2009, volume:7 issue:1


Comporization in first horizons structure to Garaf MP12 and Nassiriyah TP567 soil series from toposequen in the east Garaf project

M. K. Ibrahiem AL-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Comparative soil structure from first horizons were study to two soil series. which taken from two unit of land surfaces in one toposequenes setes seives with dimeter (3mm, 10mm, 20mm, 30mm, 40mm and 50mm) were used to Morphological characterizations soil structure. Resulets show by using qiusequer,frequencey distribiution Ratio dimeter and Mediaum. Type and Classes of structre were varient significant at level 0.05, 0.01 to class but no significant at level 0.01 of type and X2 value were (16.348, 4.001) to soil series.

Bacterial Indole acetic acid (IAA) production by using local media and test isolates ability to solibal P and Nfixation

I.A. Assaffii

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This study was included isolation and identification of bacterial isolates for growth promoter production by application of local culture and evaluate its efficiency .According to this perpoute bacterial isolates were collected and examined for their ability to indol production, by used local culture included dry powder of legume, bean, soyabean, seed and milk powder, periods of storge to increase production efficincy. The ability of selection isolate for iron chelating natural, phosphate disolveing , Nitrogen fexation were tested. Applied biological expermints has been done in order to evalution the efficincy of indol production in compantion with industrial indol and this study have the following results: 18 isolates were obtain cupable for them indol production (30 from total isolates) 14 isolats were nodulan bacteria .8 isolates which have high efficancy in indol production were tested six isolates tended to Rhizopium and two isolate to Pseudomonus in next screening used culture with special condation, two isolates Pssp2S, Rsp8RA were selected to be used in the following epperinets. When we used 10% of local culture prepared from dry powder of legumes, bean, soyabean seed, milk powder led to increased of indol production significantly ranged from (30-50%). This study improved the ability of selection isolates to alchelating compouned CAS from blue to pink colum with 4.5–5.8 min. of Ps.sp2S and Rsp8RA respictivly, their isolates have ability to phosphate dissolved in the medium with diametr range dissolving 6.25–11.75 mm respectively, and the, Rsp8RA isolate has ability to nitrogen fixation in the medium with avarge of 3.65 N/ L whil the Ps.sp2S doesn't able to nitrogen fixation. Effect of temperature and period of filterated isolates storge on speed of seed germination increased efficancy filterated isolates that stored at 4C and 25C for one day and that stored at 4ْC for45 days .When it compared with treatment filtrated storge at 25ْC for 45 days and treatment of industrial indol .The filterated isolates achived in commonly increase in speed and percentage of germination was reached 10–20% in temporal differences 3–5 day respectively when compare with control treatment.

Evaporation losses, efficiency and irrigation uniformity for center pivot and solid set sprinkler irrigation systems

A. K. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Field study was conducted during 2007 to comparing evaporation losses, irrigation efficiency and irrigation uniformity between center pivot and solid set sprinkler irrigation systems. A study was conducted in tow locations in Al-Anbar governorate. Study result showed that evaporation losses under center pivot systems were 9.38% from total irrigation water, as compared with 13.05% under solid set systems. Also study showed that irrigation efficiency and uniformity coefficient for both locations were 90.61 and 90.90 for center pivot systems on the succession, and they were 86.95 and 80.70 for soled set sprinkler irrigation systems.

The effect of interaction between soil moisture and organic wastes on growth and uptake of N, P on corn plant

Y. K. Hamza

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Pots experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture/ Al-Anbar University during fall season 2007 to study the effect of interaction between soil moisture and organic wastes on growth and uptake of N, P on corn plant. The treatments of the experiment included: tow levels of moisture (field capacity, 50% of field capacity) and three types of organic wastes (poultry wastes, sheep and corn cobs). Complete randomized design (C. R. D) with three replicates was used in this experiment. The results showed that: The following conclusions can be summarized from this study: 1- The addition of different types of organic wastes gave a significant increase in the average of plant height, weight of dry matter, total yield of plant, and the N and P uptake by plant. 2- The wastes of poultry was significantly superior comparing with all other treatments and gave the highest rate in all parameters used in this study. 3- Increase in soil moisture (F. C.) had positive effect in creasing the height of plant, weight of dry matter, total yield, and total uptake of N, P by plant, whereas, the reduction in soil moisture (to 50% of f. c) had a negative effect in decreasing in all parameter used in this study. 4- No yield (corn crop production) had been accomplished due to the reduction of soil moisture to (50% of f. c).

Effect of organic matter and zinc spraying on availability of some nutrient and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) under drip irrig

H. Sh. Sharqe

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Field experiment carried out during the winter season of 2006- 2007 in the field of Habbaniah- Anbar, 65 km west of Baghdad to study the impact of three levels of organic matter (manure of sheep) (0, 25, 50) Tn. h1- and overlapping of these three levels with other levels of zinc 0, 2%, 2.5% in the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil and the concentration of zinc in the fruits of garlic. Results showed an increase in nitrogen and phosphorous ready with the increased level of the organic material, reaching 221.66 and 49.37 mg. kg1- soil, respectively. There has not been a moral influence of the level of zinc available, while got the increase in the concentration of zinc in the fruit with increased level of both the addition of organic material and zinc, and give it the third level of both zinc and organic material to the highest weight of the head of garlic.

