2006, volume:4 issue:1


The effect of Interaction between Compaction and agricultural sulfur on Availability and uptake of some nutrients and growth of Corn Plant (Zea mays L.)

A. H. Al-Bayati

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was conduted to study the effect of stress caused by Soil Compaction on Agricultural Sulfur oxidation and their interaction effects on availability and uptake of some Nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and their relationship on Corn plant growth (Synthetic Var.106). Agriculture Sulfur was added to the Clay loam soil Classified Typic Torrifluvent at three levels 0, 1, 2, MgS?. hg1 (S0, S1 and S2) respecrively than it was compacted to following bulk density levels 1.25, 1.35, 1.45, 1.55 Meg/m-3 (B1, B2, B3 and B4) respecrively . Results indicated significant affect for compaction on the studied growth indexes (plant height, leaf area, Root and Shoot dry matter) also on the uptake of (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu).The uptake of these nutrients were positively up to 1.35 Meg.m-3 . then it showed negative effect as bulk density level was increased. We showed that addition of the Sulfur significantly increased availability of nutrients and growth indexes when it was addition at level S1 increased up to S2. N, P, K and Cu uptake significantly affected .But Zn, Mn, and Fe uptake were not affected. S2B2 treatment was showed best values for studied indexes. Incompertion to the S0B4 tyreatment which showed lower values.

Effect of soil mulching on growth , sweet pepper Capsicum sp yield and some properties of salty soil

I. K. Al-Hadithi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Field experiment was conducted at the period from March 1996 to November 1996 to study the effect of soil mulching on growth, yield of sweet pepper and some soil properties of salty soil. Results showed that soil salinity at depth (0-20) decreased from 9.5ds/m to 5ds/m and the temperature of soil decreased for depth 10cm by mean 5 c in April and 4 C in June under soil mulching conditions. The yield of pepper increased about 50%.Aconsiderable saving (39%) in the quantity of water used for irrigation was achieved under soil mulching. Water use efficiency also increased about 146% by using at soil mulching.

The Effects Of Water Stress And Organic Matter On Yield, Water Consuption and Water Efficiency On Sorghum

A. A. Al-Dahiri

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was conducted in Al-Anbar university – College of Science. during autum season 2004, to study the effects of water stress and organic matter on yield, Consumptive water use and water efficiency of sorghum plant. The experiment included the following treatment: 1- Soil water stress(soil moisture tension) with three percentages 25, 50 and 75% of water availability. 2- Organic matter from aquatic plant with levels 0.000 , 250 and 500 gm - vase. 3- Soil type: tow soils were used with different textures. Factorial experiment was used according to completely randomized design (C.R.D.) with three replicates for each treatment. Plastic containers were used (capacity of 8 kg) with dried. And filled with sieved soils. Seeds of sorghum were planted on July - 2nd - 2004. Irrigation was done according to volumetric method to protect soil moisture stresses of the water availability percentage 25, 50 and 75%. The study continued up to December - 15th - 2004. The usage of water consumption by sorghum was calculated according to quantities of water applied for whole the period of growth season. Yield was harvested on December - 30th - 2004. Measured, also yield of seeds, water consumption and water use efficiency. The result can be summarized as follows:- 1- The yield of sorghum seed was affected significantly by changing water stress and organic matter. The interference between water deficit 25% with 250 gm - vase organic matter gave a highest yield 30.6 gm - vase (4377 kg - hec) and 43.77 gm - vase (6189 kg - hec) for the two soils, Sandy loam and clay loam respectively. The treatment water deficit 75% and zero organic matter had lower yield. 2- Water stress and organic matter were affected significantly on water consumption for sorghum. Water consumption decreased with increasing in percentage of moisture deficit, and by adding organic matter. The lower value of water consumption was in a treatment of 75%, with the water deficit 250 gm organic matter, 60.46 and 51.44 L - vase for sandy loam soil and clay loam soil. 3- Increasing in water stress caused a decrease in water efficiency values. While addition of organic matter caused on increase in water efficiency. The highest values of water efficiency was achieved by treatment of 25% water deficit with the 250 gm organic matter. Water efficiency was 0.446 and 0.729 kg - m3 for sandy loam and clay loam soils respectively. The lowest values of water use efficiency were in treatment of 75% water deficit with out organic matter for the tow soils. 4- Clay loam soil was recognized as compared with the sandy loam soil by increase yield, and less water consumption highest water use efficiency.

The Effects Of Water Stress And Organic Matter On Some Morphological, Physiological Characters On Sorghum

