2008, volume:6 issue:1


Effect of different tillage systems in gypsiferous soil on yield of wheat under center pivot sprinkler irrigation system

I. K. Al-Hadithi , Y. K. Hamza , G. H. Al-Niemi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Three experiment was conducted in Al- Anbar governorate during winter season 2001 to study the effect of three types plows to cultivate the soils (gypsiferous soils) and its effect on yield of wheat under center pivot sprinkler irrigation system. It have been reached that, Exclusion of using the the moldboard plow in gypsiferous soils, it can be reliable on using of disc harrow under sprinkler irrigation system , and also using of rotary plow type under local conditions of these soils.

Effect of soil mulching on growth and yield of broad bean and some properties of soil

N. A. Katab , I. K. Hamza , Y. K. Hamza

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

*University of Al-Anbar / College of Agriculture ** Commission of technical education Abstract The field experiment was conducted during winter season in 2005/ 2006 to study the effect of soil mulching using plastic and plant residual mulching on soil water consumption and growth of broad bean plant and some soil properties. The results showed that, the use of mulching caused a significant increase in water holding capacity of soil and the emergence rate and decrease soil salinity. Further more, the total yield and growth pod yield for broad bean crop were increased comparatively with control treatment, a considerable saving 25% in the quanitiy of water used for irrigation was achieved under soil mulching. Water use efficiency also increased about 50% by using soil mulching.

EFFECT Of PHOSPHOGYPSUM ADDITION ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CALCAREOUS CLAY SOIL AND BARLEY GROWTH Hordeum Vulgare L.

T. S. Saleem , H. F. Al-Azawi , A. A. Al-Dabbegh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

A field experiment was conducted for two seasions respectively according to complete randomized design (CRD). At Al-Wehda research station, 30 km south of Baghdad in the alluvial calcareous soil classified as Vertic torrifluvent to study the effect of phosphogypsum addition with five levels ranged between 50-1050 kg/ donum in addition to control treatment on some physical parameters of soil which closely related to soil structure were mean weight diameter, modulus of repture and saturated hydraulic conductivity in addition to some Barley yield parameters which was number of seeds in spike, weight of one hundred seed, amount of seeds in one meter square area, percentage of protein in hay and in seed respectively. Results of this study showed significant difference in all studied soil and crop parameters only the modulus of repture at first season and percentage of protein in the seeds, but take increased these parameters at second season in comparison with first season. Results of this study advocates preliminary use of phosphogypsum as soil amendment However, more studies on other parameters and high causiousness of pollution of soil – water –plant system are needed.

Effect of Zinc Fertilization in Yield Components of Two Wheat Cultivars

A. A. Al-Hadethi , G. Alqwaz , R. S. Abbas

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Two field experiments were carried out to study the effect of zinc fertilization in yield components of two wheat cultivars, bread wheat cv. Abu-Ghraib 3 and durum wheat cv. Doar 85. البحث مستل من رسالة ماجستير للباحث الثالث In the first experiment Zinc was applied to the soil, Zinc levels were 4.0 and 8.0 kg Zn.ha-1 and control treatment (without Zinc). The Zinc was added from two sources, inorganic (ZnSO4.7H2O) and organic (Zn-DTPA). In the second experiment Zinc was applied as a foliar application. Zinc levels were 0.4 and 0.8 kg Zn.ha-1 and control treatment (spraying with water only). The results showed that number of spike / m2, weight of 1000 seed and number of seed / spike increased significantly when Zinc were added at 8.0 kg Zn ha-1 as a soil addition and 0.8 kg Zn ha-1 as a foliar addition compared to control treatment. The rate of increases by soil application of 8.0 kg Zn ha-1 of spike / m2, weight of 1000 seed and number of seed / spike were 21.8 and 28.8, 6.6 and 7.4, 22.0 and 10.6 for two wheat cultivars, bread wheat cv. Abu-Ghraib 3 and durum wheat cv. Doar 85 respectively. Also, the same components increased significantly by foliar application of 0.8 kg Zn ha-1. The rates of increasing were 13.4 and 15.7, 13.4 and 15.7, 17.6 and 13.7 for two wheat cultivars, bread wheat cv. Abu-Ghraib 3 and durum wheat cv. Doar 85 respectively. In general, soil addition of zinc resulted in higher increases in yield components compared to foliar addition of zinc.

