2009, Volume:7 Issue:2


Similarity and dissimilarity in the Rate of Soil weathering Indices for various Ecosystem and Physiographic Units

Mothana Kh. I. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

* , Salah M. F. Al-Juraysi* and Abdul-Karym A. Mkelf** * Soil Science Dept.- College of Agriculture/ ** Center of desert studies/ University of Al-Anbar Abstract Twenty two soil site were chosen in the main and sub physiographic units according to exploratory soil map of Iraq (1); these soil site represented various Ecosystem systems (2). Morphological. Chemical and physical soil properties were studied.. Total Oxide in these soil were determined– Weathering indices for heavy minerals (HM); Silica minerals (SM); index minerals (IM); R1; R2; and (MgO CaO) were use in these soil which various in parent material and Ecosystem .Results showed decrease of weathering in all soils sites and the rate of weathering increase in desert soil under the DWD Ecosystem. According to Nessibet scheme soils clustering in sedimentary environment and shows the interaction between Marsh and eastern region. Similarity index showed similarity some soil site with another in spite of various physiographic and Ecosystem. Statistic analysis showed the weathering indices arrangement as fallow R2> R1> HM >IM >SM >CaO MgO. These arrangements reflect the effects of Climate nature practices and Ecosystem on weathering of minerals from various Clay mineral.

Effect of feeding different types of roughage on the performance of pregnant Awassi ewes

Ali H. Jassim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

This experiment was designed to study the performance of Awassi pregnant ewes fed different types of roughage (green, hay and silage) during late pregnancy. Twenty four Awassi ewes (initial weight 47.01 ± 0.9 Kg) aged 2-3 years mated in mid June were used in a three treatments completely randomized design. Animals were housed and grouply penned 8 weeks before lambing. Treatment 1 (G1) consisted of alfalfa green roughage, Treatment 2 (G2) was fed whole crop maize silage and treatment 3 (G3) was fed dried alfalfa hay. All treated ewes were fed roughages ad libitum pluse 200 g/day concentrate. Types of roughage had no significant effect on ewes body weight changes (changes from the start of the experimental feeding to 24 hours post lambing).Ewes fed green roughage (G1) had heavier post-lambing weight than G2 and G3. lambs born from group 1 were heavier (P<0.01) than G2 and G3. Similar results were obtained for growth rate and weaning weight of lambs.

Petrography and paleoecology of carbonate- phosphatic rocks of Ratga formation (Damlouk member) Akashat Area, western desert of Iraq

Nafi A. Nassar

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

This research covers the detail petrographic study of the rocks of Damlouk member, which represented the middle part of Ratga formation (Eocene) of Akashat area in the western desert of Iraq. This study including the knowldgment of the lithologic and microfacies aspects of this member and also the determination of environmental deposition for each of these microfacies obtained from petrographic analysis. From the field observations and study the rocks in thin sections under the microscope,it is clear that the studied member consist generally of about 40 meter of carbonat_dominated sequence_Rocks types are chalky,marly limestone,fossiliferous limestone with ocasional phosphatic horizons.Detailed petrographic examination of these rocks show that they are characterized by nine distinctive microfacies which include: 1 - L ime mudstone microfacies. 2 - S helly lime wackstone packstone microfacies. 3-Nummulitic lime packstone microfacies . 4-Nummulitic lime packstone to grainstone microfacies . 5-Shelly nummulitic lime packstone microfacies . 6-Foraminiferal lime wackstone microfacies. 7-Oyster_shelly lime packstone microfacies. 8-Bioclastic lime packstone microfacies. 9-a-Phosphatic lime wackstone microfacies . 9-b-Phosphatic wackstone and packstone microfacies . 9-c-Shelly phosphatic lime packstone microfacies.