A. A. Al-Dahiri

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was condueted in Al-Anbar University coolege of Science. during autum season 2004, to study the effects of water stress and organic matter on some morphological and physiological properties, of sorghum plant. The experiment included the following treatment: 1- Soil water stress (soil moisture tension) with three percentages 25, 50 and 75% of water availability. 2- Organic matter from aquatic plant with levels 0.000 , 250 and 500 gm - vase. Soil type : tow soils were used with different textures. Factorial experiment was used according to completely randomized design (C.R.D.) with three replicates for each treatment. Plastic containers were used (capacity of 8 kg) with dried. and filled with sieved soils. Seeds of sorghum were planted on July - 2nd - 2004. Irrigation was done according to volumetric method to protect soil moisture stresses of the water availability percentage 25, 50 and 75%. The study continued up to December - 15th - 2004. The usage of water consumption by sorghum was calculated according to quantities of water applied for whole the period of growth season. Yield was harvested on December - 30th - 2004. Some morphological and physiological properties of plant were measured, plant hight, leaf area, yeild of dry amaterial and root, Chlorophyll a, b, total contents of chliorophyll, charbohydrat content, protein content and contents of N.P.K. in grain. The result can be summarized as follows:- 1- The interference between water stress and organic matter affected significantly most properties of plants. The treatments of water deficit 25% and 250 gm - vase of organic matter were the best, while the treatment with the water stress 75% and without organic matter was less than others. 2- Clay loam soil was recognized as compared with the sandy loam soil by increase most other studied characters.

Distribution of Iron Oxides forms and their relation to B horizons development and soil – land scape from Al-Gaara depression

M. K. Ibrahiem AL-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Field and Labrotary investigation of four soil series at different londscape positions (Foot slope–Teo slope). From east to west in AL Gaara depression area, were made to determine the change in various forms of Iron oxides (Total, free and amorphous). (active Iron ratio (amorphous Iron / free Iron) and crystallinity ratio (free Iron – amorphous Iron / total Iron). Their genetic criteria were used to show the effect of landscape position on the amount and distribution of Iron forms. The result showed that the active Iron ratio increased in soil series teo slope at (143SCE, 132SCE) followed by soil series at foot slope (122SCE, 142SCE) where as the crystallinity ratio showed the difference due to informs of iron oxides bettwen haemitite iron which in creased with moisture content of soil and Geothite iron which increased with dry condition of soil. Topographic location and slope position forms effected on insitue pedogenic process. Their effects due to from Fluctuation in annual soil moisture drought period and internal soil drainge. furthermore results showed Negative and positive correlation. bettwen forms of iron oxides and their forms with some soil properties.

Response of Four Soybeans Varieties to Soil Moisture Levels

S. A. Salim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

The present investigation aimed to study the responses of four soybeans varieties S,Pi,G and Lee to soil moisture levels ( 100,80,70 and 50% from field capacity). Result showed that Pi variety was superior in osmotic potentials by 30 and 38% than S and Lee varieties and superior in its contents of potassium by 51, 17 and 37% on the other varieties respectively. The Varity lee was superior in the dry weight of plants, number of pods/plant and seeds yield/plant by 60, 71 and 60% than the other varieties respectively. S variety gave highest evapotranspiration (ET) 1000mm, on the other hand the variety Pi gave the lowest ET 777mm. The soil moisture level 100% gave higher dry weight of roots, dry weight of plants, number of pods/plant, and seeds yield/plants by 73,86,89 and 99% than other soil moisture level respectively. Highest ET 1200mm obtained by soil moisture level 100%, where as the lowest ET 581mm gave by soil moisture level 50%

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER IN GROWTH AND YIELD (Zea mays L.)

OmarA. Al-Dolimy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Field experiment was conducted at field crops dep.-Agriculture college / Al-Anbar University for two Seasons, spring and fall during 2000. the objective of study was to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer in growth and yield of corn. Split-Plot Design was used with three replicates. N fertilizer levels took up the main plot, while genotypcs were arranaged into Sub-Plot. The results showed significant differences among all of two factors levels, for all characteristics exception of humidity %. The increasing in N addition, increased the total, grain total, thickness of Ear, CoZ weight and leaf area of plant, for Both Seasons, respectively. Highest grain yield was gained from 320 kgm N . ha-1 of (10.2 and 4.7) ton . ha-1, for Both season, respectively. 320 kgm N. ha-1 gave highest coz weight of (700.6 and 600.0) gm and ear thickness of 16.0 and 17.2 cm, for both season, respectively. Also, the same level gave higher leaf area of (53.28 and 58.83) cm2, for both seasons, respectively. There wasn't significant differences in grain humidity %

Estimation of Heterosis in single crosses of maize

N. M. A. Al–Dolimy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Six Genotype of maize were used in this study to give 15 hybrids by using half diallel crosses in spring season of 2004. The parent and crosses were planted in autumn season of 2004 by using a randomize complete block design with three replication. The aim of this study Estimation of Heterosis between the genotypes of maize in F1. Significant differences were found between the genotypes and hybrids for all the characteries the genotype (IPA 3001) gave grain yield 190.80 gm. While the hybrid (105 × SP18) gave grain yield (212.50) gm. The heighest heterosis value was 17.77 % appeared in grain yield for the hybrid (105 × SP18).

Effects of sowing dates on yield and yield components of two Maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes

S. N. Al-sadon

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

S. N. Al-Sadoon College of Agriculture / University of Al-Anbar Abstract A field trial was conducted at the field crop station of IPA Agricultural Research Center in Abu-Ghraib during the autumn seasons of 2000 and 2001. The objective was to study the effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of two maize genotypes. A split plot arrangement in a randomize complete block design with three replications was followed. Planting dates (1st , 15th and 30th July) were assigned in the main plots, Where as the two genotypes (IPA 3001 and Buhooth 106) were assigned to the sub plots. Results showed that sowing plants on 15th July gene the highest ear length (18.3 cm), row number per ear (17.3 row), weight of 1000 kernels (346.7 gm) and total grain yield (9.3 t/ha). Results also showed that the hybrid IPA 3001 gave the highest ear length (18.9 cm), row number per ear (17.7row), weight of 1000 kernels (341.7 gm) and total grain yield (9.6 t/ha). Where as the lowest values of the above mentioned characteristics were found in Buhooth 106 plants. The hybrid IPA 3001 plants produced the highest grain yield per hectare (10.4 t / ha) by sowing during mid July.

