2006, volume:4 issue:2


Evaluation of Center Pivot Sprinkler irrigation System (Lindsay type)

Isam K. Al-Hadithi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

The experiment was conducted in Al-anbar governorate-Al-saqlawla during (Autuman season 2002), to evaluate Center pivot sprinkler irrigation system (Lindsay type). The system speed was calibrated with water depth achieved from that speed. The relationship between speed percentage for system, and the irrigation uniformity, also the operation pressure and irrigation uniformity has been studied. The operation of the system under pressure nearly 30 psi gave high irrigation uniformity cofficient reached 89%.

Evaluation of water transport functions for gypsiferous soil treated with bentonite by using saline water (Moister profile and water holding capacity)

B. A. Al-Khateeb

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

Moistuer profiles and water holding capacity for gypsiferous soil (482 gm.kg-1) treated with bentonite (0,4,8 and 12 %) saline water were used by mixing NaCl and CaCl2 with distilled water to get EC (3 and 6 ds.m-1) and ASR (8 and 16 (mMol/L)1/2).Distance of wetting front,,and depth of infiltrated water in horizontal soil columns,and soil moisture characteristics curve by using Van Genuchten equation were measured. Results showed that the advance rate of wetting front and quantity of water infiltrated in soil increased with increasing of bentonite ,because the area of section flow decreased. Advance rate and quantity of water infiltrated in soil increased with increasing of EC except 0 % bentotonite ,therefore advance rate of wetting front increased with increasing of SAR at 0 and 4 % bentonite but increased at 8 and 12 % bentonite. Water holding capacity icreased with increasing of bentonite. Results showed that the positive liner relanship between volume moisture content at 33 and 1500 Kpa water tension and quantity of available water with bentonite.

Effect of Irrigation with Drainage water at Sorghum growth stages on salts accumulation and growth, yield of crop

Musa F. Yasin

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

This experiment was conducted at farm in garma city during atum season 2004 in silty loam texture, classified as Typic torrifluvent to study the effect of Irrigation with Drainage water average 3.48 ds.m-1 at (Germenation stage T2, seedling stage T3, Tillering stage T4 flowerd and yield formation T5and at whole growth period of yield T6) and in comparison with Irrigation with river water 1.25 ds.m-1 was used as a control T1 on salts accumulation and growth and production of Sorghum (variety Ankath). Result showed that the River water was suitable water and the drainage water was non suitable for Irrigation, also noticed that the Irrigation with drainage water at whole period of growth and Irrigated at flower and yield formation caused significantly increaseing in salt accumulation and SAR [ 8.17 ds.m-1, 5.03 (m mol. L-1)1/2 ] [ 5.93 ds.m-1, 4.36 (m mol. L-1)1/2 ] on soil respectively compared with Irrigation river water and Irrigation with saline Drainage water at stages germenation, seedling, Tillering, [4.33 ds.m-1, 2.64 (m mol. L)1/2 ], [3.77 ds.m-1, 3.57 (m mol. L-1)1/2 ] [3.13 ds.m-1, 3.45 (m mol. L-1)1/2] [3.39 ds.m-1, 3.38 (m mol. L-1)1/2], also the Irrigation with River water and Saline Drainage water at stages germenation, Seedling, Tillering caused Leaching of salts from surface layer and getting accumulation salts at Irrigated with saline Drainage water at whole period of growth and flowering and yield formation compared with soil salinity soil before farming (4.9 ds.m-1). The Irrigated with saline Drainage water at whole period of growth, at flowering and yield formation and Tillering caused significantly decreased on weight of seed, dry weight and plant high (55.93 gm, 229.2 gm, 113.83 cm), (67.60 gm, 308.1 gm, 129.22 cm), (73.87 gm, 306.2 gm, 132.55 cm) respectively compared with Irrigated River water (171.9 gm, 421.3 gm, 141.52 cm).