Response Cotton Variety Lashata to Levels and Dates Foliar of Boron for Some Growth Characters and Qualitative

Rajaa M. Hameed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

The experiment was conducted at the field of Kerbala during the two seasons of 2001 and 2002, to investigate response cotton variety Lashata to levels of Boron levels (0, 8, 16, and 24 mg.kg-1) and three dates foliar (after thinning , during flowering and after 50% flowering) on growth and qualitative. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results showed that Boron applied at 24 mg.kg-1 increased plant height (156.33 and 158.36 cm), number of sympodia branch per plant (37.44 and 36.00 branches), lint yield (2297.10 and 2212.00 kg/ha) respectively in both season, and reduced height first sympodia branch. In addition, it increased fiber length (21.77 and 24.96%) and fiber strength (24.45 and 23.90%) respectively in both season. The date foliar during flowering of both season increased plant height , height first sympodia branch, number sympodia branch per plant, lint yield (1264.30 and 1326.00 kg/ha) respectively, and fiber strength (5.77 and 4.79%) in both season respectively as compared with foliar boron after thinning. Significant effect of interaction between level 24 mg.kg-1 of boron and date foliar during flowering in all the properties were studied in his research.

Genetic parameters for some physiological characters in cultivars crosses of tobacco

F. Y. Baktash

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

Full diallel crosses coducted to develop tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) hybrids using three cultivars; Corjo (A), Sumer48 (B) and Croillo (C), during 2004, at the field of Field Crops Dept., Coll. Of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad. Hybrid trail carried out at the open field and green house using Randomized Complete Block Desighn with 3 parents , 6 hybrids and 2 control, Habana and CV. 48. Significant differences were found between open field and green house plants in all the studied characters.The hybrid (BxC) was earlier in 50% flowering, which not differed from (CxB) in green house. The crosses (AxB) and (BxC) superior in plant height, while did not differed significantly from the crosses (CxB). The higher number of leaves/plant produced in the hybrid plants (CxB). Several crosses revealed positive and negative heterosis in the studied traits. Genetic analysis revealed that, number of days to 50% flowering, plant height and number of leaves/plant were under non additive gene action. The results revealed that the plant characters in the green house, better than in the open field. It was recommended the reciprocal cross (CxB), which superior in plant height and number of leaves/plants.

Impact of Competition in Sorghum Productivity

A. M. H. Al-Jumeily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out at the Field Crop Research Station of State Board of Agricultural Research during 2004 and 2005 seasons to investigate the impact of competition on growth and yield of sorghum. Ankath cultivar was grown at three planting spaces (15, 20 and 25 cm) and three levels of number of plants per hill (1, 2 and 3 plants/hill) in RCBD arrangement in experimental factorial design with three replicates. The results showed that increasing plant competition by reduce of plant spacings and increase number of plants per hill reduced number of days from sowing to 50% anthesis, length of panicle, number of branches/panicle, grain weight and grain yield/plant while plant height and total grain yield were increased. It can be concluded that close spacing and number of plant per hill gave more effectiveness competition in sorghum. However to obtain higher grain yield for individual plant it should be planted at spacing 20-25 cm with one plant per hill. But to obtain higher grain yield per unit area regardless of productivity of individual plant can be increasing plant population by reduce of plant spacing to15-20 cm and increase number of plants per hill to 2 and 3 plants.

Response of Mung bean to phosphorus fertilization and seeding rates

Mohamed A. I. Al-Anbari

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

To determine the suitable level of phosphorus fertilization and the best seeding rate in (Vigna mungo L.), CV. (Khadrawy) under kerbala province environment. A field experiment was conducted at husaniah/ College of agriculture during the growing season of 2005/ 2006 and 2006/ 2007, using split plot design with RCBD in three replicates. Three levels of phosphorus fertilization (15, 30 and 45) kg P/ ha were assigned in the main plots, whereas seeding rates (24, 36, and 48) kg/ ha as sub plots. The suitable fertilization level was produced in 15 kg P /ha with most studied characters, excluding seed weight and no. of plants/ m2. Increasing level of phosphorus to 45 kg P/ ha decreased seed yielding in percentage (16.65 and 26.45) % at the first and the second season respectively. Increasing level of phosphorus fertilization caused significant increase in seed weight because of the yield component compensation which produced from decrease no. of pods/ m2 and no. of seeds/ pod. The best seeding rate was 36 kg/ ha in characters of no. of plants/m2, leaflet area, no. of pods/ m2 and seed yield which gave (1198.40 and 1060.10) kg/ ha at the first and the second season respectively. The highest interaction was obtained from 15 kg P/ ha in second season (1187.7) kg/ ha, while the first season was not signification interaction. The highest percentage of determination of coefficient was from leaflet area and no. of pods/ m2 which were (71and 58) % respectively for first season and (60 and 50) % respectively for second season.