Effect of dusts fungicides on common smut and characteristics yield for many genotypes of corn (Zea mays L.)

Tarik M. Al-Fahdawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

A field experiment was carried out at the research farm, college of Agric. Al-Anbar University, during the autumn season of 2003. The Objective was to determin the effect of fungicides dusts on common smut and sume yield characteristics and yield for five genotypes of corn, Rabia alawal, Almassara, Alssaffa, Shahad and Buhooth 106. It seeds were dusts by fungicides; Carboxin, Dithane M45 and Dividend. A split-plot arrangement in R.C.B.D with three replications was used, genotypes were assigned in the main plots, while fungicides in subplots. Fungicides carboxin significant effect had given a lowest infection percentage. While Diathine M45 and Dividend significant difference with Carboxin in row No. / ear. But dividend significant effect had given highest 300 grain weight (gm). At genotypes, Shahad and Assaffa significant difference with infection percentage was lowest then 20% for for both. Alssaffa significant deference with ather genotypes in ear No. / plant, also Buhooth 106 in row No. / ear but wasn’t Significant difference with genotypes Almassara and Rabia alawal, and genotype Almassara yield / plant but wasn’t with Rabia in alawal and Shahed. Interaction between fungicides Carboxin and genotype Shahad was significant effect in infection percentage.

Study the Variation of Sunflower Genotypes in Germination at low Temperature

H. K. S. Al-Satori

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This study was conducted to identife several genotypes for their resistance to low temperature in the rainfed and irrigated area of Iraq. The study included (121) genotypes of sunflower. Fifty seeds of each genotype were sown in petridishes and incubated at temperature ranged between 3-5?C in completely randomized design with three replication. Highly significant differences between all characters. It was found that eight of these genotypes of a Russian origin: V.6540-1 , Cherniyanka-3 , V.6540-2 , V.6540-4 , Peredovik-2 , V.8931-2 , Yehisey-3 , Cherniyanka-4 showed high resistance to temperature. Therefore these genotypes can be included in breeding programs for low temperature during germination and seedling growth.

PATH ANALYSIS FOR SEVERAL BREAD WHEAT VARIETIES

F. Y. Baktash

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

A field experiment conducted in the field of Crops Science Dept., Coll. of Agric. Univer. of Baghdad, during 2001-2002 and 2002-2003, seasons. The objectives was to study the path analysis in bread wheat traits. The experiments were carried out, using split plot design with ten varieties (Tamoz 2, Tamoz 3, Abu-Ghraib 3, IPA 95, IPA 99, Sale, Al-Rashed, Al-Iraq, Fateh and rabea) as main plots and four seeding rates (80, 120, 240 and 320 kg / ha) as sub plots with three replications. Path analysis revealed that the harvest index for all seeding rates, biological yield of higher seeding rates and number of spikes / m2 in low seeding rates, obtained highest direct effect to grain yield. The highest direct and indirect effect to grain yield revealed from harvest index, spike length and number of spikelets / spikes. It was cocluded that harvest index could be used as selection index for the improvement of grain yield in bread wheat.

Effect of different level of nitrogen fertilizers and plant spacing in growth characters and yield of egg plant

K. A. Al-Hamdani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This study was conducted to study the effect of different level of nitrogen fertilizer and plant spacing in growth characteries and yield componence of egg plant in Al- Saklawia in Al-Anbar governor during the growing season 2004. Nitrogen levels were 0 , 40 , 80 and 120kg N/ Donnum and with spacing of 40 , 80 , 120 cm. The experimental design was R.C.B.D. with 3 replicate. The treatment (120 kg N/ Donnum) significantly increased, plant height, dry weight (gm) at a rate of 53.39 % and 63.03% respectively as compared with the control, while the treatment with (40 kg N/ Donnum) significantly increased number of branches / plant at a rate of 38.06%. There are no significant effect of plant spacing on vegetative growth except as noticeable increases on plant height (cm) number of branches / plant dry weight at a rate of 0.03%, 1.45%, 4.9% respectively. The effect of different level of nitrogen fertilizer upon the yield and yield componences was shown that the treatment with 120kg N/ Donnum gave the highest number of fruit / plant, weight of fruit, total yields which reached 80.33%, 71.67% and 88.44% respectively. While there were no significant differences between plant spacing in these effects on the yield and yield componence with a noticeable increases in the spacing of 120 cm. as compared with 40 cm . Using a spacing of 120 cm. and treatment with 120 kg N/ Donnum nitrogen significantly increased plant height (cm), branches / plant, dry weight (gm), number of fruit / plant fruit weight (gm) and total yield ton / Donnum . We can recommended a spacing of 120 cm and fertilizing with 120 kg N/ Donnum nitrogen to give the highest growth and yield per unit area.

