2007, Volume:5 Issue:2


The effect of saline water,gypsium content in soil on saturated hydraulic conductivity and height of capillary water

I. K. Al-Hadithi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

The effect of saline water and gypsium content in soil on saturated hydraulic conductivity and capillary rise of water were studied in laboratory. Two soil were chosed with different gypsium content, they were mixed with certain percentage to get soils with gypsium content 0.98, 92.8, 184.6, 276.4, 368.2, 460.0 gm.kg-1. Saline water solutions were prepared by mixing NaCl and CaCl2 with distilled water to get two values for EC (2.5,5.0) ds.m-1 and two values for SAR (5,15). Saturated hydraulic conductivity and capillary rise of water were measured. Results indicated increasing in saturated hydraulic conductivity values significantly with increasing in gypsium content of soil and values of EC at each level of SAR, when saturated hydraulic conductivity values decreased with increasing in SAR at each level of EC for all levels of gypsium content, but opposite happen for gypsium content 460.0 gm.kg-1. Capillary rise of water decreased with increasing in gypsium content of soil and SAR at each level of EC, while the increasing in EC at each level of SAR caused increasing in capillary rise of water for each content of gypsium.

Growth and development of roots of Zea mays in columns different soil texture treated with a conditioner

M. K. Abbas

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

The aim of this research is to know effect of adding a corn cobs after fermentation in soil on the growth and development of root part of zea mays in soil columns having two soils differ in their texture, one was sandy and the other was silt clay. The soil was put in plastic pots and five zea mays seeds were added in each pot and after seed growth, one plant was left in each pot. Weight of vegetative growth and dry roots. The interval between measured and the other was fifteen days. The result showed that in the soil treated with the conditioner the percentage of pores increased while the values of bulk density and resistance to penetration decreased that reflected on the vegetative and root growth of zea mays plant, it was 175.16 g the end growth season in the soil columu and 170.11 g in the soil columu in the weight of vegetative growth, while the dry weight of root (28.74, 27.32) g in each pot respectively. Comparing with soil columus treated with the conditioner, there was un similar increase. It was (183.82, 195.65) g in dry vegetative growth and (31.75, 35.27) g/ pot as dry root growth respectively. It may be said that there was clear effected of addition of corn cobs as a conditioner of root growth followed by positive vegetative growth during growth season which may be reflected yield of zea mays.

Changes in some soil physical properties and plant growth as affected by again rotating the paper residue in soil

Wathib S.S. Alnuaymy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A field experiment in Haditha city (240 km west Baghdad) achieved, the objective of this research to test application levels from the residue paper when again rotating the residue paper in soil in some soil physical properties and its effect in growth and yield of Okra.. The residue paper applies to soil with 0%, 0.75%, 1.5% and 3% from weight dry soil. The treatment distributed on the experimental unites by randomized complete block design in three replicated. Mean weight diameter bulk density, resistance of soil penetration, water infiltration, seed emergence, and the space afforded for the okra plant, and the yield for green pods ware measured, the important results can be summarized as follows: 1- The residue paper increase in mean weight diameter that is increased with all application levels compared with control and on, and increasing a large size aggregate can be stability in water. Also resistance of soil penetration decreased with all levels. On the other hand .All treatments study increased accumulative infiltration as compared with control. 3- There was an increasing in seed emergence as compared with control and All treatments study increased the radius cover by vegetative for the okra plant. Whereas significant increasing the yield for green pods by 75.8%, 45.6% and 57.5% for levels 0.75%, 1.5% and 3% from the residue paper respectively.

Determination of origin; water type of Euphrates river and hydrodynamic effects in accumulation hydrocarbons by usage Hudrochemical Function

F. H. Abaas

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

The Euphrates river waters have ion concentration with an average total of 1095ppm. On the basis of these ion concentrations the Euphrates waters may be divided into two groups. Waters of the upper reaches of the river in Iraq have an average total ions of 499ppm and are of a sulfate – bicarbonate water type, whereas waters of the middle and lower reaches have an average total ions of 1547ppm are of sulfate – chloride water type. The origin of Euphrates river waters was marine, the hydrodynamic active of rive was high so that the hydrodynamic accumulation was weak, It was can to using the river water to irrigation jobs.

Response of two Cultivars of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merr) to Leaf Nutrition with boron and Nitrogen Fertilization.