Effect of Sowing Rates on Growth and Yield of Some rice cultivars

Aeid K. Maseer

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

Field experiment was conducted at Kadisaea Governorate to investigate effect of three swing rates (100, 140 and 180 kg. ha) on growth and yield of four rice cultivars (Anber- 33, Anber Menathera, Anber Baghdad and Anber Furat). The results indicated that Anber Baghdad C. V. gave significant increment in plant height, number of panicles per m2, weight of 1000 grains and yield. The cultivar of Anber Menathera gave largest flag leaf area and highest number of grains per panicle. Sowing rate (180 kg. ha-1) superior in no. days (planting to 50% flowering), FLA (Flag Leaf Area), No. panicle per m2, which rwflected in highest yield. Data showed significant interaction between sowing rate and cultivars, and that increasing of sowing rate of CV. Anber Baghdad to 180 kg/ ha, encouraged the plant to posses highest No. panciles/ m2 No. grain/panicle, weight of 1000 grain, so these all reflect in highest yield.

Effect of gamma rays on some characters of several cotton genotyps

Mohamed O. Al-Ubaidi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

This experiment was conducted during two successive seasons 2001 and 2002 at two experiment Stations (Al-Taji and Al-Madain). The aim was to increase genetic variations bygamma rays. Seeds of 21 genotyps were irradiated by gamma rays (200 Gy). Irradiated seeds were planted in the field with the control ones. During different stages of M1 generation plant growth the percent of emmergense, growth development number of days to flowering and mean of bolls/ plant were measured .The results in (M1) generation showed a reduction in growth development (plant height) of all irradiated genotypes by 9, 7, 17, 8, 19.5 and 41.7 cm for 45, 105, 165, and 185 days and 10.3, 18.1, 26.3 and 43.7 cm for 45, 105, 165, and 185 days from date of planting in Al-Taji and Al-Madain station respectively. The mean of percent of emmergense was reduced by 36% and 35% in the both station respectively. In M2 generation several variants were obtained (2998 and 333 genetic variants from the both Station. The genotypes 12 and 18 gave a high number of varients 25 and 27 in Al-Taji and 31 and 25 varients in Al–Madain. The same genotypes gave a high number of variants whish have a big boll 11 and 17 varients from the both genotype. It is recommended to use 200 GY dose of gamma ray on cotton, and the genotypes 12 and 18 was the best.

Effect of some plants extracts on the sprouting and weight loss of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) Desiree cv.

Bayan H. Majeed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

An experiment was carried out in the cold storage unit, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad from 1/7/2002 through out 15/1/2003. This investigation aimed to study the effect of Dill, Rosemary, sage, Extracts with three concentration (2, 4, 8 gl H2O) for each extract beside greap water compound (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 ml/ H2O), as well as the control treatment dipping was done for 10 and 20 min, and the treated tubers stored in a cold store at 4 ± 2?C and relative humidity of 85 ± 5?C from 15/7/2002 until 31/12/2002, tubers then reconditioned until 15/1/2003. Results indicated that sprouting percentage was significantly decreased at the first stages of storage, and after reconditionning dill extract raised to 71.45%, while control treartment decreased to 55.15%. The treatments significantly decreased weight loss in the first stages but greap water comp. and control were the best treatment under reconditionning.