Effect of utilization the Oyster mushroom spent (P. ostreatus) on some properites of soil,growth and Allium sativum Garlic productivity

I.A. Assaffii

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was carried out in AL- Qaaim 420 km. Baghdad west during 2004-2005 to evaluate effect of the Oyster mushroom spent utilization in some properites of soil and Garlic productivity. Result indicat that highest percentage of germinatto secondly the best result in leaves number per plant , leaf area , stem diameter , fregment per head , weight , volum , yield weight , which were 9.64 leaves , 864.8 cm 2 , 2.74 cm , 38.2 fragments , 47.1 g , 64.12 cm 3 and 3.0 kg/m 2 respectivly. Obtaind by treatment which used 50% Oyster mushroom spent with 50% chemical fertilizer (supperphosphate and ureia p% 19.8 , N% 46.). On other hand the best results obtaind by Oyster mushroom spent treatment like bullk density , pentration resistance , water avalibilty percentage and total microbiol contents which were 1.31 , 1.34 18.1% and 8.12 Log.cfu/g recpectivly.Addition soil P –available and total N contantes ( 18.32 , 1032.2 mg/ kg ).after harvest.

Studies in the vegetative characterization to the F1 hybrid grape produced from crossing between Alabbasi and Thompson seedless cultivars

W. A. G. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This study was conducted at a private vineyard located in Abu-Ghraib/Baghdad during 2003 and 2004 growing season to investigate the characterization of the F1 hybrid which produced by crossing between Alabbasi and Thompson seedless CV. and compared with the parents. Treatments were replicated 5 times using RCBD. All date were subjected to analysis of variance and means were seperated by Duncan’s multiple range test at 0.05 level. البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستير للباحث الثاني The main results of the study can be summarized as follow: 1. Thompson seedless cv resulted in a significant increased in leaf area (92.63, 96.25 cm2) for both season, while F1/1 hybrid gave the lowest average (78.72 cm2) in the first season and F1/2 hyprid gave the lowest average for th e second season (82.63 cm2). 2. F1/3 hybrid showed significantly increase in leaf area of shoots as compared with Alabbasi and Thompson seedless cv. for both seasons. 3. Thompson seedless cv. showed the highest average in leaf area per vine for both seasons (12.03, 12.85 m2) and significantly higher than F1/1 hybrid which resulted in a lower average (9.32, 8.98 m2). 4. It was found that the highest average of cane length in F1/2 hybrid for both seasons and significantly higher than the F1/1 hybrid and Alabbasi cv. in the first season but not for the second season.

EFFECT OF WAXING AND STORAGE TEMPERATURES ON GRAPE FRUITS STORABILITY (Citrus paradisi) LOCAL CULTIVAR

S. M. J. Al-Hiti

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

The influence of three paraffin wax concentrations (0 , 2 , 4%) and storage temperature (5C , 10C and 15C) on grape fruits storability (local cultivar) was investigated over three months period. The results indicated that 2% was concentration significantly reduced each of weight loss , physical disorders , decay and total acidity percentage and storage at 5 C temperature was reduced significantly total acidity juice content and vitamin C .

ESTIMATING GENETIC PARAMETERS BY DIALLEL CROSSING IN SUMMER SQUASH

H. A. Al-zobiae

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Two field experiment were carried out in 2000 and 2001 on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) under plastic house in Abu-Ghraib vegetable research station / IPA Agric. Res. Center. The objective were to evaluate gene action and combing abilities at different traits. Four inbred lines were crossed in full Diallel crosses to produce hybrids, the inbreds and a check hybrid opalin were tested in yield and other traits evaluation. The results obtained revealed that the best hybrid in yield, fruit number / plant was (3 x 1) and out yield the check foreign hybrid opalin gene action for fruit yield, fruit number, fruit weight was non additive action. Other traits showed both additive and non additive gene action narrow sense heritabilities for fruit yield Diallel cross (36% , 0.08%) per pride cross (75% , 36%). The best specific combining ability was with inbreds 3 and 1 which their hybrids gave fruit yield 4.93 , 4.85 kg / plant as average of both years. It was recommended to propagate seeds of these inbred to produce FI seed of the best hybrids obtained for be grown in areas growing this crop.

Effect of roots removal on nutrition Status of Khastawy cv. date palm offshoots

A. F. AL – Dulaimy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Nine – years old bearing and non – bearing palm trees , cv. khastawy were used to study the effect of offshoot root system removal on the nutritive status of offshoots .Tow offshoots were left per tree and the root system of one of them was removed . The nutritive status was indicated by starch , reducing sugars, starch + reducing sugars, N,P,K concentrations and dry matter percentage in leaflets offshoots . Results showed that removing of root system had no significant effect on leaflets content of starch , starch+ reducing sugars , N,P,K and dry matter , whereas reducing sugars percentage were significantly high in leaflets of de rooted offshoots .Leaflets of offshoots on bearing palms showed significant reduction in starch + reducing sugars and P content only . Leaflets starch content was high during March ( 4.28% ) and dropped during July (1.69%) . Reducing sugars contents were low during September ( 1.36 %) and increased ( 2.62% ) during January . N,P and K concentration was high during July ( 0.78 , 0.206 and 1.90 % ) and dropped during November ( 0.168 and 1.66 % ) for P and K , whereas N concentration was dropped during May ( 0.57% ) . Yet the dry matter was high during July ( 44.54% ) and low during March (40.06% ).