Theoretical calculation for effective of water quality on the irrigation requirement in Euphrates zone

A. M. H. Al-Jumeily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Quality of Euphrates water is one of the main factore which is important as well as quantity factore in distribution between countries of euphrates zone .In order to study this factor it choice six stations a long of Euphrates river (Der al zour in syria, al qaeem, haditha, ramadi, al semawh and al nasiryh in Iraq). Electrical conductivity, leaching requirement, consumptive use and the quantity of addition salts were calculated. The results showed that the euphrates water salinity, leaching requirement and the irrigation requirement were increase from Der al zour in Syria to al nasiryh in Iraq at all levels of relative yield of Wheat crop, there for the quantity of salts which addition to the soil was also increase (19) itration with the same direction and the relative value of water unit was decrease with the direction of al nasiryh station in Iraq.

Effect of planting methods and chemical control of stem borer Sesamia cretica Led. on some growth characters of two cultivars of Sorghum bicolor L.

A. H. Abd Al- Kaffor , T. M. Al-fahdawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This study which was done using soil of loamy sand texture at Al-Husy location/Amiriya of Al-Anbar govern mate during fall of 2004, aimed to understand the cultivation methods effects (lines and furrows), two kinds of pesticides (cruiser and match) on the some development characters of two cultivars of sorghum (Inqath, Jiza-15). Results can be summarized as follows: Jiza-15 cultivar took less time to reach the 50% inflorescence and the physiological maturity stages, it got the highest mean for development characters of plant heights growth and dry matter yield, while Inqath cultivar recorded a highest mean of leaf area and gave a lowest percentage of infestation. Plants cultivated with furrows gave a highest significant mean of leaf area and dry matter yield, that method also recorded a lowest percentage of infestation. It also no effected significant of plant height, day number from sowing up to 50% flowering and day number from sowing up to physiological maturity stage. Treatment of control plant with in pesticide cruiser showed a lowest percentage of infestation and high significant in leaf area and dry matter yield as compared to match pesticide and control treatment. The interaction between varieties and cultivation methods, varieties and pesticides had a significant effects on some development characters (leaf area and dry matter yield), as Jiza-15 cultivar planted on furrows recorded a highest mean of dry matter yield (17.82 ton/ha), while Inqath cultivar treated with cruiser pesticide recorded a highest mean of leaf area (5118.67cm2). The interaction between varieties, planting methods and pesticides showed a highest mean of leaf area and dry matter yield, as Inqath cultivar treated with cruiser pesticide and planted on furrows recorded a highest mean of leaf area (5230.33 cm2).

Response of growth and yields of three sunflower genotypes (Helianthus annuus L .) to arrangement system of plants in farm

B. H. Abduallah

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

A factorial experiment was conducted in R.C.B.D. in a clay-loam texure soil at the experimental farm, college of agriculture, university of AL –anbar, Iraq in spring seasons of 2002 and 2004. In order to study the growth response and seed yields and quality of the three sunflower genotypes (Euroflower,Flamme and Akmar) to the planting distances between hills were (20 , 30 and 40 )cm and the number of plants per hill was (1, 2plants ). The results of both years could be summarized as follows . Flamme genotype was significantly superior (P < 0.05 ) in most characters of growth , yields and harvest index in both years, and gave high yield of seeds (10.19 ton /ha) as an average for the two years compared to Akmar genotype (6.12 ton / ha ) and Euro flower (6.46 ton / ha ). Oil yields were (3.82, 2.31 and 2.41 )ton /ha for the three genotypes respectively . Decreasing distance between hills caused significant increase in the plant height, leaf area index ,dry matter yield , seed yield and harvest index in both years, Oil percentage and oil yields in the first year , and the value of the above characters reached the highest at 20 cm distance between hills . This distance was superior in seed and oil yields with the percent 38.33 and 54.09 % for the first character as an average for both seasons, For the second character the average was 43.02 and 62.56 % as compared with 30 and 40 cm distance among hills respectively, while a reverse results was obtained for leaf area , head diameter , number of seeds per head and weight of 1000 seeds for both years of study . when planting two plants in a hill; the yields of seed increased about 70% as an average for both years and oil yields to about 54% as compared with planting one plant per hill, the harvest index which had no effect, while oil percent had increased significantly with planting one plant in the hill . The interaction among genotypes , hill space and number of plants in a hill had significantly effected (P<0.05 ) in all characters. Flamme genotype when planted in 20 cm distance between hills and two plants per hill (200 000 plant /ha) gave ahighest mean for seed yield (15.69 ton / ha ) as an average for the two years, while the genotypes Akmar and Eurofllower which were planted under the same conditions gave 10.33 and 10.21 ton seeds / ha and oil yield (5.96 ,3.99 ,3.64 ) ton / ha respectively . It was concluded that there was a positive increase in seed and oil yield by reducing the distance of planting and increasing the plants per a hill (increasing the plant density) for all genotypes. Flamme genotype was the most efficient in using its physiological and genotypical ability under the conditions of study ; it gave higher seed and oil yields when planted in a distance of 20 cm between each two hills with of two plants per hill (200000 plant/hac.)