B. H. A. Al-Solagh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Field experiment was conducted in loamy silty clay soil during the summer season of 2003 at AL-Garma section of falluja District to investigate the effect of three levels of boron leaf nutrition (0, 0.5, 1) kg B. ha-1 in boric acid formula (H3BO3) 17% Boron and four levels of Nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150) Kg N. ha-1 in the form of urea fertilizer CO(NH2)2 (46%N) on growth characters, yield and its quality for two soybean cultivars (Taka2, Soya IPA). Randomized Complete Block Design. in split-split arrangement was used in three replicates. Cultivars occupied the main plots and nitrogen fertilizer in the sub-plots while boron levels occupied the sub-sub plots. Soya IPA cultivar gave the highest averages for the most investigated characters; This cultivar gave 3375 kg. ha-1 seed yield compared with Taka 2 cultivar (2463.30 kg. ha-1) . Addition of nitrogen fertilizer at 150Kg N. ha-1 significantly affected (P> 0.05) on all growth charcters’ yield and its components’ Seed yield and protein AT this level increased by 59% and 57% respectively from that of the control treatment which gave the lowest mean of them. Spraying with boron at level (I kgB. ha-1) lead to asignificant superiority (P< 0.05) in the most of the growth and yield characters and gave the highest ahigh percentage of fertility percentage (93.24%) and seed yield (3577.40 kg. ha-1) as compared with the check treatment (2362.00 kg. ha-1) while spraying boron at (0.5 Kg B. ha-1) increased in seed protein percentage to 34.91% . The interaction between cultivars × Nitrogen fertilizaion × boron spraying had signifant effect (P< 0.05) in all characters’ Soya IPA fertilized with 150 kg N. ha-1 + 1 kg B. ha-1 gave 100% fertility in pods and gave the highest plant height, no. of seeds / pod, 100 seeds weight, seed yield and protein (5219.30, 806.00 kg. ha-1 respectively compared with Taka 2 which gave the lowest means for the above charters when was untreated unsprayed with nitrogen and boron. From these results, it can be concluded the IPA Soya cultivar responded positively to nutrients addition and other growth condition and gave a 100%. Fertility and high seeds yield and components under the high level of N and boron and gave an increase of 2 ton. ha-1 seed yield and 622.00 kg.ha-1 protein above Ta;a 2 growing under the same condition.

Effect of spraying with pinolene and potassium on seed yield and its quality of two sesame varieties (Sesamum indicum L.)

B. H. A. Al-Solagh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Field trial was carried out in sandy – clay soil in Abu-Sdera region – Alsaqlawiyaa district – falluja – Al-Anbar Province, during the Summer season of 2002. To investigate the effect of application the anti – vapor (Vapor gard) at 0 , 0.25 and 50% wax and potassium at 0 , 0.10 and 0.20 % K from K2So4 fertilizer on yield, yield components and seed quality and another characters of two sesame cultivars (Local and Ishtar). A split-split plots in randomized complete block design was used with three replication. Results revealed that: The local variety was significantly superior (P > 0.05) in No. of capsule per plant (133.28 capsule) and seeds oil content (51.27%) compared with Ishtar variety (73.75 capsule, 49.60%) while the Ishtar had higher number of seeds per capsule. The variety did not effect significantly on the other traits. The nutrition with high conc. of potassium (0.20% K) increased Percent of moisture in the capsules, number of seeds/capsule and weight of 1000 seeds, while nutrition with 0.10% K gave ahigh percent of oil and total yield of seeds and oil (1941.25 , 996.29) kg. ha-1 respectively, compared with the untreated. Spraying 0.50% of Vapor Gard significantly decreased percent of shattered capsules at harvest to only 3.9% and increased their moisture content in Capsules, number of capsules per plant, weight of 1000 seeds and seeds and oil yields (2071.79 , 1034.42) kg. ha-1 respectively compared to the untreated. However spraying pinolene caused areduction in seeds oil content. It can be concluded from this study that the local cultivar was superior to Ishtar cultivar in lower shattered capsules and high seed yield and its interaction with the anti – Vapor and potassium nutrients resulted in better yield and higher oil content compared to Ishtar cultivar.

Effect of sowing methods and distances between hills in characteristics of vegetative and root growth and seed yild of mung bean plant Vigna radiata L.

B. H. A. Al-Solagh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Field experiment was conducted in Al-Thabitia village, Garma, Al-Anbar province during autumin season of 2004. The objective of this experiment to know the effect of planting methods (Rows & Lines) and distance between hills (5 , 10 , 15 , 20 , 25) cm in characteristics of vegetative and root growth and seed yield of mung bean plant/Local variety.In this experimental using split-plot system according to random complete block design (R.C.B.D.)with four replicates. The results were: Rows planting method gave ahighest mean of dry plant weight (27.30 g), number of root branches for main root (19.04 branch/root) and dry weight of root (2.10 g/root) as compared with lines planting method (22.27 g/plant, 14.01 branch/root, 1.87 g/root) respectively. Increasing the space between hill caused to increasing in all mean of characters study (plant height, stem diameter, branchs No./plant, plant dry weight, root length, No. of secondary root/main root, dry root weight, seed yield/plant) until reached a maximum mean in the wide space (25 cm). The interaction between planting methods and hills spaces effect significantly in No. of branches, plant dry weight and root dry weight, in general the plants sowing in two methods of planting under the effect of wider space (25 cm) gave a highest mean for above characters while the plants sowing in lines method under the effect of narrow space (5 cm ) gave alowest value of this characters.