Effect of manual and chemical controlling on percentage of infection of Downy mildew and seed yield of a Local Red onion

M. M. AL-Abdaly

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Results indicated that manual and chemical controlling led to improve vegetative growth and seed yield ( kg / ha ) and decrease the percentage of infection of Downy mildew for both seasons . Plants of manually controlling treatment achieved a higher number of tubular blades / plant , followed by plants which were sprayed with Ronstar as compared with control treatment . The percentage of Downy mildew was reduced by manual and chemical controlling up to ( 16.13 , 16.75 and 15.70 , 16.60 % ) for both seasons, respectively ; while it increased for control to ( 35.65 and 35.25 % ) for both seasons, respectively . Seed yield increased to ( 402.93 , 384.50 and 408.63 , 397.93 kg/ha) for manual and chemical controlling for both seasons, respectively; while seed yield reduced for control treatment to ( 266.63 and 259.05 kg/ha) for both seasons, respectively .

EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIN AND LIQUORICE EXTRACT ON FRUITS PHYSICALS CHARACTERISTICS OF DATE PALM Phoenix dactylifera L. ZAHDI CV.

M. K. Al-Jebori

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was conducted in a private orchard in Falluja city, season of 2002, to investigate the effect of spraying date fruits with each of GA3, and Liquorice extract on yield quality characteristics. البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستير للباحث الثالث Hand pollination was carried out of April 2002. After the fruits setting was completed. The spraying with GA3 and liquorice extract was done in two periods. The first one was at Hababuk stage and the second was at Chemri stage. In both stages fruits were sprayed with 250 mg / l GA3, 2 and 4 gm / l of liquorice extract in addition to the control (fruits lefted without spraying). Results were showed that spraying treating date palm fruits with GA3 significantly increased total yield to 86.03 kg, bunch weight to 14.33 kg, fruits weight to 12.48 gm, fruits hall weight to 11.44 gm and seeds weight to 0.93 gm. However treating date palm fruits with 4 gm / L liquorice extract, significantly increased total yield to 84.38 kg, bunch weight to 14.03 kg, fruits weight to 12.38 gm, hall weight to 11.44 gm and seeds weight to 0.93 gm. The percentage of ripened fruits were significantly increased to 94.91% when 4 gm / l liquorice extract was used, while GA3 decreased this percentage to 86.17%.

EFFECT OF GIBBERELLIN AND LIQUORICE EXTRACT ON FRUITS CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DATE PALM FRUITS PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. ZAHDI CV.

M. K. Al-Jebori

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was conducted in a private orchard in Falluja city, season of 2002, to investigate the effect of spraying each of GA3 and liquorices extract on quality characteristics of date palm fruits Phoenix dactylifera L. Zahdi cv. Hand pollination was carried out in Apr. 1, 2002. After the fruits setting was completed. The spraying with GA3 and liquorices extract was done in two periods. The first one was at Hababuk stage and the second was at Chemri stage. In both stages fruits were sprayed with 250 mg / L GA3, 2 and 4 gm / L of liquorices extract in addition to the control (fruits lifted without spraying). Results were showed that spraying date palm fruits with 4 gm / L liquorices extract resulted in a significant increased in total soluble solids to 75.35%, total sugars to 73.33% and reducing sugars to 65.12%, while percentage of sucrose decreased to 8.21%. On the other hand spraying with GA3 led aprovite results in the regard. Spraying fruits with 4 gm / L liquorices extract exhibited an increased in the dry matter to 86.82% but it decreased in water content to 13.17%. Where as fruits treated with GA3 exhibited in a decreased in the dry matter to 83.35% but it increased the water content to 16.64%.

The effect of age and bread on dressing percentage, internal organs, and chemical analysis of barred and brown local chickens carcass

A. J. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

These study was conducted at the Native Chicken Breeding Station, a total of 60 hens at 26 and 75 weeks of age, were randomly picked out from local Barred and Brown flocks. The aim of this study to option basic data for local chickens carcass and it's chemical analysis to determine genetic parameters for selection carcass traits. The results indicated significant effects for age and breed on most studying traits (dressing percentage, relative weight of internal organs, relative weight of major and minor carcass pecies and its chemical analysis).

Effect of fermented, addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and water to the ration on some blood characters of broiler

S. A. Najy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was conducted in the animal production field belong to the station of Agricultural Research (Ministry of Agriculture) , 600 one day old broiler chicks (Fawbro) were used and distributed into 4 treatments (3 replicates/ treatment, each repl. consist of 50 chicks) , the first treatment was control, in the 2nd treatment chicks were gave the fermented ration (0.2% Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast + 500 ml of tap water per kg ration + fermentation for 24 hours) , in the 3rd treatment chicks gave the ration contain 0.2% S. cerevisiae (without fermentation) , and in the 4th treatment chicks gave soaked ration with 500 ml of tap water per kg of ration immediately before feeding. The results of the experiment revealed that the birds which gave the fermented feed had significant increase in Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, Thrombocytes and Packed Cells Volume in their whole blood, and there is insignificant increase between the means of treatments in Heterocyte to Lymphocyte ratio, the same significant increase were happened in Hemoglobin, total protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorous, cholesterol and in the activity of Alkaline Phosphatase enzyme in the plasma of the birds which gave the fermented feed. The birds which gave soaked feed and feed with the S. cerevisiae had significant improvement in blood and plasma characters compared with the control treatment but less than the group of birds which consumed the fermented feed.

