led to a significant increase in all indicators of the study number of air legs and paper area and the weight of the tuber and the number of tubers and the marketable and the total number of 2.38 stem plant -1, 72.75 dm 2, 124.2 g and 4.84 darn plant - 131.46 tons e-1 and 42.95 tons e-1 sequentially. The average number of air stems, paper area, weight of tuber, number of tubers, marketable value and total yield of potato plant at the irrigation level were significantly higher than 100% of the net depth of the broth, reaching 2.41 stem plant-1, 65.92 dm 2, 136.7 g, 4.89, Ton e-1 and 42.55 tons e-1 sequentially. The average number of air stems, paper area, weight of tuber, tubers, marketable, and total of subsurface irrigation was also higher than 2.34 stem plant -1,68.04 dm 2, 147.7 g, 4.79,32.39 tons e-1, and 42. 13 tons e-1 sequentially, genotype and seed priming in improving seedling performance to tolerate salt stress.

THE EFFECT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN DRINKING WATER OF BROILERS ON PERFORMANCE AND SOME CHEMICAL BLOOD TRAITS

H. K. Shakeer , R. H. Razooqi , M. I. Haider

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of water supported by dissolved oxygen in the drinking water of broilers, in their performance and some chemical blood traits. A total of 90 birds one-day old of the Ross308 were used. At The week the birds were distributed randomly in 3 groups with 3 replicates / group (10 birds / replicate). The first included T1: T2 and T3: Oxygen-supported drinking water at a rate of 2 hours /2 times/ day, 2 hours /3 times / day in succession. The results showed that drinking water with oxygen resulted in a significant increase in the mean body weight and weight increase and a significant improvement in the food conversion coefficient with a significant decrease in the feed consumption rate especially in the treatment (T3 when exposed birds three times a day (T3) T1 and T2, with significant decrease in serum glucose and cholesterol concentration in T2 and T3 compared with T1, and no significant differences were observed between the experimental parameters in total protein concentration and AST and ALT activity. These results indicate that oxygenated watering can be used as a tool to improve growth and physiological performance in broiler production .

THE EFFECT OF ADDING FENUGREEK LEAVES POWDER (FOENUM-GRACEUM L.) ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY EVALUATION FOR MINCED MUTTON AND BEEF CATTLE PATTIES

B. H. Ahmad and S. J. Saleh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of fenugreek leaves powder on chemical composition and sensory evaluation for minced mutton and beef cattle patties. Fenugreek leaves powder at levels of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were used. Nutritional value and sensory evaluation were evaluated of this product. The data of flavor tenderness, juiciness and acceptability were significantly improved when the concentrate of fenugreek increased until 1% for minced beef cattle patties while sensory evaluation of minced mutton patties did not show any improvement by using fenugreek leaves powder. The results of chemical composition did not show any significant in protein and fat concentrations. In conclusion, the results revealed the possibility of using 1% fenugreek leaves powder in beef cattle meat patties which improved sensory evaluation and did not affect their chemical composition.

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOME CUCUMBER HYBRIDS IN GREENHOUSES IN IRAQ

I. A. Mohammed , M. M. M. Alabdaly , I. K.H. Al-Ha

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

A field experiment has been carried out in an unheated plastic house belonging to the Department of Horticulture and Landscaping - College of Agriculture - University of Anbar in two seasons, autumn 2018 and spring 2019 to study the effect of water tension in the production of four hybrids of cucumbers for protected cultivation, which three of them are locally produced at the College of Agriculture - University of Anbar (H2, H3, H4) compared to a hybrid approved by the Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture (H1) for determining the best gynoecious hybrids (locally production) to withstand water stress by knowing the extent of its tolerance to water stress conditions that simulate the environment of Anbar Governorate. under three levels of water tension, calculated on the basis of depletion of 30% (I1), 50% (I2) and 70% (I3) of available water, the experiment has been carried out According to Randomized completed blocks design (R, C, B and D) with three replications. The surface drip irrigation system with GR type drippers has been adopted to irrigate the experiment ground. Irrigation has been scheduled for the two growing seasons in light of the depletion rates mentioned above and calculated on the basis of the weight method. The results showed the superiority of H3 in leafy area, dry weight and number of fruits which were 110.69 dm2, 88.84 g and 45.61 fruit of plant-1 for the autumn season as compared with 117.2 dm2, 96.41g and 67.34 fruit of plant-1 in the spring season, while H1 hybrid gave highest yield in the autumn season reached 3.488 kg plant-1 while H3 hybrid gave highest yield in the spring season reached 4.782 kg Plant-1. I1 treatment exceeded the other treatments of moisture depletion in all studied properties.