Role of whey in growth of Corn and microbial population

B. A. Abdel-Hameed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Whey is an environmental pollutant substance .The aim of this study was to use of whey mixing with irrigation water. Four levels of whey 0, 10, 20, and30% mixing with irrigation water were used. Also three levels of organic matter (0, 2, and 4%) were mixed with soil. Apot experiment was conducted. Zea Mays species Iba-10 was planting in pots (10 Kg capacity). Irrigation had continued with water to the end of growing season. After harvesting plant parameters, Plant height, rate of dry shoot weight, root dry weight, Bacterial and Fungi population density in the soil were measured. The results showed that addition of whey mixed with irrigated water gave significant effect and increased plant height, weight of dry shoot and root with increasing the percent of whey addition up to 20% level. This level 20% caused increasing up to 119.77 cm.plant-1 ,48.70 gm.plant-1 and 14.72gm.plant-1 respectively for the previously parameter. Also the same increasing occurred in the bacterial and fungi count up to 20% of whey level were 1.6 *107 spore.gm-1 0f dry soil and 1.35*106 CFU respectively. Also the results demonstrated that organic matter gave significant effect in increasing height plant, shoot and root dry weights which were 115 cm. plant-1, 47.72 gm.plant-1 and 15.56 gm. Plant-1 respectively. The best interaction treatment between whey and organic matter were addition of 10% whey with 2% of organic matter.

The effect of human factor on soil management and its salinity in the countryside of Al-Ramadi

Y. K. Hamza

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

The effect of human factor (peasant) was studies through the bad administration for dust water that led to contributing in deteriorate and salinity of lead in Ramadi's countryside it's represented in five chosen region and. 1. (16) Zuaya AL-Bou Farage. 2. (17) AL-Bou Dhyab 3. (18) Al- Talaa 4. (19) AL- Bou Ali AL-Jassim 5. AL-Bou Assaff. During 2008. This study stem from the hypothesis that a problem with don’t fallowing the good administration by the (peasant) additionally there are the problem of salty dust because the extreme use to water without activity irrigation system that leader to contraction and deteriorating the lands. The study depended on descriptive and analytic method by depending on the scientific researches, Repots and The last studies additionally the field study in region. Through the studied of dust, salty and level of water we conclude the following: 1- Losing and useless of water made it oozing in to inside the earth because it use by random way to the sources of land. 2- The farmer ignores the needs of agricultural crops for the water. He doesn’t depend on using the consumptive use that gives the crops what need of water during the season of growth. That leads to waste the water and make the land salty. 3- To not make a continuous maintenance for the steams that leads to reduce the steams system and increase the quantity of water and participate to make the land salty. 4- To not follow the methods of management the good dust including modification and cultivation of the land and not choice the suitable crops and using the requirements and the suitable method of fertilizer. All these reasons lead to make the land salty and reduce the land of agriculture.

Effect of freezing and thawing on water stable aggregates of reclamated soil

K. H. Al-Bakri

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

experiment was carried out on undisturbed soil samples using (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) depth from Hilla- Kifil reclamated project ,to investigate the effect of freezing and thawing on water stable aggregates. 32 samples have been taken for the two depths,(16 samples for each).The results seem to indicate no significant differences between the two depths but there is a significant reduction in water stable aggregates due to freezing and thawing cycles for the two sizes (0.3 and 0.125mm) . The reduction was: 29.4- 33.4% for 0.3 mm sieve and 15-28.3% for 0.125 mm sieve.

Comparison in performance effect between local designed cultivator and mold cultivator in some performance parameters and some physical properties of soil

S. K. Al-Saryfi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

The experiment was excuted at the experiment yields of techncal institute of mussiab–foundetion of technical institute .split split unit with randomized complete block design ,and the experiment was conduct to acompaine the effect of two tillage tools (sweep plow and mold bourd plow) under two soil moisture level (18% and 20%) and three tractor speeds (2.011, 4.360, 5.430) kmhr insome performance parameters and soil physical properties, .The result showed that the increase of tractor speeds from (2.011 to 4.360 and 5.430) kmhr caused an increase of slippage percentage, pratically productivity, soil bulk density, soil penetration resistance, soil disturb size, but it in decreases fuel consumption, field efficiency, soil total porosity. the decrease of soil moisture level from( 20% to 18% ) caused an increase of slippage percentage, fuel consumption, soil bulk density, soil penetration resistance and soil total porosity. but it in decreases pratically productivity, field efficiency. The result showed that the sweep plow was significant superior than moldboard plow, in all properties studied.

Combining ability and gene action in wheat

H. J. Al-Dulaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A field trial was carried out on the Al-Sofia regon on the right side of the Euphrates in Ramadi. Six genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were crossed in half diallel, in winter season of 2005, to produce fifteen crosses. The parent and crosses were grown in winter season 2006 using R. C. B. D. with three replications to determine heterosis, general and specific combining ability effects and gene action. Significant differences were found among parents and their crosses for all traits. The results showed that the cross IPA (95×Sali) gave the highest hybrid vigor in each of grain yield/ plant and number of spike/ m2 and number of grain/ Spike (19.47 %, 12.34 %, 11.39 %) respectively. The variance due to GCA and SCA were highly significant for all traits studied expect number of grain/spike where only GCA،SCA was significant. The cultivr IPA 95 had the best GCA effects for grain yield of single plant. The highest SCA effect was expressed in (IPA 95×Sali) for grain yield, number of grain/ spike number of spike/ m2. The variance ratio of GCA to SCA was less than one for all characters except number of spike/ m2. The traits were controlled by dominance effect while the number of spike /m2 was controlled by additive effect. The values of dominance variance was more than additive variance for all characters except number of spike /m2. These results reduce the value of the narrow sence heritability for all characters except number of spike /m2, which is an indication, that heterosis for these characters due to dominant gene action. The results indicate that some genotypes could be used in a breeding program to develop new version of high yield per plant and SCA to produce better grain yield selects.

Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes to Planting Dates

A. M. Al-Jumeily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A field experiment was carried out at Field Crop Research Station of IPA-Agric. Research Center during 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 season respectively to investigate the response of seven genotypes of bread wheat to three planting dates. Factorial experiment was used with RCBD in three replicates. Planting dates were 5 November, 25 November and 15 December, respectively. The results showed that planting date 5 November gave higher plant height and spike length while planting date 25 November gave higher number of spikes/m2, number of grain per spike, grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Genotypes significantly differs in their growth and grain yield. Genotype sodes 1 gave higher plant height, spike length and grain weight while mexipak gave higher biological yield, however IPA-99 cultivar gave higher number of spikes/ m2, number of grain/spike, grain yield and harvest index. Genotypes and planting dates interaction was significant in all characters studied, IPA-99 cultivar gave higher grain yield (8.28 and 8.87 t/ ha) in both season respectively due to higher spikes/m2 and number of grains per spike. It can be concluded that the best sowing date was during the period 20-30 November with IPA-99 cv. Being the best cultivar in its performance compared with other genotypes.

Effect of tillers in growth and yield of maize

A. M. Dahi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

An experiment carried out at the Field Crop Research Station / State Board for Agricultural Research during 2006 and 2007 seasons. The study aimed to investigats the effect of tillers in plant growth and its yield in maize. Six genotypes were used in this study included; (Research 106, 5012, Rabe, Masarra) synthetics, and (3003 and A5XR5) hybrids. Experiment factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Results showed the average of tillers number per plant differs from season to season, 106 Research gave higher number of tillers in the 2006 season (2.1) tillers, where as the hybrid A5XR5 gave the highest number of tillers per plant in 2007 (2.3) tillers. No effect of tillers in plant height at 2006 but their is effect in plant height at 2007. The genotypes without tillers showed higher plant height (1.17) m more ever gave higher leaf area in both seasons averaged (0.33) m2 and (0.29) m2 at 2006 and 2007 respectively. Leaf number not affected by plant with and without tillers at 2006 season, while at 2007 the genotypes without tillers gave higher number of leaves per plant as it averaged (14.0) leaves. The genotypes without tillers gave higher yield in both season (121.1 and 95.71) gm per plant respectively. Can be conclude there were negative effect of tillers in plant yield, also to increase maize productivity should be produce genotypes tillerless.

Study of Deterioration form of Sun flower seeds(Helianthus annus L.) through the Storage

A. R. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

The laboratory study was done of the State Commission for testing and certifying the seeds belonging of the Ministry of Agriculture. The aim was to know changing of viability and vigor sunflower seeds and quality features (Urflower variety). The seeds storage with three periods its (2,4and6months) under room conditions normal and Cold storage at Temperature 20c°±1. The system of factorial experiments, according to the completely randomized design (C.R.D) with four replication for the studied features. The important results of the study by the following: 1- The presence of significant effective from storage types to the results of analysis was recorder of best of cold storage of normal storage of viability, vigor and quality features. 2- It must not increase the period of storage for sunflower seeds above [2months] under this experiment because superior significantly and to gave the best results for all studied features compartment period (4 , 6 months). 3- The interaction between period and types of storage was observes significantly effect for studied features and analysis results give the best average of cold storage at (2 months). The conclusion of this study was the oil seeds ex: sunflower under cold storage became better compartment normal storage with few period storage.

Effect of Boron spraying on yield and quality of some peanut genotypes

Adel Y. Nasralla

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A Field experiment was carried out of the experiment Farm, Department of Field Crops Sciences, Collage of Agriculture – Baghdad University during 2005 and 2006 seasons. The objectives were to study the yield, yield components and some quality characters for six peanut genoypes (Kiriz, MH383, Medani, ICCV– 86230, 4/ C9713 and R211/ 86868) and its response to different concentrations of boron (0, 100, 200, 300) mg B/ L. Fatorial experiment in a randomized complee block design with three replications was used. Results showed that Kiriz genotype gave highest pod yield for both seasons (2925.7 and 2946.2 kg h¬-1) respectively due to its highest pod number per plant (49.16 and 82.9 seed/ plant) and highest seed per plant (76.7 and 82.9 seed/ plant). R211/ 86868 genotype gave highest oil percentage (25, 50 %) in both seasons while 4/ C9713 genotype gave highest protein at first season (25.6%) and MH383 genotype gave highest protein (25.5%) in second season. The high concentration of boron (300 mg B/ L) gave highest pod yield for both seasons (2589.25 and 2616.45) kg ha-1 respectively due to its significantly affect on some yield components while oil and protein percentages did not significantly affected by all the concentrations used in both seasons.