Genetic Parameters and Path Coefficient analysis in Cotton as Affected by Planting Location

Abed M.A.Al-Jumaily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

Seven varieties of upland cotton (Feard, KC3, H23, Lashata, Coker310, Marsomy, and Ashur) were planted in two different locations (Abu-Ghraib and Al-Musaib) in summer season of 2004 using a randomized complete block design with three replicates to determine the most important characters which can be used as effective selection criteria for improvement yield of seed cotton. Genotypic, phenotypic variances and coefficients of variability, broad sense heritability percentage, co-heritability, genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield of seed cotton and other characters were estimated. Path coefficient analysis carried out to partition the genotypic correlation coefficient to the direct and indirect effects. The results showed that genotypic, phenotypic variances and coefficients of variability were varied for all characters studied with difference of planting location, and seed cotton yield appeared large values at two locations. Mean of boll weight appeared large broad sense heritability percentage (60%) in Abu-Ghraib location and earliness character appeared large broad sense heritability percentage (67%) in Al-Musaib location. Higher value of co-heritability coefficient was obtained between seed index and number of boll / plant (3.90) in Abu-Ghraib, and higher value of co-heritability coefficient was obtained between seed cotton yield and ginning outturn (86.26) in Al-Musaib. Seed cotton yield / plant showed highly significant positive genetic correlations with number of bolls / plant (0.991 and 0.792) in Abu-Ghraib location and (0.962 and 0.917) in Al-Musaib location. Results of path coefficient analysis showed that mean of boll weight, number of days to first flower bloom and seed index had the most positive direct effects on seed cotton yield (6.36, 3.91 and 1.01) respectively, and indirect effects through the others, so these characters could be used as a selection criteria in breeding programs of selection to improve seed cotton yield in Iraq.

Path Coefficient Analysis in Rape seed as Affected by Planting Date

Abed M.A.Al-Jumaily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

Field trial was carried out at the experimental farm of the Agricultural College, Abu-Ghraib during the growing season of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 to study the effect of sowing dates on seed yield and yield components of eight rape seed varieties. A split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Planting dates (Sep. 28th , Oct. 18th , Nov. 7th and 27th) were assigned at the main plots, where as the varieties were assigned in the sub plots. Data collected on seed yield and yield components and some other characters for each planting date and season. Genotypic correlation coefficients among seed yield and other characters were determined, for partition it to direct and indirect effects by using path coefficient analysis to determine which one was the most effect character in seed yield. Results of the path analysis in first season showed the plant height and harvest index had the highly positive direct effect on the seed yield (12.32 and 6.51) respectively at the planting date Sep. 28th. Number of branches and pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and average of seed weight gave highly positive direct effect on the seed yield (1.66 , 0.737 , 1.39 and 3.34) respectively at the planting date Nov. 27th. In the second season, results of the analysis showed that the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, average of seed weight and harvest index had the highly positive direct effect on the seed yield (13.18 , 8.40 , 3.85 and 1.56) respectively at the planting date Sep. 28th , where as plant height gave highly positive direct effect on the seed yield (1.29) at the planting date 27th. Also these characters appeared highly positive indirect effects on the seed yield through the others characters. It was concluded that it should be considered that planting date and growing season, where we could be depended these characters that had direct and indirect effects in the seed yield used as criteria to improve seed yield of rape seed by selection in next generations at irrigated central region of Iraq.

Effect of sowing date and distance between hills on yield components, seed yield and its quality of sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L.)

B. H. Abdullah

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

A field experiment had been performed in clay–loam texture soil in Al–Jazira region of Al–Khalidia district - Al–Anbar government (latitude 33° and alatitude 43° northly) during the two summer seasones 1998 and 1999 to study the influence of sowing dates 10 April , 30 April , 20 May and the distance among the hills (10 , 20 , 30) cm and its interaction in yield components, seed yield and its quality of sesame crop (var. Al–MAHALI). Factorial experiment with R.C.B.D. of four replicates was used, the results were. The plants sowing in 20 may gave ahighest means for dry matter yield and number of capsules per plant in second season and its mean of two seasons also superior in seed weight/capsule, seed yields (1856.23 , 2140.08 , 2187.51) kg/ha, oil percentage and oil yield (1025.12 , 1215.26 , 1233.70) kg/ha in two seasons and its mean respectively. Compared with plants sowing in 10 April which gave a lowest means for all characters study. Increasing the space between hills caused to increased in most characteristics of yield, seed yield and its quality until reached a higher mean significantly (P < 0.05) in the wide space (30 cm) in both season and its mean. The interaction between sowing date (20 may) and space between hills (30 cm) caused to gave a highest mean significantly (P < 0.05) for dry matter yields (6597.71 kg/ha) in mean of two seasons, seed yields (2272.24 , 2633.78 , 2661.49) kg/ha and oil yields (1273.60 , 1519.13 , 523.40) kg/ha in two seasons and its mean respectively. It can be concluded that local Sesame can be planted on the second half of may at 30 cm between hills in the western region of Iraq (Al-Anbar province) due to its high seed yield and oil content.