EFFECT OF WHEY AND BANANA FRUIT PUIP EXTRACT IN GROWTH OF KHASTAWI OLIVE TRANSPLANTS

E. A. Rashed and A. F. Al-Dulaimy *

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

Lath trail was laid out at Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar during growth season of 2018, to investigate the effect of Whey with three levels of (0, 250 and 500 ml L-1 distilled water) and Banana fruit pulp extract with three levels of (0, 25 and 50 ml L-1) on vegetative growth of Khastawi olive transplants. Eighty-one identical saplings as possible were chosen (27 saplings for each replicate). The two study factors were added at the (1/4, 1/6, 1/8 and 1/10). A factorial experiment was carried out in two factors (3×3) by R.C.B.D. design included 9 treatments replicated three times, using three transplants for each experimental unit. Applying the Whey was significantly affected all the studied traits of the vegetative growth of olive transplants (except the leaves dry weight percentage), especially the highest level (W2) which showed the best values for traits (increased of shoot number 16.52 shoot transplants -1, shoot length 23.8 cm, increased of leaves number 169.7 leaf transplants -1. While W1treatment achieved highest value for leaves area as it reached 978.89 cm2. The highest level of Banana fruit pulp extract (P2) was the best by giving the highest significant effect for all traits (increased of shoot number, shoot length, increased of leaves number, leaves dry weight percentage and leaves area) which gave 16.63 shoot transplants -1, 22.3 cm, 168.2 leaf transplants -1, 60.98% and 1013.23 cm2, respectively. The interaction between the two factors reached a significant level for the traits (increased of shoot number, shoot length and leaves area).

CONTROL OF WHITE MOLD DISEASE ON EGGPLANT CAUSED BY FUNGUS SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM BY INTEGRATION BETWEEN SOIL SOLARIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL WITH FUNGUS TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

Q. K. Zewain* and A. A. Hamad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

This study was conducted in determine the efficiency of each of temperature, exposure time and bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianum in inhibition of the sclerotia myceliogenic germination of S. sclerotiorum and its mycelial growth on PDA and field. The laboratory experiment included determine efficient temperatures and its exposure hours needed to inhibit pathogen germination in order to use for minimizing disease dissemination in the field through soil solarization technique. The study showed that temperature of 60 ?C with exposure time of 5 and 6 hours were the most efficient treatments in inhibition of myceliogenic germination (55.55, 100 %) respectively. The result antagonism between T. harzianum and S. sclerotiorum by dual culture technique showed high efficacy of the bio-control agent T. harzianum inhibition anti mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum on PDA scoring antagonism rate of 2 degree. In terms of disease incidence the results showed that soil solarization alone and its integration with bio-control agent were completely prevented the occurrence of the disease achieving the maximum reduction in incidence rate (100 %) for all studied depths at the end of eighth weeks compared with control treatment in which the average of incidence was (85.42 %) , followed by the treatment of bio-control agent alone by a reduction rate of (42.08 %) respectively with a significant difference compared with inoculated control treatment.

FORECASTING OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN IRAQ USING BOX- JENKINS MODEL FOR PERIOD 2020-2024

A. R. H. Al-Moola

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

Wheat is a major crop of food grown in different parts of Iraq, whether irrigated in the middle or south or demilitarized in northern Iraq, which is grown in large quantities but does not meet the actual need for local consumption, and as a strategic commodity, this research aims to make a forecast of wheat production for the next five years 2020-2024, by using time series based on the Box-Jenkins model. This is one of the models that depend on the accuracy of diagnosis of the phenomenon studied by relying on time series data for the study period 1980 - 2018, where a set of results were obtained through the use of statistical analysis program Minitab17 that may help those interested in the future vision of the Iraqi economy in drawing A successful planning policy, the results showed that the best model for forecasting wheat production in Iraq is ARIMA (1.0.2).