Path Coefficient Analysis of Bread Wheat as Affected by Planting Dates

A. M. H. Al-Jumeily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A field trial was conducted in the field of Crop Science Dept., Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 winter seasons, to study the effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of eight bread wheat cultivars. A split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Planting dates (Oct. 25th , Nov. 19th and Dec. 14th) were assigned in the main plots, where as eight bread wheat cultivars were assigned in the sub-plots. Data collected on grains yield, tillers number/m2, ear length, number of grains / spike, 1000-grain weight and harvest index. Phenotypic correlation coefficient among grain yield and all other characters were determined, path coefficient analysis carried out to partition the phenotypic correlation coefficient to the direct and indirect effects to each planting date and season. The path coefficient analysis showed that number of tillers/m2 had the highest positive direct effect on grains yield (7.69) followed by ear length (3.92) at the second planting date (Nov. 19th). Number of spikes/m2 gave highest positive direct effect (3.18) followed by 1000 – grain weight (1.5) and ear length on grains yield (1.4) at the first planting date (Oct. 25th) where as harvest index had the highest positive direct effect on grain yield (1.91) at the third planting date (Dec. 14th). The sum of direct and indirect effect on grain yield was from ears number/m2, harvest index, ear length and tillers number/m2 at the Oct. 25th, and from harvest index, number of grains/spike, ear length and number of tillers/m2 at the Nov. 19th, and from harvest index, tillers number/m2 and number of spikes/m2 at the Dec. 14th at first season. It was concluded that the direct and indirect effects of each character on yield depends on planting date and season, depending on number of tillers/m2, number of spikes/ m2 and harvest index could be used as selection index to improve grains yield in bread wheat by selection in next generations at irrigated central of Iraq.

Response of Canola Brassica napus and Associated Weeds to Newly Introduced Herbicides in Iraq

A. M. H. Al-Jumeily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Field experiement was carried out during winter season of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 at the Field Crops Station (formerly IPA Agricultural Research) to investigate Brassica napus L. and associated weeds to newly introduced herbicides and determine their selectivity in canola for approval and registration in Iraq. The experiement included the following treatments:- Preemergence application of clomazone (48% q.i) at 0.24 and 0.3 lit. product/ha, preplant– application of napropamide (50% q.i) at 2 and 2.8 lit. product/ha, postemergence application of pyridate (45% q.i) at 2 kg product/ha, preplant application of trifluralin (44.5% q.i) at 2.4 lit. product/ha. Hand – weeded and weedy – check treatments were also included for comparison Randomized Complete Block Design was followed to arrange the treatments. Results revealed the efficacy of clomazone, napropamide and pyridate in controlling broadleaf and reducing weed densities to an averages of 6 – 12.6 plants/m2 compared to 58 plant/m2 at the weedy plots. Grass densities were decreased to 0 – 12 plants/m2 compared to 12 plants/m2 for the untreated weedy check. Pyridate showed no activity on grasses. The reduction in weed densities resulted in low weeds dry weight: 9 - 38 gm/m2 for the herbicide – treated plots compared to 193 gm / m2 of the weedy – check. Clomazone caused significant injury on canola foliage which was reflected by discoloration (bleaching) and plant stunting. Plant height was reduced by both rates of clomazone to 49 – 52 cm compared to 98 cm for the hand – weeded plots. Variable effects of herbicides were observed on canola yield components and this was reflected on final seed yield wheras clomazone caused noticeable reduction in seed yield: 634 – 940 kg/ha, although with its high efficacy on weeds. Napropamide increased seeds yield to 1304 kg/ha at 2.8 liters/ha application rate and was as close as to that of the hand – weeded plot seeds yield. Long – season weeds competition with canola caused high percent of reduction; 60 %, the yield was reduced from 1368 kg/ha of the hand – weeded plots to 540 kg/ha of the weedy – plots. In 2002 - 2003, the same trend of effects of herbicidal weed control treatments on weeds was found and clomazone caused 40 – 50 % injury on canola foliage. From these results, clomazone can not be recommend and approved to use in canola due to its noticeable injury on canola while napropamide can be applied preplant in this crop at 2.8 liters/ha to control broadleaf and grassy weeds and pyridate at 2 kg/ha can be used postemergence for broadleaf weeds control under irrigated regions of Iraq.

EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION OF, NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, AND POTASSIUM ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN CROP

J. M.Al-Jumeily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

The study was conducuted during 2004 season in Esehaki To find out the response of growth and yield soybean crop to nitrogen ,phosphorus and potassium Fertilizer in defferent levels. A randmized complete block design was used in afactorial experiment with three replication .The treatments included Tow cultivars (TN12 and DT84) with seven levels of NPK Fertilizer. The results showed that TN12 had higher yield of seed (1187.9) Kg/ ha. and nomber of pods per plant (33.3), No. of seed per pod (2.5) and higher plant height (65.1) cm. The treatment 140 kg N + 240 kg P2O5 + 75 kg K2O/ ha. was gaves higher yield (1309.2 Kg/ ha), (34.2) pods/ plant and (12.7) gram wieght of 100 seeds. A significant interaction between cultivars and Fertilizer levels was found. with treatment (T6) and cultivars (TN12 and DT84) produced higher yield and yield components.

EFFECT OF PLANTING DATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. Merrill)

J. M.Al-Jumeily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

The study was conducted during 2003 and 2004 season in Esghaki to find out the response of growth and yield soybean crop to planting dates. A Randomaized Complete Block Design was used in Afactorial Experiment with three replications. The treatments included three planting dates (Mide Jun, end Jun and Mid July) and three cultivars (Lee74, TN12, DT84). The results showed significant differences among planting dates in seed yield and number of pods in plant. The planting date in the end of Jun gave (2302.52, 2001.96) Kg/ ha. And (32.56, 31.51) pods/ plant in both year of study. The cultivar Lee74 produced higher seeds yield (2265.95, 2170.43) Kg/ ha. Caltivar DT84 gave higher plant hight (61.21, 78.95) cm. The interaction between Lee74 and the planting date in the end of July gave higher seeds yield.

EFFECT OF IRRIGATION AND PLANT DENSITY ON GRAIN YIELD OF CORN (Zea mays.L)

T. M. Al-saad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Field study was conducted at AL-raad project / Abu-Ghraib during the seasons of 1999-2000 to select the best relationship between plant densities and irrigation regimes which affect grain yield. Plant densities of 50000,70000 and 90000 plantha with irrigation regimes of 60,80 and 100% of maximum evapotrans piration , were applied in the field. Results of the experiment revealed that different levels of maximum evapotranspiration were non significant of grain yield. While plant density showed significant differences in grain yield especially between high and low density. This study also showed that the proper combined levels of 50000p/ha density with irrigation of 60% from maximum evapotranspiration gave 6012 kg/ha.

EFFECT OF NETROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILLZATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHITE MUSTARD (Sinapis alba L.)

M. A. Al-Naqeeb

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crops Sciences, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib during 2001-2002 and 2004-2005 season to determinate the best interaction effect between nitrogen and phosphorus gave a higher yield and quality of white mustard. The layout of the experiment was RCBD with three applications. The results showed that the combination of 280 Kg N/h and 55 Kg P/h surpassed the other treatments in plant height, number of branches/ plant, number of capsule/plant weight of 1000 seeds, yield of plant. Number of seeds/ capsule and percentage of oil in seed were not significantly affected treatments compared with control. The combined effect of 280 Kg N/h and 55 Kg P/h produced the highest seed yield 6.39 gm. 9.28gm compared with control 2.80 gm, 4.66 gm in both seasons, respectively.

GROWTH ANALYSIS IN RICE INFLUENCED BY SEEDING RATES (CROP GROWTH RATE, NET ASSIMILATION RATE AND PADDY YIELD)

S. F. AL-ESSAWI

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A field experiment was carried out at Field Crop Station of IPA Agricultural Research Center during the summer season of 1996. The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of seeding rates in some growth parameters and yield in nine genotypes of rice. The design of experiment was (RCBD) in split plot arrangement with four replicates. The seeding rates 120, 160 and 200 Kg/ha were the main plots, while the genotypes were sub plots. The growth parameters studied included crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), relative growth rate (RGR) and yield. The measurement began 55 days after planting until physiological maturity. The results showed that increasing of seeding rates caused significant increments for (CGR) (at the periods 55, 69 and 97 days after planting), the percentage increments were 37.9, 32.1 and 15.3% respectively when the seeding rates increased from 120 to 200 kg/ha, on the other hand increasing seeding rates caused significant reductions in (NAR) (at the periods 83, 97 and 111 days after planting) the percentage reductions were 25.6, 16.4 and 46.7% respectively, while (RGR) (at the periods 83, 111 and 125 days from planting) the reductions percentages were 16.3 and 26.6% and 7.14% respectively when the seeding rates increased from 120 to 200 kg/ha. Increasing of seeding rates caused significant increment in paddy yield (30.6%) when the seeding rates increased from 120 to 200 kg/ha. Significant differences among genotypes were found interms of (CGR), (NAR) and (RGR) at different periods as well as paddy yield. Higher (NAR) and paddy yield were obtained by genotypes RP20 and IR56 (4.56 and 4.13 gm/m2/days) and (4.77 and 4.27 t/ha) respectively. There were significant interactions between seeding rates and genotypes in paddy yield. Results of correlation study showed that significant positive relationship between paddy yield with (CGR), (NAR) and (RGR) at different growth periods.