Phenotypic and genotypic variation and correlation in bread wheat

F. Y. Baktash

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

These experiments were conducted in the field of Crop Science Dept., Coll. Of Agric. University of Baghdad, during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003, seasons. The objectives was to study phenotypic and genotypic variation and correlation in bread wheat, using split plot design with ten varieties ( Tamoz 2, Tamoz 3, Abu-Ghraib 3, IPA95, IPA99, Sale, Al-Rashed, Al-Iraq, Fateh and Rabea) as main plots and four seeding rates ( 80, 120, 240 and 320 kg/ ha) as sub plots with three replications. Increasing seeding rates from 80 to 160, 240 and 320kg/ ha increased phenotypic and genotypic variances of grain yield. Environmental variance reduced for number of spikes/ plant, number of grains/ spike and harvest index in both seasons, while for grain yield reduced in first season and increased in second season. Increasing seeding rates from 80 to 160, 240 and 320kg/ ha, increased positive genetic correlation coefficient for several characters. It was concluded that the number of spiklets/ spike, harvest index, spike length and number of grains/ spike could be used as selection index for the improvement of grain yield in bread wheat.

Genotypic and phenotypic Variances and Correlations and Path Coefficient Analysis in Sorghum as Affected by Planting Location

A. A. M. Al-Jbouri

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Fifteen genotype of Sorghum were planted in four locations Baghdad, Diwaniya, Basrah and Kirkuk in summer season of 2005 using a randomized complete block design with three replicates to determine the most important characters which can be used as effective selection criteria for improvement yield and grain sorghum. Genotypic phenotypic variance and, broad sense heritability percentage, genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield of grain and other characters were estimated. Path coefficient analysis carried out to partition the genotypic, correlation coefficient to the direct and indirect effects for characters studied. The results showed that genotypic variances and heritability were varied for all characters studied with difference of planting location and grain sorghum yield appeared large values at four locations. It show that grain yield/ plant genetic and phenotypic positive and significant correlation with grain number/head (0.938, 0.927) at Baghdad location. and (0.959, 0.928) at Diwaniya, (0.666, 0.662) at Basrah and (0.921, 0.903) at Kirkuk location. The results of path coefficient analysis showed that the number of grains/ head direct genetic effects at grain yield/ plant 1.24 at Baghdad location, (1.40) at Diwaniya, (0.771) at Basrah and (0.754) at Kirkuk and indirect effects through it for other characters. Thus it can be used this character as a selection index of plant breeding programs for selection and improve grain yield of sorghum of all location under study in Iraq.

Heterosis and combining ability in several agronomic characters of maize inbred lines

F. Y. Baktash

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Diallel cross was performed among eight maize inbred lines (1-IPA 2, 2-IPA 7, 3–IPA 21, 4-IPA 12, 5-71-5, 6-IPA 6, 7- IPA 3 and 8-IPA-14) in the field of Field Crops Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during spring and fall seasons in 1999 and 2000. The objective was to evaluate several maize inbred lines and their crosses, and estimation gene action in several maize characters. In the first season (spring 1999), inbred lines were propagated, while in the fall season 1999, a set of 28 hybrids were developed. Hybrid yield trails were conducted during spring and fall seasons in 2000, using randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant differences were found among several averages and heterosis of studied characters. The plants of the hybrids (1x7) and (3x7) were earlier in tasseling and silking in spring and fall seasons. The plants of the hybrids (4x7), (1x4) and (7x8) had higher ear height. The hybrids (1x3) and (3x6) were superior in leaf area in both seasons. The higher grain yield (99.33 gm/ plant) produced from crosses (5x8) in spring season, while in the fall season the hybrid (1x3) produced the highest grain yields (181.60gm/ plant). The higher degree of dominance and broad sense heritability were found in the grain yield, while the highest narrow sense heritability produced in the silking. The single cross hybrid (1x3) could be promising in the fall season in central Iraq.

Performance of two Genotypes of Maize (Zea mays L.) Under Different Spaces

M. K. Alik

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A field study was conducted during Autumn season 1999 and Spring season 2000 at experimental farm department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib.Univ. of Baghdad. The aim of the study was to investigate performance of Genotypes of maize (Bohoth 106 and IBA 3001) to difference densities with different spaces (80 cm? 20 cm,100 cm ? 16cm , 40 cm ? 40 cm, 80 cm ? 30 cm, 80 cm ? 15 cm and 80 cm ? 10 cm) The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results obtained could be summarized as following: The lower density (80 cm ? 30 cm) gave the highest value of number grain of ear (668.4 and 735 .4 grain) , weight of single grain (261.6 , 223.9 mg) and yield of plant (120.1 and 87.0 gm) respectively in Autumn and Spring while treatment of highest density (80 cm ? 10 cm) gave high value of yield grain (9.40 5.4 ton.ha-1) respectively at both seasons. Iba 3001 under density 62500 plant.ha-1 (80 cm ? 20 cm) gave high value of grain yield 11.1 and 5.2 ton.ha-1 respectively in both seasons.

Studying about the reality of a grain production in AL-Anbar province by following the modern style for increasing a productivity

Y. K. Hamza

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

The reality of strategy crops planting (Wheat, barely and corn) was studied in constituencies and districts of AL-Anbar since 2004-2007. study started with theory to the effect reduction in the production in each area unit of land because the some of problems are related wit nature land and other part of problem related with weather and technical elements. The study depend on description and analysis course by the researches, documents and formal reports with preceded study in gathering information including its studying, comparison result concludes. The nature constituents of agriculture and the reality of seeds production in province were studies by the modern styles in the agriculture that help to support production increasing. The driving of the studying as following: 1. practicability of expansion and increasing of implanted area by reclamation the saline, desert and gypsum lands. 2. Following modern styles in agriculture with depending on integral fagot system. And good types. Manuring a land and agriculture cycle with serving land. 3. Supplying the water and the rationalists using it and deending modern mouthed irrigation all these are led to increasing production.