EFFECT OF COMPOUND SULPHER FERTILIZER ADDITION ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD FOR SUNFLOWER Helianthus annuus L.

A. H. Al-Bayati

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

Two field experiments were carried out at the college of agriculture - university of Al-Anbar in spring season of 2001 and 2002 years. To study the effect of three treatments. The first was application of agricultural sulpher at level 2 Meq S°. ha-1 (T1) the second was application phosphorus and nitrogen at level 240 kg P2O5 . h-1 and 180 kg N. ha-1 respectively (T2), and third treatment was application compound sulpheric fertilizer (6 : 19 : 65) (N : P2O5 : S) to soil with level 3 Meq. ha-1 (T3). Which replicated third time on growth and productivity of sunflower (Euro-flower hybrid) and to limitation the fertilizer efficiency for production. Same chemical properties of rizosphere soil were determined with crop growth parameters and total uptake of nitrogen also phosphours during flowering and maturation stages. Addition to yield properties. The results were showed significantly superiority for T3 treatment in reduction the soil pH and increasing soil EC also soil content from nitrogen and available phosphors with increasing them uptake at the two studied stage of plant growth during the two years. Which positively reflect on growth parameters (plant height, leaf area and plant dry matter) also yield components, head diameter, number of seeds per head and total seeds yield. which superiority with 27.3 and 10.65 % portion on T1 during the two studied years respectively. Oil contains and its yield was increased at T3 treatment also. Which gets best fertilizer efficiency for production reached 19.8 % as average in comparison to T1. the results were showed that addition of sulpher with crop recommendation of nutrients more efficiency to increase the yield which reflected the importance in improvement of nutrient availability when we added it to the soil as fertilizer.

Improving Performance of Deteriorate Rapeseed (Brassica rapus L.) by using Treatment Priming

N. A. Khamis

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

The aim of this study is to know the effect of soaked seeds rapeseed the deteriorate which its germination percent (61%) in Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) solution and its effect on some Laboratorial characters for the studied (germination percent, germination speed, length of plumule and radicle, number of Ab-normal seeding, value of electrical conductivity) in which used three osmoticaly levels which its (-20 , -25 , -30) bar and four soaked periods (1 , 2 , 3 , 4) week at temperature 20C and after each period implant (growing) the seeds after washing and drying superficial. The results showed that priming treatment lead to improving measures for properties in comparison with treatment without soaking ,the results show that the soaking seeds in ozmolatical (-25 bar) and for 2 weeks. Soaking period gave better effect for all properties study.

ESTIMATHON OF COMBINING ABILITY AND GENE ACTION USING THE HALF DIALLEL CROSSE IN MAIZE

H. TH. Al-Fahdawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

Half diallel cross was carried out among six inbred lines of maize in spring season (2004), autumn season (2004) acomparison experiment was carried. The experiment was designed according to (R.C.B.D.) with three replications to determine general and specific compining ability effects and gene action. Significant differences were found among parental and their crosses for all characters. The parents were generally combined in desirable direction for several characters. Variance of genral and specific combining abilities were significantly different for all than characters. The highest Sca effects were expressed in HS × W17 for grain yield. Dominance genetic variance was higher the additive genetic variance for all characters. The broad – sense heritability values were ranged between (33.33%) for ear diameter to (91.3%) for grain yield / plant while narrow – sense heritability value were ranged between (10.34%) for grain yield/plant to (33%) for leaf area. The average degree of dominance was higher than one for all the characters which revealed the over - dominance.