Effect of foliar fertilization on growth and yield of broad bean Vicia faba L.

A. H. Jasim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A field experiments was conducted at Al-hashimia (25 km south of Babylon, Iraq) in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 growth seasons to study the effect of five treatments of foliar fertilizer (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 spray times) on growth and yield of broad bean. Dust fertilizer (N 12%, P2O5 3%, K2O 43%, Magnesium 300 ppm, Manganese 300 ppm, Zinc 300 ppm, Iron 500 ppm and Copper 100 ppm) was used at con. Of 0.5%. Random complete block design was used with 4 replications. The results showed that foliar fertilization in the range of 4-8 spray times caused an increase in plant height, branches /plant number, pod numbers per plant, as compared with control. It caused also an increase in the average green pod weight, yield of green pods and dry seeds yield significantly as compared with control and 2 times of spray.

Effect of some mineral nutients applications on Amino acid content of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

S. M. Jameel

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

This study was conducted at the fields of Department of Horticulture, college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad Abu-Ghraib, during the growing season, 2002-2003 to study the effect of NPK fertilizer and foliar spray with Zn, Mg, and Fe on the amino acids content of five cultivars (Local, chinese, French, Lebanese and AL_sharq). NPK fertilizer at the rates of (0 : 0 : 0) , (90 : 90 : 90)and (120: 120: 120) Kg / ha were used after one month from planting, followed by foliar spray with Zn, Mg and Fe at the rates of (0 : 0 : 0) (1% : 0.2% : 0.1%) and (2% : 0.4% : 0.2%). Split-split plot Design were adapted with 3 replicates for each treatment. Garlic extract of each replicete were analyzed using HPLC. To study the Amino acid content. The highest content of amino acids (Threonine, Tryptophan, Serine, Histidine, Arginine, Alanine, Lysine, Aspartic and Glutamic) while the highest Leucine was in Al-Sharq cultvar and there is no significant differences between the garlic cultivans in their content of cysteine. The chemical fertilizer trentment used in this study significantly increased the amino acid content of cloves specially at the highest levels and with their interaction expect cysteine which do not influenced by the individnal addition of NPK.

Improving some Natrural and chemical Features using some fertilizers Coefficients for some gerlic cultivars (Allium sativum L.)

S. M. Jameel

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

This study was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib, during the growing season, 2002-2003 to study the effect of NPK fertilizer and foliar spray with Zn, Mg, and Fe on the Vegetative, yield and chemical characters of five garlic cultivars (Local, chinese, French, Al-sharq and Lebanese). NPK fertilizer at the rates of (0 : 0 : 0), (90 : 90 : 90)and (120 : 120 : 120) Kg / ha were used after one month from planting, followed by foliar spray with Zn, Mg and Fe at the rates of (0 : 0 : 0) (0.1% : 0.2% : 1%) and (0.1% : 0.4% : 0.2%). Split-split plot Design were adapted with 3 replicates for each treatment. Plant hight, yied and garlic extracl were analysied using HPLC. The results of this study can be summarized as follows 1- The french cultivar signifcantly was superior in the average plant height (82. 129 cm). Asignificant increases in plant hight due to the increases in the concentration of NPK or foliar sprays of the studied nutient elrments Leading to the highest value of 92.246cm in the A3F2S2 treatment. 2- Al-Sharq cultivar gave the highest yield of 28.673 ton / ha swhilc the lowest yield of 13.285 tonlha was in lebanese cultivar. NPK treatments and foliar sprays significantly increased the yield and the highest value of 30.360 tonlh in the A4F2S2.treatment. 3- The local garlic cultivar were significantly superior in the organossulpher compounds, Allicin, S-Allyl cysteine, S-allyl Mercapto cysteine and N-Fruetosyl Arginine, which reached the highest value (2.761, 2.318, 1.315, 0.896 mglgm) respectively. These compounds was increased by increasing the level of NPK and foliar sprays and their interactions.

Hybrid vigor of local summer squash hybrids

H. A. Al-zobiae

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Two field experiments were carried out in 2000 and 2001 on summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) under plastic house in Abu-Ghraib Vegetable Research Station / IPA Agric. Res. Center. The objective was to evaluate hybrid vigour of some traits. Four inbreds used to produce hybrids in a full diallel cross . The inbreds , hybrids , and check hybrid (Opalin) were tested in a yield trial for traits evaluation . Two hybrids gave higher vigour (as compared to best parent). The hybrids (1x2) and (3x1) gave (70%) (32%) hybrid vigour in yield. then the last hybrid is characterized by high level of hybrid vigour in yield per plant (62%) and in weight of fruit (25%). It was registered and released by National Committee for Registration and Release of Agriculture Varieties in Ministry of Agriculture at the name IPA-2003 It was out yielded the check foreigen hybrid (Opalin) Seeds of the hybrid and parents was kept in the genetic seed bank in State Board of Applid Agriculture Research.