Effect of humic acid and foliar fertilizer on the yield and other vegetative properties of okra

A. L. AL-Kasiy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This experiment was carried out in one of Ramadi fields, AL-Anbar province in the spring season of 2007. The aim was to study of effect of liquid humic acid and foliar fertilizer on the yield and other vegetative properties of okra. Results showed that spraying treatment with humic acid for twice significantly increased plant height, leaf width and yield by (183.5cm, 25.6cm and 1474 kg/d, respectively), while the number of leaves, leaf width and yield decreasing significantly by (24.6 leaf/plant, 22.6cm and 1298 kg/d in control, respectively). The foliar spray for twice led to increase plant height, number of leaves, leaf width and yield, significantly, which were (176.8cm, 31.1 leaf/plant, 26.6cm and 1467 kg/d, respectively), while they were significantly decreased for all the above properties in control (146.1cm, 25 leaf/plant, 21.9cm and 1281 kg/d, respectively).

Effect of foliar sprays with Copper and Zinc in the vegetative characters of citrus rootstocks

M. R. Al-Ani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This experiment was carried out in the lath house, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during growing season of 2004. Sour orange, mandarin and grapefruit seedling with 6 months old were foliar sprayed with CuSO4. H2O at a rate of 1 gm/ l. water and ZnSO4. H2O at a rate of 2 gm/ l water while the control treatment was sprayed with distilled water. After two weeks half the number of the seedlings were inoculated with Phytophthora citrophthora to investigate the influence of these chemicals in controlling the gummosis in these different rootstocks through their vegetative growth. The experimental results shows that the type of rootstock influenced the vegetative growth parameters.i.e. Soure orange seedlings significantly characterized by the highest number of root branches 41.64 branch/ seedling. Mandarin rootstocks shows the highest plant height of 28.95 cm and root length of 15.01 cm. Grapefruit rootstocks gave the highest dry weight of vegetative and root growth from the other types (2.02 gm, 1.12 gm/ plant). The treatments were significantly influenced the all rootstocks by increasing or decreasing average growth rates. Spraying plants without inoculation (T3) causes 16.14% an increases in leaf area and the average of plant height by 11.07% and the average number of root branches by 21.64% and average of root length by 13.18%. The interaction between the types of the rootstocks and the chemicals indicated that grapefruit seedling sprayed with Zn was superior in the height of plant, dry weight of vegetative and roots growth, leaf area, while the interaction between foliar sprays with Zn and inoculation and the mandarin gave the highest root length. The same treatment with sour orange seedling gave the highest number of root branches.

Evaluation Yield of Some Varieties of Nigella sativa L. Under Different Climatic Conditions

M. H. Kadhum

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A field study was carried out during the winter season of 2006/ 2007 at experiment farm of Field Crops Department, Collage of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu– Ghraib– to study effect of different sowing dates (15/ 10, 1/ 11, 15/ 11, 1/ 12, 15/ 12, 1 /1) on yield and its components of three varieties of Nigella sativa L. (Iraqian, Syrian, Yemanian). A factorial experiment with a randomized complete block design with four replications was used. The results indicated that Syrian variety was significant at number of branches per plant, capsules/ plant, seeds/ plant, weight of 1000 seeds (gm), yield of seed (kg/ h) (10.62, 8.56, 73.56, 3.247, 424.2) respectively. The sowing date 1/ 12 was significant than the others sown dates at the same characters (9.21, 10.56, 76.85, 3.314, 420.9) respectively. The introduction between Syrian variety and sowing date 1/ 12 was significant at the same characters (11.60, 12.08, 86.85, 3.902, 484.3) respectively.

Effect of foliar application of Boron and magnetized water on flowering and tuberous root characters of Dahlia variabilis and Ranunculus asiaticus

Sami K. M. Ameen

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This study was carried out from March/2005 to March/2007 to investigate the effect of Boron concentrations and magnetized water in flowering and tuberous roots production of Dahlia and Ranunculus. Plants were irrigated by either Tap water or magnetized water. Boron Concentrations tested were (0, 29.5, 59.0, 88.5) mg/ L. Boron concentrations were improved most flowering and tuberous root characteristics. Dahlia plants, Boron levels fastened flowering date and enhanced no. and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stem; vase life; fresh weight of flowers and length and diameter of tuberous roots (188 days; 5.29 flower/plants; 6.57 cm; 24.04 cm; 2.76 mm; 9 days; 9.53 gm; 5.96 and 3.53 cm) respectively. Ranunculus plants, Boron levels increased no. and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stem; fresh and dry weight of flowers and length and diameter of tuberous roots (3.08 flowers/ plants; 6.18 cm; 29.38 cm; 3.01 mm; 2.43 gm; 0.39 gm; 2.32 cm and 3.24 cm) respectively. Flowering characters were improved by using magnetic water as well. Watering Dahlia plants by magnetized water increased no. and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stems and no.; length and diameter of tuberous roots. (5 flowers/plants; 6.93 cm; 23.38 cm; 2.76 mm; 11.54 root/plant; 5.66 cm and 3.25 cm) respectively. In addition, flowering characters of Ranunculs plants were enhanced. Number and diameter of flowers; length and diameter of flowering stems; vase life and length and diameter of tuberous root were increased (3.15 flowers/plant; 4.97 cm; 28 cm; 3.11 mm 10 days; 2.84 cm and 2.28 cm).