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE AND ROW SPACING ON YIELD OF GRAIN AND STRAW OF TRITICALE

K. M. Al-Kaffaji

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

This experiment was carried out during winter season of 2000 - 2002. The objectives were to determine the effect of different rates of seeding and row spacing on the yield of grain and straw of triticale. A split - plot arrangement with R C B D of four replications was used. Seeding rates, 32, 64, 100, 140, 200 kg/ha, and row spacing: 10 and 30 cm were used. The results showed that rates of seeding had significant effects on spike length. The seeding rate of 64 kg/ha produced the longest spike (9.3 cm), while the shortest was in the treatment of 200 kg/ha (7.8 cm). The combination treatment of 30 cm and 32 kg/ha produced the longest spike (9.8 cm), while the shortest was in the combination of 10 cm and 200 kg/ha (7.1 cm). There were no remarkable differences in the grain yield due to row spacing, but rate of seeding had significant effects. The seeding rate of 100 kg/ha gave higher grain yield (11.78 t/ha) unlike the treatment of 200 kg/ha which gave lowest grain yield (7.2 t/ha). The rate of seeding showed significant differences in straw yield. The rate of 100 kg/ha gave higher straw yield (12.41 t/ha) as combined to 200 kg/ha which gave the lowest (8.77 t/ha). However, the interaction of row spacing with rate of seeding was not significant, indicating that rate of seeding gave the same response in regardless of row spacing in both grain and straw yields. It was concluded to recommend the rate of seeding 100 - 140 kg/ha with any row spacing 10 - 30 cm between rows for triticale to have higher grain yield.

Influence of thermal degradation on the biological activity of dursban in controlling of aphids ( Myzus persicae ) on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. )

R. M. H. AL-Dulaimy --- A. F. AL-Dulaimy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

A field experiment was conducted at AL-Ramadi / AL-Anbar province in 2005 to investigate the effect of thermal degradation of dursban in controlling of aphids(Myzus persicae) on cucumber .The insecticide was exposed to six temperatures levels in the laboratory (0 , 5 ,10 , 20 , 40 and 60 0C) for five exposal periods (1 , 2 , 4 , 6 and 8 h) In infestation % of aphids and productivity were estimated. Results showed that dursban activity was decreased at (0 0C)with increasing exposing temperatures whereas infestation % was (25 %) at (60 0C) , up to (9 %) at (0 0C) lead to decrease productivity of plant with increasing temperatures .The higher average obtained under (5 0C) was (3352 kg/D) , while it decreased at (60 0C) of (2819 kg/D).

Effects of Aflatoxin B1 on some chemical characteristics of blood plasma in broilers

Th. Th. Mohamad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

The objectives of this study was to study the effect of Aflatoxin B1 on the some chemical characteristics of blood plasma. In broiler atotal of 210 male 21 days old chicks of broiler breeder (Fawbro) were used in this experiment fed for 42 day on diets contaminated with aflatoxine B1 at level of 0 (T1-control), 0.357 (T2), 0.75 (T3), 1.5 (T4) and 2.5 (T5) mg aflatoxine/kg feed. The results showed that aflatoxine caused adecrease in concentration of Alkaline phosphates enzyme, lactate dehydrognase enzyme and uric acid, and an increase in concentration of acid phosphates enzyme, Alanine Amino transaminase enzyme and Aspartate Amino transaminase enzyme in blood plasma. withdrawn the contaminated feed has a significant effect on improving all traits under study.

Effect of mercury on the total and electrophoretic profile of proteins and on the activity of some enzymes in gills of three species of freshwater clam : Unio tigridis, Pseudontopsis euphraticus and Anodonta sp.

A. A. Thaker

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

A three species of clam Unio tigridis, Pseudontopsis euphraticus and Anodonta sp. were collected from Al-Habaniya lake, Al-Anbar/Iraq .The animals were exposed to three concentrations of mercury: 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg / l. First group of animals were exposed for three weeks, second group for two weeks and the third group for one week. At the end of the exposure period, the animals were dissected ,then the gills removed for the further study on proteins and enzymes. The results were : 1- Total protein concentration in the gills decreased at different concentrations. We observed prominent effect of mercury on the electrophoretic bands of proteins with the decrease in the intensity of protein bands or induction of new bands. 2- The activity of the three enzymes : Alkaline phosphatase , GPT and GOT were not stable, increased or decreased in different species at different concentrations of mercury, for example, the activity of alkaline phosphatase increased in second species at the second concentration , the activity of GPT decreased in first species at the first concentration and the activity of GOT decreased in the three species at third concentration of mercury.

Microbiological quality of lamb and beef meat in basrah

H. A. Yassen

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

Random meat samples were collected from 25 beef and 25 lamb In different Basrah locatities and villages. The samples were examined microbiologically for aerobic plate, coliform, Staphylococcus aureus and total yeast andmold count. The results of this study were as follows: The average count of total bacteria were 4.1×107 and 1.7×108 /g of beef and lamb meat samples, respectively. The average total coliform were 3×107 and 3.7×107/g for beef and lamb meat samples, respectively. S. aureus were isolated from examined eef and lamb meat samples with average count 2.5×107 and 3.5×107 /g of the samples respectively. Total yeast and molds were detected in all of the examined beef and lamb meat samples with average count 1.7×105 and 3.1×105 /g of the sample.