Chosing the best criterion for high yield selection in melon

M. M. AL-Abdaly

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted in three seasons at the farm of Hort. Dept. Agric. Coll. University of Baghdad during 2005-2006 to chose the best criterion for high yield selection in three melon cultivars (ALqushi, Canaria and Shatwi) by using of honeycomb selection method. Five criteria For high yield selection were used individually (number of main branches per plant, number of nods on the main stem before first female flower, number of days from planting to first female flower plant sex ratio, and leaf area). The results showed an active and different effect for honeycomb selection for high yield according to the criterion was used . The rates of yield increasing was 32.8%, 8.9%, 9,1%, 23% and 14.7% frequently . Heritability in narrow sense rates was 77%, 65.6%, 66.7%, 72.1% and 69.2% frequently. That's indicate the number of main branches per plant is the best criterion because it was exited highest increase in yield and it had a highest heritability.

Effect of addition chemical and organic fertilizers on infection ratio with root rot disease and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. )

Rasmy M.H. Aldulaimy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A study was done in one of Ramadi fields , AL-Anbar province in the spring season of 2005. The aim was to study the effect of addition chemical and organic fertilizers on the infection ratio of cucumber with root rot caused by the fungus (Pythium aphanidermatium) and some other traits . Results showed that replication (NPK) for three addition led to decrease infection ratio significantly to low level was ( 15% ), decreasing infection ratio resulted in significantly elevation in yield to high level ( 7.6 t/d ) , while the infection ratio increasing significantly to high level ( 45% ) in control treatment, this elevation in infection ratio resulted in reducing yield significantly to low level ( 3.2 t/d ) . Infection ratio was increased to ( 34 % ) when ( Urea ) was added, this elevation in infection ratio resulted in reducing yield significantly ( 3.1 t/d ) .While, a significant effect was found for ( NPK ) and ( Urea ) additions interaction in reducing the infection ratios which were ( 28 and 16 % ) for once and twice additions, respectively ; The decrease in infection ratio led to elevate yield significantly ( 4.8 and 6.5 t/d , respectively ) . The addition of organic fertilizer ( Poultry waste ) above soil surface before planting led to a significant reduction in infection ratio which was ( 10 % ). As a result , yield significantly increased to ( 6.8 t/d ) .The control ( no addition ) showed higher infection ratio ( 45 % ) and lower yield ( 3.2 t/d ) . The interaction of ( NPK and organic fertilizers ) revealed a significant reduction in infection ratio ( 8 % ) and a significant increase in yield ( 7.4 t/d ). For the replication of ( NPK and organic fertilizers ) addition , the interaction of their addition twice time led to a significant reduction in infection ratio ( 19 % ). As a result, yield was significantly increased to ( 6.9 t/d ). The control showed an elevation in infection ratio ( 45 % ) and a significant reduction in yield ( 2.5 t/d ) .

The effect of potassium Fertilization and the Direction of furrows on the growth and yield of potato Solanum tuberosum L.

S. A. M. Al - Muhamadi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

This experiment was conducted on potato cultiver Solanum tuberosum L. (desiree cv.) during winter season (2000 – 2001 ) in the west of Faluja city in loamy salt clay soil with a split-plot design, to study the effect of three levls of k-fertilizer. these levels are 0.00, 300, 600 k.g. ha-1 and also the effects of two directions of rows directions paralled to sun light, (from the east to the west) on vertical directions to sun lights . Results indicated that number of tubers / plant, weight of dry matter and percentage of N in leaves where increased significantly upon the use of K.fertilizer applied vertical directions of rows. Plant hight and total yield were also increased significantly upon the use of K. fertilizer.

Effect of irrigation time and chemical controlling on the infection ratio with root rot caused by ( Pythium aphanidermatium ) and yield of cucumber

A. F. AL – Dulaimy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

A study was carried out in one of Ramadi fields, AL-Anbar province in the spring season of 2005. The aim was to study of effect of irrigation time and chemical controlling by use of fungicide (Ridomil MZ-72) on the infection ratio with root rot caused by the fungus (Pythium aphanidermatium) and yield of cucumber. Results showed that regular irrigation for four days led to decrease infection ratio significantly (24%), decreasing infection ratio resulted in significant elevation in yield (5633 kg/d). The infection ratio were increasing when used the irrigation for seven days and between days which were (54.3 and 45.3% , respectively), this elevation in infection ratio resulted in reducing yield significantly (1956 and 2766 kg/d , respectively). The chemical controlling by fungicide (Ridomil MZ-72) for twice led to decrease infection ratio significantly (20%) and the ratio increased (32.7%) when controlling only for once, while the low infection ratio at this treatments led to increasing yield significantly (4700 and 3933 kg/d , respectively). The infection ratio increasing significantly (71%) in control, un use fungicide leading to reduce yield significantly (1723 kg/d). The combination between time of irrigation and chemical controlling showed a significant decreasing in infection ratio to low level (12%) when used irrigation for four days and twice controlling, while yield in this combination increasing to high level (7300 kg/d). The highest increasing infection ratio was (87%) for the interaction between irrigation for seven days and un use of fungicide, while the combination irrigation between days and un use of fungicide significantly reduced yield to low level was (1200 kg/d).