Effect of Manures and Mulching on yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Desiree

S. M. Ahmed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

This studies was conducted in the experimental field, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib,during at the fall and spring seasons 2006-2007. by using Desiree cultivar potato. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sources of organic manure and mulching with black polyethylene sheets in the growth, yield and yield component of potato plans. Split- plot design were adapted, the first factor inculded either without black polyethylene sheet (M0) or using it (M1). The second factor was included the using of 6 types of organic manure; the first without organic manure (control T0). The second chemical fertilizer (T1), The third sheep manure (T2), The forth local peatmoss(T3),The fifth dry Pow humus(T4) and the sixth liquid Humic acid. L.S.D were used to compare the means at a 5% level of significances. The results showed that Mulching with black polyethylene (M1) significantly increased the yield/ plant and total yield for both seasons to reached 615.11and 710.56 gm and 29.40 and 35.82 ton hec for both seasons respectively . as compared with the control (M0) to reached 525.56 and 663.89 gm and 23.05 and 33.25 ton hec. And showed of Treating potato plants with chemical fertilizer (T1) and sheep manure (T2) significantly increased the total yield in fall season to reached 33.91and 30.79 ton hec respectively while in spring season was 42.70 and 41.42 ton hec as compared with the control (T0) to reached 19.45 and 29.72 ton hec to both control seasons respectively.And results showed of Mulching with black polyethylene and chemical fertilizer (MITI) and mulching with black polyethylene with sheep manure (M1T2) significantly increased the total yield in fall season to reached 38.30 and 34.62 ton hec and in spring season 44.27 and 43.14 ton hec while to decreased 17.05 and 28.30 ton hec. in control treatment (M0T0) without Mulching and manuring for both seasons.

Effect of Manures and Mulching on quality characters of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Desiree CV.

Sadik K. Sadik

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

This studies was conducted in the experimental field, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu- Ghraib, during at fall and spring seasons 2006-2007 by using Desiree cultivar class (A) in the fall season and class (Eilte) in spring season. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sources of organic manure and mulching with black polyethylene sheets on quality characters of potatoes. Split- plot design were adapted in this experiment the first factor inculded either without black polyethylene sheet (M0) or using it (M1). The second factor was included using of 6 types of organic manure; the first without organic manure (control T0). The second chemical fertilizer (T1), The third sheep manure (T2), The forth local peatmoss (T3), The fifth dry Pow humus (T4) and the sixth liquid Humic acid. L.S.D were used to compare the means at a 5% level of significances. The results showed that Mulching potato plants with black polyethylene (M1) increased significantly the percentage of dry matter, starch and protien in potato tubers for both seasons and the percentage to reach (14.31, 8.76, 0.94%) respectively for fall season, as compared with the control (M0) to reach (13.85, 8.35, 0.77%). While in spring season the percentage was (16.83, 11.00, 1.22%). Respectively as compared with the control the percentage to reach (15.53, 9.81, 1.01%) respectively. And Mulching with black polyethylene and chemical fertilizer (M1T1) and mulching with black polyethylene with sheep manure (M1T2) significantly increased the dry matter and starch in potato tubers in fall season the percentage in dry matter to reach (15.14 and 14.88%) respectively and the percentag in starch to reach (9.50 and 9.26%) respectively as compared with the control (M0T0) without Mulching and manuring to reach (12.26 and 6.91%) respectively, while in spring season the percentage of dry matter was (17.93 and 17.58%) and for starch was (11.98 and 11.67%) respectively. as compared with the control (M0T0) to reach (13.92 and 8.15 %) resrectively.

Some factors influencing growth of Awassi lambs and their crosses from birth till weaning and weight at the age of 6 months

Mothaffar H. Al-Salman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

The records of sheep experimental station belonging to IPA were analyzed, these records consisted of local Awassi and 4- breed cross (ALDH and TLDH). The study was conducted on 357 records for lambs body weight at birth, weaning and average daily gain, 277 records for body weight at the age of 6 months. The method of Least- Square was used for analyzing the data. The purpose of the study was to indicate the genetic and non- genetic influence on weight at birth, weaning and at 6 month of age and on the average daily gain. The genetic group was superior (P‹0.01) to TLDH lamb weight at birth and (P‹0.05) to local Awassi lamb at the age of 6 months with an average of (4.10, 32.66,) respectively. The lambs which were single and born in November were superior (P‹0.01) in most traits. The regression coefficients of body weight at birth and weaning on maternal weight at parturition were significant (P‹0.01). The phenotypic correlation between body weight in different age and average daily gain were positive and highly coefficient was observed between weaning weight and weight at the age of 6 months with average daily gain in body weight (0.809, 0.988) respectively.