Effect of using different levels of hatchery by product as a source of animal protein on egg quality of laying hens breeds ISA Brown

A. A. Majed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This study used Sixty ISA Brown layers were produced egg of brown layer, all at 22 weeks of age. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using hatchery by product as a source of animal protein and its effect on egg of Brown layer hens quality traits. Four levels of hatchery by product were used (0, 3, 7 and 9)% so four treatment were obtained with 5 replicate (3 bird/replicate) for each were used in this study which lasted for five periods (March- July), The duration of each period was 28 day. The result of egg quality traits indicated improvement in thickness and weight egg as compared with control diet. Also the results showed that T3 significantly different (p<0.05) with other treatment in percentage of the shell to egg weight. The results showed there are no significant differences in yolk weight and Haugh unit. The thired on T3 showed significant increase with T2 and T4 in white weight but there were no significant difference with T1. Also T3 showed significant difference in white index as compare with other treatment. All eggs quality traits showed significantly reduced during May, June and July as compare with March and April.

Effect of adding different levels of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) during summer season to diets on laying hens performance

A. A. Majed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This study was conducted in poultry farm of College of Agriculture, Al-Anbar University. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of partial and total replacement of (Vicia faba L.) instead of Soybean meal and this effect on laying hens performances. Five treatments were obtained with 5 replicates for each. Seventy-five ISA Brown layers were used in this study which lasted for three periods (July-September) the duration of each periods was 28 days. The results indicated (2.5% Vicia faba L.) showed significant increase (P<0.05) in egg production and egg mass while the control showed significant increase (P<0.05) in egg weight, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency than other treatments. The results showed that egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency were significantly reduced at August than July and September.

Comb size as an indicator of reproductive traits in acclimatize white Leghorn cockerels: Improvement in reproductive traits breeding values associated with selecting according to comb size

Ahmed A. Abbas

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This study was conducted at the Poultry Farm / Animal Resources Department, College of Agriculture, Baghdad University, and over the period from 15/10/2004 until 30/9/2005, used 24 sires ,144 dam and 217 progeny . The aim of this study was to obtain genetic improvement of certain reproductive traits (semen volume, packet cell volume, sperms movement scales, fertility, hatchability, alkaline phosphatase, total protein and body weight) for white Leghorn by indirect selection according to comb size using traits breeding values that obtained by animal model program . Results obtained showed there were wide variance in traits means ( expressived as standard deviation) that referred to take advantage of this traits in reproductive indirect selection programs especially movement scales , fertility and hatchability. Results referred also that there were genetic improvement in some of reproductive traits [expressed as significant (p< 0.05) raise breeding values means]. There were significant genetic improvement (p< 0.05) take place in most of studied traits in progeny stock because of elite sires selected dependence comb size, that emboldening to use comb size as an indicator in selection programs . Depressions in standard deviation of breeding values were occurred when indirect selection processes, that to be necessary of using large stock . The results supported used comb size for cock’s reproductive traits improvement in progeny flocks.

Postpartum anestrus in cows

K. D. Ahmed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

The study was conducted on 70 cows of Friesian and Holstein breed in AL-Faihaa station, Babylon Governorate during the period from January 2002 to March 2002. The age of animals ranged between 2 to 7 years. The study was designed to know the prevalence of postpartum anestrus and their treatments in cows. The prevalence of postpartum anestrus was 51.42% (36/70). The animals suffering from persistent corpus luteum were showed an incidence of 38.88% (14/36). The animals were treated with 15 mg PGF2? i.m. The animals suffering from inactive ovaries were showed an incidence of 61.11% (22/36). The animals suffered from inactive ovaries (n = 22) were divided into three groups; the first group (n = 9) were treated with 50 ml Lugol’s Iodine solution 5% intra uterine; The second group (n = 6) were treated with 0.5 mg GnRH i.m. while the third group (n = 7) treated with 6 mg estradiol benzoate i.m. The efficiency of the treatments were 55.5% , 100% and 71.4% respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) between different groups. It was concluded from this study that the postpartum anestrus prevalence is high and could be treated with PGF2? or GnRH with high success rate.

Effect of supplementation of locally prepaired probiotic to the diets containing diffirent levels of barley on productive performance of laying chicks at one day old upto 20 weeks

Muttana A. Al-Nori

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This experiment was conducted in therthar poultry fields. The effect of adding local probiotic to the feed was studied with different levels of barley on productive traits of laying chicks at one day old upto 20 weeks of age. Four hundred and five chicks were used in an experiment included 9 treatments, with three replicates for each treatment. The local probiotic was used at three levels 0, 3 and 5 kg/ ton feed with three levels of barley 12, 22 and 32% of the diet. The results of this experiment showed significant reduction (P<0.01) in feed conversion coefficient at 3, 17 and 20 weeks of age and average body weight at 3 weeks of age and significant increase (P<0.01) in feed intake with increasing the level of barley in the diet. The resultsof this experiment showed significant improvement (P<0.01) treatments with added local probiotic in feed conversion coefficient and average body weight 3, 17 and 20 weeks of age and significant reduction (P<0.01) in feed intake at 10, 17 and 20 weeks of age, as compared with treatment without any additive. whereas, treatment of adding local probiotic with defferent levels of barley showed significant reduction (P<0.01) in feed intake at levels of barley 12, 22% of the diet. The results of this experiment showed significant improvement (P<0.01) in feed conversion coefficient and significant increasing. (P<0.01) in average body weight at 3, 17 and 20 weeks of age for treatments of local probiotic with different levelsof barley of the diet .