Effect of Using Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) in ration on some productive and physiological characteristics of broiler chicken

S. J. Hamodi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of using different dietary levels of fenugreek seeds (0 , 1 , 2 & 3 %) on broiler performance, glucose and cholesterol levels in blood plasma. One hundred and eighty, one-day old broiler chicks were allocated into four treatment groups with three replicates each one (15chicks/replicate). Result showed a significant decrease in body weight and weight gain of chicks at 28 and 49 days of age, while a feed consumption increased sighificantly (p<0.05)with raising of the levels of fenugreek. Feed efficiency improved with decreasing fenugreek levels in the ration. The best efficiency was attained in the control group. There were no significant differences among treatment groups in percent weight of carcass pecies (thigh , drum stick , back and neck) but there were a significant decrease in the percent weights of breast and wings when using different fenugreek levels . Glucose and cholesterol levels in blood plasma (mg/100ml plasma) decreased significantly with increasing fenugreek levels in rations. It was concluded that using 1% fenugreek in broiler rations would warrant good performance and decrease glucose and cholesterol levels in blood plasma

Effect of lines inbreed on characters of semen in Awassi ram

Y. T. Al-Ani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

The study was conducted on 18 Awassi rams, Aged 1.5 - 2 years, divided in to two group; The first group (n = 9) red face and the second group (n = 9) black face, Presented in the farm of IPA Goat Station, Agurguf, Baghdad, Iraq. During the period from 1, March 2002, till the 1,May 2002. Semen were collected twice weekly by Artificial Vagina. The study were undertaken to show the effect of line inbreed on characters of semen in Awassi ram. The following results had been obtained. Higher volume of ejaculate were observed at second group (0.92 ± 0.26) and lower at first group (0.76 ± 0.26) ml respectively. The breed had a significant effect (P<0.05) on sperm Mass activity and Individual motility. Higher motility were observed at first group (72.78 ± 13.26 and 71.12 ± 12.42)% respectively and lower at second group (70.0 ± 12.89 and 68.75 ± 12.07)% respectively. The inbreed had a significant effect (P<0.05) on sperm count per milliliter and per ejaculate. Higher sperm count per milliliter and per ejaculate were observed at first group (2.51 ± 1.43 and 2.39 ± 1.96) x 109 and lower at second group (1.73 ± 1.40 and 1.75 ± 1.91) x 109. The inbreed showed no significant difference of group on (percentages of dead; pH of semen and abnormal spermatozoa). It was concluded from this study that inbreed affected on some of characteristics of semen and had no effects on other of character of semen.

Evaluation of intrauterine therapies in repeat Breeder dairy cattle

F. J. Mohammed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

A total of 160 repeat breeder dairy cows suffering from endometritis were used in this study. The cows were divided into six groups and were subjected to different intrauterine therapy, the first group was treated with 1% of Lugol's solution, the second and third group were treated with 2 gm of Oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol respectively, while the cows in the groups four and five were subjected to an intrauterine therapy with one million units of crystalline penicillin and one tube of metrijet respectively, mean while the group six was untreated and used as a control. The animals in all groups (except the group four) were inseminated on the subsequent estrous period following therapy, while the group four was subjected to post -service treatment within 24 hours after insemination. The cows were inseminated twice with 8 hours a part between them and they were injected intravenously with 1500 I.U of hCG ( chorulon ) when delayed ovulation was suspected . Pregnancy examination by rectal palpation 50 days after the second insemination revealed pregnancy rates ( %74.28 , %72 , %68 , %60 , %40 ) for the six group respectively . The results of the present study showed no significant differences (p> 0.05) among the different treated groups, and when each of the first four treated groups compared with the control one. There was a significant differences between treated and control group (p<0.05). It was concluded that the intrauterine therapies and the injection of hCG at the time of insemination are useful in the treatment of repeat breeder cows.

Effect of body weight on the upper lethal and lower lath temperatures in seawater snail planaxis sulcatus (Born, 1780)

S. O. Al-Khateeb

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

The present work an attempt to investigate the effect body weight on thermal resistant at upper and lower lethal temperature. Both the upper and lower lethal temperatures were body size dependent since the large size snail were more heat and cold resistant as compared with the small size snail. Thus , the upper LT-50s was increased from 39.3C to 43.7C. As a result of increasing the average weight from 0.5 to 30.7grs also, the lower LT-50s was decreased from 1.7 to -2.1C as a result of increasing average Weight from 0.7 to 3.8 gms.