The effect of using different levels of rapeseed meal in the Coturnix quail diet 1- Economic and productive features

M. F. Abdul Ghani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

This study was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Anbar University, starting 1/3/2004 to 22/6/2004, to study the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed meal on the economic and productive features of the quail. A total of 200 local quail aged two weeks were randomly distributed into five treatments, groups (A, B, C, D & E) with 0, 4, 8, 12 & 16% with four replicates ten birds for each replicate. No significant effect of the rapeseed meal replaced with soybean meal was found on the body weight during the first growth period (6 weeks) and during egg production period that last 3 months, 12% replacement with rapeseed meal showed (P<0.05) for body weight gain during the first growth period, whereas all treatments were increased than control treatment during the second growth period. Rapeseed meal 8% showed increase for feed consumption during the first growth period, whereas no effect during the egg production. Rapeseed meal (4 & 8%) showed a higher significant for feed conversion during the first growth period, whereas 4% replacement showed a higher significant during the egg production period. Also egg production percentage during the span of the study. Finally no significant for some economic features such as feed conversion, egg mass and hatching percentage when replacement rapeseed meal with soybean meal.

The effect of using different levels of rapeseed meal in the Coturnix quail diet 2-Internal egg quality

M. F. Abdul Ghani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

This experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Al-Anbar University starting 1/3/2004 until 22/6/2004, to study the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal with rapeseed meal on internal egg quality. A total of 200 local quail aged two weeks were randomly distributed for five treatments (A, B, C, D and E) with four replicates (10 birds/rep.). The results of the study showed that exchange percentages of soybean meal with rapeseed meal showed no significant effect on egg weight, shape index, shell weight, percentage of the shell weight, shell thickness, yolk index, yolk and albumen PH and the concentration of the yolk cholesterol, while control treatment devoid of rapeseed meal showed a higher significant than other treatments that contain rapeseed meal for hough unites.

The effect of age and sex on some physical and chemical characteristics of broiler carcasses (Ross 308)

N. N. Abed Al–Hajo

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

This experiment was conducted at the poultry farm of the Dept.of animal resources / college of Agricultural / University of Baghdad ,to investigate the effect of age and sex on some physical and chemical characteristics of broiler (Ross 308).Two hundred broiler chicks were reared, at four weeks of age, males were separated from females , and reared in different pens. Results revealed that significant (P < 0.05 ) increases in live body weight, breast weight, thigh weight , percentages of fat , protein and ash , were observed, in addition of water holding capacity (WHC) , cooking losses and flavor were also increased as the birds get older. It was also observed that sex different significantly ( P < 0.05) in live body weight, the weight and percentage of main cuts (breast, thigh and drumstick) moisture, protein percentages and WHC of males were higher than those of female. It can be concluded from this experiment that broilers can be rearing up to nine weeks of age in order to get higher body weight with good quality meat .Also it can be concluded that males can be rearing and obtained high quality .

Effect of spraying Lactobacilli bacteria and the addition of salts and vinegar to drinking water on the relative weight of carcass yields and its physical dissections of broilers exposed to heat stress

S. A. Najy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

This experiment was conducted at the animal production farm of the Agriculture Research station (Ministry of Agriculture) from 3/9/2001 to 29/10/2001, 900 one day old broiler chicks (Fawbro) were used and distributed into 6 treatments (3 replicates / treatment, each repl. consist of 50 chicks), the chicks in the first treatment was the control treatment and the second treatment the chicks were exposed to heat stress at 38-43 Celsius for daily 6 hours from 4 to 8 weeks of age, the heat stress were companied with spraying Lactobacilli bacteria on chicks with rate of 0.2 ml per chick for supplying each of them 106 colony forming units (third treatment), while the fourth, fifth and sixth treatments the chicks gave potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate salts at rate of 0.5% and vinegar at rate of 0.1% with drinking water campaigned with heat stress. The results of the study revealed that sprayed chicks at first day of age with Lactobacilli bacteria could increase the ability of birds to face the effect of heat stress on relative weight of carcass yields especially breast yield which the relative weight of it increased significantly in the this treatment, also, using probiotic could help for obtaining more lean tissue from carcass yield with decreasing the other component (bone, skin and fat) comparing with the other treatments.