Some physical and biochemical characteristics of blood of lambs fed normal why and ground corncobs

A. A. Hobi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

This study was conducted at Al-shulla sheep station, Ministry of Agriculture on 20 Awassi lambs to study the effect of replacement cheese by product (whey) and ground corncobs by the soybean meal and wheat bran. Animals were divided randomly into two group. Group 1 consist of 10 lambs fed on an ordinary ration (control group), while lambs in group 2 (10 lambs) fed normal whey (whey) and 24.1 % of ground corncobs in replacement of soybean meal and wheat barn. Hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count were increased significantly for lambs in group 2, while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, pH value,glucose and urea in the blood were not. Higher Alkaline phosphatase activity (135.22 ± 10.11 K.A.U./ 10 ml) and Alanine amino transferase concentration (38.18 ± 4.46 U/ l) were recorded for lambs in group 2, while cholesterol concentration, acid phosphatase and Aspartate amino transferase were not different between the two groups. It can be concluded that there were no any side effect from using the why and ground corncobs in the lams feeding.

The effect of treatment by lactic acid bacteria on the microbial and morphological characteristics of chicken meat incubated in different temperatures

L.M. Al- Ani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

The study have been conducted to observe the effect of bacterial treatment with lactic acid for chicken meat that have been incubated at different temperature (-20, 5, 27) c° for different period (1, 7, 14) days to see the destructive effect of the microorganisms. It has significant effect (P<0.01) specially for those sample that had been treated by lactic acid, while, samples which have not been treated with lactic acid showed morphologic microbial destructive represented by: color, odor and tissue autolysis.

Apreliminary record for the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus thurngensis and staphylococcus epidermidis on Antigastra catalaunalis in Iraq

Mohammed A. Al-Kinani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

The Antigastra catalaunlis is considered as one of the important insects attaking sesame crop in iraq. This study was conducted to explore an effective biological mean to control the pest. Larvae were collected and crushed to make suspensions earobicly and an earobicly at 28-32 C?. Two kinds of bacteria were found infected the larvae Bacillus thuregiensis, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biochemical assay's according to Kouches postulates were applied, and same result's were obtaind. The two species of bacteria were identified by the same bioassy's tests. So this finding is considered as first record for the two kinds of bacteria on this pest in Iraq.

The Effect Salicylic acid and Tashegazol fungicide in Protection of Cucumber Plant from Infection by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz in green house condition

M. S. Hassan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

The salicylic acid and Tashegazol fungicide had a high level of inactivation of fungal growth of P. aphanidermatum which reached to 100% when they added to potato sucrose agar (PSA) at 400 mg/L rate. Under green house condition the salicylic acid and tashegazol fungicide reduced the infection percent (pre-damping off) to 13.33, 23.33, 53.33 % respectively, the post damping off percent reduced to 6.66, 10.00, 20.00% respectively. البحث مستل من أطروحة دكتوراه للباحث الأول The percent of wilt infection was reduced from 16.66%to control treatment to 3.33% to the salicylic acid treatment, the lowest disease severity achieved by salicylic acid treatment 52.06% then tashegazol 74.98% compared to control treatment which was 88.41% in addition all the dry weight of shoot, roots and plants heights increased significantly by salicylic acid treatment, content of cucumber leaf from total protein increased to 25.93% compared to control treatment 15.25%.

Effect of media on biological activities of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

Ezzal Deen A. Al-Bayyar

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effect of different diets used to rear fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster on Al Ph, Ac Ph, GOT, GPT and total protein in insect body. The study showed that media has significant effects on total protein which was 15 mg/ L in banana media contrast with 10.4 mg/ L in control. The enzymes activities was also significant affected.