Effect acclimation temperature on thermal resistant in the sea water snail planaxis sulcatus (Born, 1780)

S. O. Al-Khateeb

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

The present work an attempt to investigate acclimation temperature on thermal resistant at upper and lower lethal temperature. Snail acclimated to 10, 20 and 30C showed reasonable heat accl – reasonable cold acclimation .in 10, 20 and 30 C, the upper LT-50s were 40, 41.8 and 43.5 C Whereas the lower LT-50s

The effect of the discharge waste water from the chemical complex of phosphate on the diversity, Dispersal of natural vegetation and formation of grazing in Al-Qaim West of Iraq

A. A. Al-Dahiri

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

A study was conducted to know the effect of waste water discharged from the chemical complex of phosphate in Al-Qaim, west of Iraq, on the diversity, dispersal and distribution of natural vegetation and to know the suitability of grazing in the year between 2000-20001. Two desert areas (600 m2 each) were defined inside fence of the complex. One of them was irrigated with waste water and the other was irrigated with tab water. The experiment was lasted 6 months starting November 2000 up to April 2000. The same procedure was done during the summer but inside fence starting April, up to September 2001. All natural variety of vegetation and their densities were classified according to their binomial and local distribution in March and August 2001, using squres 16 m2 with seven throws randomly. Variety of vegetation and their densities were taken superiority when irrigated with waste water. The number of growing diversities total (9) in winter, while in summer it totals (14) with in crease in plant density compared to growing plant irrigated by taps water. Most vegetations were rich in their nutrient content and were very adaptable to grazing animals and most of them were distributed randomly. Also, new type of veyetations appeared for the first time during the two Seasons winter and summer.

Use of Initial Inoculum of Gluconobacter - ST1 with Aspergillus niger to Produce Oxalic Acid from Date Mail Syrup

I.A. Assaffii

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

This research has been carried out to produce Oxalic acid from Date Mail Syrup by shaken flask technique using local bacterial and fungal isolate. It was included isolation of acid-producing microorganisms from different environmental sources in Ramadi including soil, sewage, diary products and air. Among these isolates, the best one has been chosen to produce Oxalic acid. The isolate of Gluconobacter - ST1, w hich has been isolated from from Date was used with Aspergillus niger as Initial Inoculum to increase the acid produced. Thirty-two acid producing isolates has been obtained with variable ability to produce acids.Twenty-two isolates has been chosen as they produced an acid zone on test medium that exeeded15 mm diameter.Nine of them succeeded in producing for Oxalic acid from Date juice. The highest productivity was achieved by A. niger with significant differences with other isolates. Date Mail Syrup ,when used as carbonc source give a high productivity of oxalic acid which was 15.35 g / l . The isolate of ST1 , which has been proved to belong to the Genus Gluconobacter. Showed an ability to increase acid production when using it as initial inoculum. It a chived 15.74 g / l of oxalic acid comparing with the control 7.98 g / l .

The Effect of War on the Social Aspect Under Economic Development in Iraq

Hameed Rasheed al-Dulaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

Experiment in the developing countries have shown that economic development alone is not enough as ultimate goal for development. This goal must go hand in hand with other goals planned for national development so as to lead to decreasing poverty and increasing the fair distribution of national income as well as providing the basic elements of life. The present paper explores two objectives; the first the extent of development in the social aspect and standards of living in Iraq since 1970 till 1985. The second objective explores the characteristics of war and its consequences on the social and living standards of the population. The researcher has used “Standard Digits Method” due to its reliability and coherence to measure the social and living standards. These periods within the temporal sequence from 1970 - to - 1985 have been identified. It has been found that indicators in the south region in 1985 are generally less in comparison with other regions in Iraq. This can be attributed to the fact that these regions suffered greatly from war in comparison with other regions. Samples estimating the relationship between standards of living and investment expenditures and war show that each general standard of living and the economic and social aspects depend significantly on investment expenditures achieved before the war.

Characteristics and Technique of Agricultural Production Resources and the Activation of their Roles in Arab Agricultural Integration

Hameed Rasheed al-Dulaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

H. R. Al-Delaimi College of Agriculture / University of Al-Anbar Abstract The study aims at exploring the role of agricultural production resources in achieving better investment and Arab agricultural economic integration. Therefore, it deals with the need of each Arab country for the resources rarely available here in, but are highly prevailing in another country as a result of the unequal distribution of agricultural development resources. The researcher has depended on the estimation of the role of national agricultural production of nine (9) Arab countries for the period from 1980 to 1996. The production function is one of the scientific tools used to allocate the optimal limits of agricultural production which can be achieved via agricultural development. The study has identified the strategic techniques that suite the conditions in the Arab countries nowadays to achieve the national objectives through development. This can be done via formulating a future perspective based on a theoretical framework much more reliable to develop production elements and foreground their role in investment and integration of the Arab economy.