Isolation and Identification the soil bacteria produced siderophores and effect the NaCl in inhibition for some pathogenic bacteria species

L. M. Najeeb

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

The aim of this study to investigation about bacterial isolates which produce of siderophores from Al-Anbar governorate soils include Heet , Haditha , Anah , and Qaim and determination the efficient isolate in this function to using it in inhibition some pathogenic bacteria . The effect of salinity of the efficient of siderophores production and efficacy in inhibition for some pathogenic bacteria were done in this study too. The 28 isolates were collected in this study include Azotobacter ,Rhizobium , Azomonas and Pseudomonas . This isolates subjected to siderophores production test . the results showed there are different ability for this isolates to siderophores production . 23 isolates are capable to siderophores production which are Azotobacter ,Rhizobium and Pseudomonas. The media supernatants for this isolates shown different efficiency in inhibition for pathogenic bacteria . All supernatants was inhibited to Staphylococcus (100mM) but different inhibition levels showed to Streptococcus , E.coli and Pseudomonas . The A4 isolate (Azotobacter) show a high efficacy in siderophores production under concentration 1 , 2 , 3 mM NaCl . 1 mM is best concentration to siderophores production which inhibited Staphylococcus but none Streptococcus , E.coli & Pseudomonas

The combiond Effect of Potassium fertilizer and some chemical insecticides against Corn stem Borer tow local Corn cultivars Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera : Phalaenidae)

B. H. A. Al-Solagh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Field studies were conducted experimental field in the college of agriculture Al-Anbar university to evaluate the combined effect of potassium fertilizer and some chemical insecticides against corn stem borer during spring and fall growing season of 2002. The test included for (0, 20, 40, 60) Kg K / hac two insecticides (cruiser used as seed treatment at rate of 1400 ml/ 100 kg seeds and diazinon 60EC as spring of rate of 1.5 ml/ L) and two cultivars of corn (Buhooth 106, IPA 5012). Results can be summarized as follows: IPA 5012 cultivars showed had caused a lowest percentage of infestation. Potassium fertilizer had significant effect on reducing percentage of infestation when used at rate of 60 Kg K.hac-1. The use of insecticide cruiser caused significant reduction infestation. However the better results were optimum of when the combined effect of potassium and cruiser on the cultivars, IPA 5012 the peasbility of using there element in applied management system as corn borer was discussed.

Influence of some climatic factors on the distribution of the leaf miner Syringopais temperatella Led. ( Scythridae : Lepidoptera ) and the response of several local wheat cultivars to infestation

Abdul-Sttar A. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Field trials were conducted to investigate the seasonal presence of the leaf miner Syringopais temperatella Led and to evaluate the response of some local wheat cultivars to infestation at Baghdad region during the growing seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000, and 2000-2001. Results indicated the presence of the pest during February of all seasons and its distribution depended on location and season of study .The environmental factors had an obvious influence on infestation intensity. Significant differences were observed between cultivars in their response to infestation. Number and length of tunnels were varied depending on location and the growing season. The cultivars IPA99 and the hard wheat cultivars were the least affected hosts. The number of larvae per tunnel was also varied but showed no correlation with specific cultivars and mainly depended on associated environmental conditions.

Effect of The Use of Some Treatments on Storage Characters and Infection Severity of Some Rot Causing Fungi on Green Bean Fruits Under 12- 18 ?C

M. S. Hassan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Study was conducted in the cold storages unit, Horticulture Department and the laboratories of Plant Protection Dept. College of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad during seasons 2005-2006, the results showed isolation of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cylindrocarpon, Sclerotinia and Rhizopus from green bean pods stored under 12-18?c. This is the first record in Iraq of these genera as pathogenic fungi of green bean pods rot in the stores.The sterilization of green pods and packing them in the netted bags decreased the percentage of microbial decay and total infection severity by the fungi and prolong period of storage to reach 6 days, and showed lower infection severity and low frequency rate of Alternaria and Aspergillus. The genus Penicillium and Cylindrocarpon was not found in this treatment. Polyethylene bags with 16 holes showed less weight loss percent which reached 0.5% and no physiological disorder occurred. The highest pod firmness was 4.8 kg / cm2 found in polyethylene bags with 32

Effect of toxic baits on killing German cockroach ,Blattella germanica (L.) and Brownbanded Cockroaches Supella supellectilium (s.) (Dictyoptera Blattellidae)

M. H. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:5 Issue:2

Studies on the efficacy of three toxic baits Chlorpyrifos, Abamection and Borick acid against German cockroach B. germanica (L.) and brown-banded S. supellectilium (S.) cockroaches showed that the mortality reached to 88.2, 73.8, 50.6% in German cockroaches exposed to mentioned toxic baits respectively. It was also found that the effectiveness of these toxic baits on German cockroaches varied from one stage of development to another, the gravid females were the least affected stage to the toxic baits used in this study. Results also indicated that toxic baits used against German cockroaches had a similar efficacy on Brown-banded cockroaches. Chlorpyrifos Abamectin Boric acid