Predation efficacy of Stethorus gilvifrons (Muls) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) against the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch on cotton

A. A. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the predator, Stethorus gilvifrons (Muls) against deferant stages of the two spotted spider mite Teranychus urticae Koch. Results indicated that both larvae and adults of the predator were highly efficient in their feeding on all mite stages. Larvae consumed an average of 1045.76 egg, 647.79 larva, 588.80 nymph and 715.03 adult mites when fed on each stage separately during the whole larval duration. The female consumed an average of 7488.17, 8100.25, 6889.4 and 4811.46 individuals of mite stages respectively when fed on each separately during the whole life span, While the male consumed an average of 1826.90, 1977.82, 1759.70 and 810.52 individuals of mite stages respectively. Females consumption of mite stages was higher during the oviposition period followed by pre oviposition and then post oviposition periods. The number of prey decreased with their size increase. The feasibility of including this predator in the management programs of mite was discussed

Food preference and some biological aspects of the predator Stethorus gilvifrons (Muls) (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on deferent stages of Tetranychus urticae Knock- on cotton

A. A. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

A laboratory experiment was undertaken to evaluate the food preference of Stethorus gilvifrons (Muls.) on deferent stages of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Kock.The influence of prey stages on the biological performance of predator was also evaluated .Results showed that the predator larvae preferred the egg of over others stages, while adult mite were the least preferred host .Females of the predator preferred mite larvae in the first place followed by egg and then other stages subsequently. Males preferred mite eggs followed by other subsequent stages. The prey consumption time by predator larvae increased with the increasing size of prey and decreased with increase of the predator developmental stages. First and fourth instars larvae needed an average of 2.1 and 0.5 minutes to consume an egg of mite. The same predator stage needed an average of 11.8 and5.4 minutes respectively to consume adult mite. Results also indicated that the shortest developmental period and the highest survival rate were 10.2 days and 94.1% respectively obtained when the predator fed on mixed stages of mites. The longest period and lowest survival rate were 18.9day and 85.6% recorded for larvae fed on mixed stages of egg and adult mites. The biological performance of the predator adults was also improved when fed on diet containing mixed stages of mites.

The influence of host plant on the efficacy of the growth regulator Applaud and the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh) for the control of green peach aphid Myzus percicae Sulz. in the field

A. A. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

Field experiments were undertaken to evaluate the influence of eggplant, tomato and pepper, as a host plants, on the efficacy of the growth regulator Applaud and the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh) against the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. Results indicated that both the growth regulator and the parasitoid were more effective when used on eggplant than on tomato or pepper plants. Aphid insects disappeared from the plants after four weeks of treatment when the parasitoid and the growth regulator were used together. However, the general means were 30.2 and 33.6 insect/plant for Applaud and applaud with the parasitoid treatments respectively .The general mean of the parasitoid treatment alone was 50.4 insect/ plant while it was 114.7 insects/ plant in the control treatment. Result also indicated that the parasitoid was more effective on pepper plants than on eggplant and tomato. Mean of insects was 46.5 insects/ plant while it was 37.8/ plant for applaud and the parasitoid treatment. Results have also indicated that parasitoid emerged from aphid treated with applaud were less effective against aphid than the normal individuals. Percent parasitism was 81.5 and 48.0% for normal and Applaud treated parasitoid. Therefore the application of the growth regulator should be considered with minimum dosage in order to help in conserving the parasitoid and may be other natural enemies which will contribute in achieving an effective and safe integrated control practice against this pest in the field.

The Extent of Applying By Peanut Farmers To The Recommended Agricultural Practices In Heet City

Adeeb A. Kherauah

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:7 Issue:2

Because of the importance of peanut crop and planted in large quantity in Heat city and reduction in its production to the allowed limit. As well as the variation of this productivity among farmers. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the conditions of its planting and to know how the farmers applied the recommended agricultural practices in planting of this crop . This study involved 42 farmers among 168 farmers to this crop in Heet city. They are chosen randomly. A questionnaire was distributed among these farmers and data were collected . The study showed a large failure in application of farmers to the scientific recommendations in planting this crop. Also, there was no suitable plan to develop skills and experiences of farmers whom they have the ability in adoption the knowledge devices about its planting . furthermore, this study showed weakness in different media devices to pay an attention to this Crop: This study determine many of recommendations in which the researcher found them to be fundamental and may be participating in developing the skills of peanut's farmers.