Economic Sufficiency of Production Resources Used in poultry Farms / Thirthar project in Anbar

Hameed Rasheed al-Dulaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

The present study aims at exploring the economic sufficiency of production resources used in fattening chickens in (poultry) in Al-Tharthar project for chicken rearing in Anbar for the year 2002 depending on field data from files of the project which are fine in number. The number of producing halls is (13) during the time of this study distributed as follows; (4) halls in the first farm, (3) in the second and third halls, (2) in the fourth and (1) in the f.ifth Data have been processed in accordance with the questionnaire form which has taken the form of time sequence of the variables. Simple coefficients have been obtained from independent variables with no link in making economic standards to identify the relative between the amount of meat production by ton as a dependent variable and the group of independent variable that affect it. As a result production functions have been estimated in their linear natures for different samples. These functions have been divided into two groups; functions where coefficients indicators coincide with the economic theory. The second was removed since the coefficients do not coincide with the economic theory. Preference has been made among functions in the first group to examine the best to derive the technological features of independent variables that affect poultry production by using many statistical criteria such as T-test and F-test and rate specified coefficients. Results depending on statistical analysis and studying different outcomes of production functions have that production function no.1 is the best as it includes (3) independent variables representing the number of the chickens group, death percentage and initial feeding material by ton as well as the value of “F” and the value of its specification coefficients, as is shown in table no. (3).

The Agricultural Economic Circumstances for the Arab Homeland and the Stance from the Challenges

Hameed Rasheed al-Dulaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

H. R. Al-Delaimi College of Agriculture / University of Al-Anbar Abstract The last period, witnessed a great impact in minimizing the Arab agricultural economic resources due to the political, economical and social circumstances. It also affects the Arab efforts in the field of improving the agricultural section besides the limits of the agricultural polices that left. greater parts of impact as the law standards of performance in the Arab agricultural section. The paper shows that the Arab agricultural outcome is 9% from the local outcome. This comes inspite of the natural resources like lands, water, animals, fish as well. Unfortunately, the production is still late, e. g. seeds production does not exceed more than 1.8% in the Arab homeland as it is compared with the international production; and 1.9% for milk. This matter reflects how much the Arab production is less than the International and outcome. The paper also shows the personal share that gets its high point in Syria 403 per year in 1985 and then in Iraq and Saudia Arab. The paper makes limits for the obstacles that face the Arab cooperation work in the agricultural section; this comes out due to the emphasis upon the short regional point of view and not upon the international one. The researcher tries to make a suggestion for the strategy of the Arab agricultural improvement besides its necessities to be implemented whether for long or medium scales. This comes with a result of certain recome that the researcher believes. It is necessary to face the challenges that the Arab nation undergoes.

Economics of Size of sheep Herds in Al-Anbar Province

Mishal Abid Khalaf

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

It has been shown that sheep breeders rely on artificial pastures for their sheep,s nutrition in 75% of their breeding years because of unsuitable environmental conditions for natural pastures growth in the province. Fifty percent of sheep breeders believe that disease breakout in their herds belongs to inactivity of inoculums and drugs in one hand and to the fact that their pastures in which they breed their sheep's are polluted in other hand .They believe that these drawbacks are stand behind the elevation of both fall-down and death percentages in births. Cost functions have been estimated with their various figures. it has been shown that the cubic function without constant factor is most significant for expression the relation between cost and production .the value of R2 is 0.97 indicating that nearly 97% of cost changes belong to production changes. Function parameters have been used for calculation of volume production that achieves the highest economical efficiency .it has been found to be 4953 kg meat per year, total cost of 1 kg of meat is 5940 I.D. per kg at this production level .Herd volume which achieves the highest economical efficiency is about 420 head and it's economical efficiency about 98%. While the heard volumes which performed within economical efficiency region are between 200-600 heads which represent 43% of herds under investigation. It has been shown that the breeder works loosely when the customer price is under 6600 I.D. per kg .he gets a prophet when the prices are higher than the customer price with a condition of being works in the optimal volumes for each price.

An Economic Analysis of Boultry Production Cost in Anbar Province

Hameed Rasheed al-Dulaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:4 issue:1

It has been shown that ensilager ranke first in the cost of one K.G. of checken (Boultry) ie a bout 57% of the total cost, followed by the cost of checks which represented 17% of the total cost .it was clear that winter is characterized by an increase in the cost of one k.g. of boultry in comparison with other seasons. Function of production cost per season have been estimated since winter is significantly different regarding the cost of one k.g. of meat from other season , it has been isolated from other season with a special function for winter and another for other season. Cost cubic function was significant in expressing the relationship between the total cost and production per batch during the year of the conducting of this study and other different seasons. statistical tests showed the significance of the function. It has appeared from the factor determining R2 that more than 97% of the change in production cost were due to the illustrative variable of the estimated functions. Cost function have been economically analyzed to determine optimum production size that achieve optimum economic efficiency per each k. g. of checken meat (boultry) with the least cost .this production siz was the heigest during the year of carrying out this project. it was about 18194 k. g. of checken meat per batch with a total cost a bout 1300 I. D. per k. g. It has been clear that winter showed a difference in comparison with other seasons where the optimum production size during these seasons was 17331. Total cost function at its lowest rate was at that productive level. The cost of one k. g. of checken meat was a bout 1253 I. D. where optimum size production during winter was higher in comparison with other season. It was 20264 k. g. per batch and with a cost rate higher than its counterparts in other seasons of a bout 313 I. D. Since the main goal of the producer is to douplicate benefit or a void loss, therefore optimum production levels have been calculated at different price levels. It was clear that the increase of prices in accompanied with an increase of optimum production levels at different levels from season to season. Moreover, it was clear that the producer gets benefits when the price he gets puts his work at the stage of diseconomies of scale whereas his work will represent a loss when he works within the stage of economies of scale.