ESTIMATION OF TECHNICAL, SPECIALIZED AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATED POTATO VARIETIES USING DATA ENVELOPE ANALYSIS METHOD (DEA) IN IRAQ FOR SPRING LUG 2018

M. M. Alzobaee , M. A. Aldulaimi*

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

Research highlights the importance of potato crop, which occupies a prominent food and economic status in food security besides rice, wheat and corn at the local and global level. Despite the expansion of the cultivation of potato crop in Iraq in general and Ameriyah district in particular However, potato productivity remains substandard, this may be due to a lack of knowledge of the most efficient varieties and not to use productive resources at the levels at which technical, specialized and economic efficiency is achieved. Therefore, the aim of the research is to determine the technical, specialized and economic efficiency according to the cultivated seed category. The data envelope analysis (DEA) method was used to estimate technical, specialized and economic efficiency, assuming constant and variable capacity returns. As a result of the study, the Safrana variety achieved the highest average technical efficiency according to the stability of the yield and capacity efficiency in addition to achieving the highest average specialized and economic efficiency, The Lapadia variety achieved the highest average technical efficiency, assuming that capacity returns have changed. Therefore, we recommend the adoption of items that achieve higher efficiency and the need to redistribute the elements of production better and Achieving the optimum levels at which technical, specialized and economic efficiency is achieved and saving what has been wasted.

MOLECULAR STUDY OF HUMAN HEAD LICE, PEDICULUS HUMANUS CAPITIS COMPARISON WITH GOAT SUCKING LICE, LINOGNATHUS STENOPSIS (BURMEISTER) STRAINS

S.N. Al-Doury* , O. I. Mahmood , S. M. Lafta , S.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

In this study, only (122) out of (915) primary school students were shown to be infected with head lice Pediculus. humanus capitis. The number and percentage of infected males was 46 (11.3%), while the number and percentage of infected females was 76 (14.9%). The results in our study also showed that the number and percentage of goats infected with goat sucking lice, Linognathus stenopsis was 70 (21.7%) of the total 322 animals, with the highest number and percentage among female goats 44 (62.9%) compared to the male goats 26 (37.1%). The study demonstrated that rate of genetic difference between the studied samples was 89% and the similarity rate was 11%. Detection of OP-K01 gene pieces by PCR products showed that the amplicon size was 520 bp for P. humanus capitis isolated from humans, while the detection of OP-E20 and OP-M05 gene pieces with PCR product showed the lowest amplicon size 230 bp for Linognathus stenopsis isolated from goats.

EFFECT OF LEMON PEEL AND PULP EXTRACT ON SOME LOCAL KURDISH RAM MEAT QUALITIES AND ITS SHELF LIFE

A. A. Hamma, H. G. Dahir, Z. K. Khidhir*, M. M. Mohammad, D. J. Ahmmed, A. K. Ahmmed, and S. O. Kaki

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:18 issue:1

To investigate the effectiveness of adding lemon peels and pulp extracts on some quality properties and shelf-life of the sheep longisimussdorsi muscle during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C for 0, 4, and 8 days for this purpose am meat trim of visible fat and connective tissue, they cut in small cubes. The meat samples divide into four equal proportions and mix with different concentrations of lemon peel and pulp extract according to the following formulations: Control; T1 1%; T2 2% and T3 3% of lemon peel and pulp extract, by applied immersion method. The results showed acceptable results of moisture content, Water-holding capacity cooking loss, thiobarbituric acid, met-myoglobin, myoglobin, and sensory traits of the samples treated with lemon peel in comparison to the control group. The phiso-chemical traits changed during the storage periods but the meat sample treated with lemon extract was more stable than control groups. These results suggested that using lemon peels and pulp extracts to maintain physio-chemical properties of ram meat and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage, which may have implications of meat processors.