The effect of the growth regulator Appluad and some chemical insecticides for the control of wax scale Ceroplastes rusci (L.) on fig trees in north of Iraq

Abdul-Sttar A. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

The wax scale Ceroplastes rusci (L.) (Coccidae: Homoptera ) is considered the most important pest on fig trees in northern region of Iraq. Heavy infestation may cause harmful damage leading to decreased quantity and quality of fruit production.Several studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the growth regulator Appluad and some chemical insecticides to control this pest in the region. Results indicated that the use of mineral oil was very useful during winter and early Spring .However, negative effect was occurred with the increasing tempreture.The best results were obtained with the growth regulator Applaud. This insecticide was very effective against all stages of the pest at rate of 1.5gm/L. The use of the insecticide Actara applied as spray at rate of 100 mg/L or as soil treatment at rate of 250mg/tree resulted also in very effective control .Application of Polo resulted in a good control in Spring but it showed negative effect on trees with the increasing of temperature. Therefor, it is recommend to use the mineral oil on wintering stage fallowed by the insecticides Actara and Applaud that can be used alternatively in an integrated management for the control of wax scale insect on fig trees in northern region of Iraq.

Controlling of Covered Smut on Wheat by Iraqi Sulfur Foam

M. S. Hassan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

A study was conducted in Neneva and Sulaimaniya, using sulfur foam, by – product of sulfur refineries to control covered smut disease of wheat caused by Tiltetia foetida, T.caries. Results showed that Foam at rate of 30-40 gm/kg. Seeds were effective with rate of infection in Neneva 36.79, 34.08, 10 % respectively while it reached 27.73, 22.73, 16.50 % in Sulaimaniya respectively, but it did not as effective as Dithane S – 60, the fungicide commonly used in Iraq. Foam had not negative significant effect on seed germination and plant Length in the field, Treatment with Foam significantly increase the yield by rate of 40%.

Effect of Penicillin Resistance on the Ability of Some Fermented Milk Starter Bacteria to Develope Titration Acidity and Proteolysis in Milk

H. J. Al–Hadithi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

The aim of this study was to develop penicillin resistance of yoghurt starter bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) by isolating the resistant bacteria from agar plates containing gradual concentrations of penicillin using fluctuation test. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used for measurement of resistance level. The effect of penicillin resistance on the ability of bacteria to develop acidity and enhance proteolysis of milk was also studied. Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Lac) was highly sensitive to penicillin (MIC = 0.04 IU/ml). Its resistance was developed to be 1.00 IU/ml. While, Streptococcus thermophilus (Str) was less sensitive to penicillin (MIC = 0.10 IU/ml). Its resistance was developed to be 1.40 IU/ml. Penicillin resistance had no effect on the ability of bacteria to develop titration acidity in penicillin – free milk. Total titration acidity (as % lactic acid) of Lac – and Str – single starters were 1.22 and 0.48%, respectively. Mixed starters (Lac: Str in the ratio of 1: 1) achieved 1.02 – 1.08% after incubation of milk for 120 min in 40C°. When penicillin (0.05 IU/ml) – containing milk was used, sensitive starters failed to develop acidity to acceptable levels. Mixed starters composed of penicillin resistant bacteria elevate milk acidity to 0.91%. Penicillin resistance improved proteolysis (measured as % soluble tyrosine) in milk treated with yoghurt starter. The highest degree of proteolysis (48 Mg soluble tyrosine/ml) was recorded for milk inoculated with mixed starters having penicillin resistant Lac. The degree of proteolysis was decreased in the presence of penicillin in milk, but mixed starters having penicillin resistant Lac still superior. استهدفت الدراسة تطوير مقاومة بكتريا بادئ اللبن (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus و Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus)

An Economic Analysis of Wheat Response to Nitrogen and Seeds

M. A. I. Al-Hardan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:2

The aim of this work is to estimate the optimum level of nitrogen and seeds which achieve economic efficiency . Different forms of production functions were estimated . The quadratic form was the one which fulfils the statistical and econometrical criteria and was consistent with economic and biological logic. The results had shown that the optimum level of nitrogen was 299 kgs./ha while it was 139 kgs./ha for seeds . Some derivatives were derived such as isoquants , expansion path , derived demand on inputs and marginal rate of substitution . Some recommendations were forwarded .