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in red deer Gazella subgutturosa in Al–Masad deer protectorate in Al–Rutba city

S. M. Ashor

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

The study aimed to investigate the gastrointestinal parasites in 50 adult red deer Gazella subgutturosa in Al – Masad protectorate in Al – Rutba city – west of Iraq – during winter. The morbidity rate was reached to 32% , Nematodes seem to be the predominant, where they reported in 14%, while the Cystodes, Trematodes and Protozoa were reported in 4% , 6% and 8% of deer, respectively. For the first time in Iraq, the eggs of Nematodirus helvetianus , Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Oxyuris spp, Dicrocoelum lanceolatum، and Moniezia benedeniand oocysts of Eimeria spp were identified in 4, 1,1,1, 3,2 and 4 deer , respectively. It is concluded that the parasitic infestation is prevalent among Iraqi deer , even in winter , and the nematodes are more prevalent worms in Iraq.

Effect of harmaline extract on cancer cells

A. A. Thaker

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This research aims to explore in vitro antitumor activity of Alkaloids extracted from harmaline. Investigation of the cytotoxic effect of Alkaloids extracted from harmaline in four Concentrations: (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 ?g/ ml). with different exposure times (24 and 48 hrs). The extract was found to affect the cancer cell lines accordingly to the time of exposure and concentration of extract.

Preparation of some Benzimidazole derivatives and study of their spectrometric properties and biological activity

M. A. Kazem

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

This research discussed the preparation of some derivatives of Benzimidazole which included Schiff base compounds (a-e). They were prepared by direct condensation between Benzimidazole and aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes. The prepared compounds were identified by Infrared spectra (I.R.), micro analysis of elements (C.H.N.), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (N.M.R.) and (MS) spectrum. Antibacterial activity of the prepared compounds was measured on three genus of pathogenic bacteria. The comparative study of biological activity was done using diffusion , and antibacterial activity was noticed in some of these compounds.

The influence of some cabbage cultivars on green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. and the distribution of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)

A. A. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to evaluate the influence of four cabbage cultivars, Kandura, Royal, Dabana and Red, on some biological aspects of green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. (Homoptera: Aphididae) and on the distribution of the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae Mcintosh. (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Results indicated that production of young nymphs per female varied depending on the cultivar. The highest progeny production was 23.7 nymph/ female recorded on the cultivar Kandura and the lowest number was 7.3 nymphs/ female on Red cabbage. Females produced an average of 4.8 and 1.3 nymph when fed on the two cultivars respectively. The parasitoid D. rapae was found associated with the aphid and varied according to the host cabbage cultivar. The highest percentages of parasitism was 28% on Kandura cultivar and the lowest was 7% recoded on aphid fed on Red cabbage. Field studies showed that there were 8 generations for green peach aphid during the course of this study which lasted from the beginning of December to the end of March. the length of generation decreased with the increasing of temperature and varied according to cabbage cultivar. The activity of the parasitoid also varied with cultivar and temperature. The highest percentage of parasitism was 28% recorded on Kandura in the beginning of January. The red cabbage was the least preferred host plant for the D. rapae being the highest percentage of parasitism 7% observed late in February .Results also indicated that the parasitism increased with the increasing density of aphid. Therefore any control practice should take in consideration all possible means that would lead to conserve and assist this parasitoid in the field.

The efficacy of the parasitoid Diaeretielle rapae (Mcintosh) with the growth regulator Applaud and Actara for the control of green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. on different cabbage cultivars

A. A. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator Applaud on population structure of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. ,and on the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Mcintosh). The combined effect of the parasitoid and the growth regulator with the insecticide Actara (Thiamethoxam) was also studied. Results indicated that the growth regulator had detrimental effect on all aphid stages. The winged form was reduced to an average of 0.5 insect/ plant on all treated cabbage cultivars except the cultivar royal on which the average was 2.4 insect/plant compared to about 6 individuals/plant on non treated pants for all cultivars after one week of treatment. The winged form disappeared from the plant during the third week after treatment. Infestations were reduced after two weeks of application to an averages of 5.0, 18.6, 12.3 and 6.0 individual/plant for the treated cultivars, Kandura, Royal, Dabana and Red respectively compared to an averages of 75.2, 65.5, 52.3 and 22.6 individuals/ plant before the treatment for the mentioned cabbage cultivars respectively. The percentages of parasitism by D. rapae on aphid were also influenced by cabbage cultivar and the growth regulator . The highest percentage was 90% recorded on aphid fed on nontreated Kandura cultivar reduced to 70.1% on the same cultivar treated with Applaud. The lowest percentages were 25 and 19.5% recorded for aphid on nontreated and treated Red cabbage cultivar .Results also showed that Applaud and the parasitoid treatment was the best combination for controlling this aphid. Therefore, these biological means could be taken in consideration in the management program of green peach aphid in the field.

Effect of Turnsoles Chrozophora tinctoria L. Extracts on Some Pathological Bacteria Types

Thaer A. Kader

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A laboratory experiment was performed at microbiology lab./ College of Science, Al-Anbar Univ. during 2005, to estimate the effect of ethanolic and water extracts of turnisoles stem and leaves on four endemic bacteria E.coli, S.aereus, Ps.aeroginesa and Ps.mirabilis. Treatment were distribute within factorial arrangement applied at CRD design with three replicates. Result show that 50 mg/ L × ethanolic extract × stem part was significantly superior in solubility diameters of 27.67 and 27.37 mm of E.coli and S. aerens respectively. Also, it is indicated that 50 mg/ L × ethanolic extract × leaves part significantly gave highest solubility diameters of 21.00 and 14.00 mm of Ps.aeroginesa and P. mirabilis, respectively.

Evolution some varieties of broad bean with effect of some chemical herbicides

M. H. Kadhum

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A field study was carried out during the winter season of 2005 – 2006 at the farm of field crops department , Collage of Agriculture , University of Baghdad, Abu Ghraib, to study yield and yield components of four varieties of Broad bean (Spanish, Cyprus, IPA, Ekwadilgy) and study the effect of herbicides (Paraquat , Ronstar) on weed plants growing at broad bean field the results indicated that the treatments hand weeding, Paraquat, and Ronstar redused the number of narrow leaved weeds by 90% , 87% , 85.6% and broad leaved weeds by 82.8% , 58.6% , 66.1% respectively. And redused the number of weeds both narrow and broad leaved by 86.1% , 70.2% , 72.0% respectively. Ronstar redused number of Betavulgaris, Sweet clover, Button weed, Rigid rye grass, Milk thistle, Annual darnel, Common bishop weed, Field bind weed, Bur weed by 41.5% , 67.9% , 65.5% , 88.8% , 100% , 100% , 100% , 87.5% , 100% respectively. Paraquat redused the number of same weeds by 28.8% , 55.5% , 62.7% , 66.6% , 86.7% , 100% , 100% , 100% , 100% , and wild oats not affected. Ronstar Paraquat redused at the total dry weight of weeds by 51.3% , 49.5% respectively compare with control. And Cyprus variety was significant at pods / plant (10.62) , Ekwadilgy was significant at seeds / plant (45.26) unless the variety Spanish and this variety was significant at weight of 100 seeds (145. 2 gm) and the yield of seeds per hectare (4.024 Km / h) but this significant was only from the variety IPA that gave les value at all characters under study.

Evaluation of bioactivity of Citrullus colocynthis seed oil against some Agricultural pests

O. K. Romman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Abstract Studies were conducted to evaluate the biological activity of seed oil extract of C. colocynthis at rate of 10 , 15 , 20 % against Tetranychus urticae ( Koch ) , Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae Suiz. Result showed that all concentrations were effectiveness in controlling Tetranychus urticae , Bemisia tabaci and Myzus persicae in the laboratory . Mortality percents were 30 , 100 , 100 and 62.5 , 71.2 , 89.5 and 91 , 93.4 , 100 % for the pests at three rates respectively . Field studies indicated that the rate 15 % was effectiveness in controlling T. urticae with mortality of 99.7 % after three days of application . The realability of using the extract in the management practices against the intended pests was discussed.

Effect of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Prosopis farcta on some antibiotics resistance relatively bacteria

H. K. Y. Al-Salman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and fruits of Prosopis farcta on some resistance bacteria isolated from urinary tract infected patients. These bacteria were: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria were tested for their sensitivity against several antibiotics and against several concentration of extracts. It was found that the aqueous extract contain inhibitory action more than antibiotics against the tested bacteria. The inhibitory action on gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus was mor than that against gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris.

Effect of leaves and fruits powers of Lantana camera L. against different stages of potato tuber moth Phthorimeae operculella (Zell.)

H. A. Salhi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

A study was conducted to evaluate three concentration 20, 60 and 80% of leaves powder and fruits of Lantana camera L. against potato tuber moth Phthorimeae operculella (Zell.) in laboratory. Results showed that powder of leaves was more effective than fruits powder concentration 80%. Percentage of killing for egg were 100% and 66.6% for leaf AND fruit powder respectively at concentration of 80%. The powders of fruit and leaves showed equal effect in percentage of killing which was 100% for first larval instar at concentration of 80%, The powder of leaves resulted in 100% for concentration of 80% while powder of fruit caused 50% at concentration of 80% too.

Economic Analysis of Production Costs Function of Wheat in Al-Anbar Province For 2005-2006 Planting Season

H. R Al-Dolaymi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:7 issue:1

Terms of Production costs unseen analyzed for Wheat in AL-Anbar Province for the 2005-2006 agricultural Season .The Study Showed that the proportion percents of family lobar was higher than the rental labor which wane 10 and 1.4% respectively from the total costs of the entire farmers adoption on agriculture as a principle source of income because of the shortage in employment opportunity as a result of occupation conditions. This study also was indicated that the pattern of tenure in the province cans the individual property. This was among the factors which helped in increasing the production because the farmer had freedom in adoption of recent technology. Through the amah sis of production costs terms, it has been shown that the variable costs constitute the higher percentage which was 72.3% of the total costs and the manure was at the beginning which was 26% .