Relationship between viability and vigor seed tests and field emergence of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] by using regression analysis

J. H. Hamza , K. A. Jaddoa , F. Y. Baktash

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Dept. of Field Crop Sci. - College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad Abstract Viability and vigor seed tests and field emergence were conducted for two cvs. of sorghum Inqath and Rabeh [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in spring and fall seasons of 2005. The objective of this study was to predict field emergence via viability and vigor seed tests in addition to know which one of laboratory tests was closer to predict field emergence. Regression analysis was conducted on the basis that the independent variable was viability and vigor seed tests and the dependent variable was field emergence. The regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between field emergence for Inqath cv. in spring season and normal seedling percentage of first count, standard germination, and cold tests. Higher value for this relationship was with standard germination, while all regression relationships under study between viability and vigor seed tests and field emergence for Rabeh in spring season and for Inqath and Rabeh in fall season were not significant. Data of germination methods under study in addition to field emergence were analyzed according to the randomized complete block design (one way) with four replications. LSD was used to compare arithmetic means. Analysis of variance for studied germination methods showed significant difference between each one of the laboratory germination methods under study and field emergence for Inqath and Rabeh cvs. in spring season except cold test where differences between them were not significant. This means that the cold test was closer to predict the field emergence for both cvs. in spring season, while the differences were significant between field emergence for Inqath cv. only in fall season and each one of laboratory germination methods under study except first count test which the deference between them were not significant. This means that the first count test was closer to predict the field emergence for Inqath cv. only in fall season. Some results of analysis of variance were consistent with results regression of analysis and others were inconsistent. Also clear deference was found between results of germination in laboratory and field in favor of germination in laboratory.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VIABILITY AND VIGOR SEED TESTS AND FIELD EMERGENCE OF CORN (Zea mays L.) BY USING REGRESSION ANALYSIS.

J. H. Hamza , K. A. Jaddoa , A. G. Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Viability and vigor seed tests and field emergence were conducted for four synthetically varieties of corn (Zea mays L.). Its bohooth 106, 5012, talar, and rabiee. The objective of this study was to predict field emergence via viability and vigor seed tests in addition to know which one of laboratory tests was closer to predict field emergence. Regression analysis was conducted on the basis of independent variable was viability and vigor seed tests and dependent variable was field emergence. Also data of germination methods under study in addition to field emergence were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design (one way) with four replications. For rabiee cv. the regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between field emergence and accelerated aging test, electrical conductivity test, and seedling dry weight. This indicates to the ability of predicting field emergence via these tests. The closer relationship was with accelerated aging test. However other relationships were not significant for rabiee cv. Also for other three cvs., where all the relationships between studied laboratory tests and field emergence were not significant. Analysis of variance for studied germination methods showed significant difference between field emergence and each one of laboratory germination methods for all studied cvs., while it was not significant with final count at standard germination test for talar, and rabiee cvs. We could conclude that the standard germination test could express seed quality and its potential performance at field with a better reality compare with other studied laboratory tests with respect to talar, and rabiee cvs. Results of analysis of variance were inconsistent with the results of regression analysis and this lead to the conclusion that the obtaining results might differ according to the differences in the statistic of processes used for the same data.

The Effect of photo degradation on the biological activity of dursban in controlling of aphids ( Myzus persicae ) on Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) .

A. M. Mohammad , R. M. H. AL-Dulaimy , A. F. AL-D

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

*Hort. Dept. , Agric.College / University of AL-Anbar **Dept. of Chemistry, College of Science / University of AL-Anbar Abstract Several experiments were conducted at AL-Ramadi distinct / AL-Anbar province, Iraq in 2005 to investigate effect of photo degradation on the biological activity of dursban in controlling of aphids (Myzus persicae) on cucumber. The insecticide was exposed to three different wave lengths in the laboratory (253.7, 365 and 623.5 nm) for different periods of time (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h) before field application in infestation % of aphids and productivity of cucumber were estimated. Results showed that dursban activity was decreased at low wave lengths treatment, whereas infestation % was (20 and 22 %) at (253.7, 365 nm) treatments respectively. While it was (13 %) under (623.5 nm), decreased productivity of plant with decreasing wave lengths, was also recorded the average yield was 2899 and 2944 kg/D) recorded for (253.7,365 nm) wave lengths respectively, compared to (3138 kg/D) obtained to ( 623.5 nm ) treatment.

EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAYS WITH NUTRIENT SOLUTION AND SEED SIZE ON THE STORABILITY OF POTATO TUBERS DESIREE CV.

A. W. Al-Juboori

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This study was conducted in the field and cold storage unit, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during Autumn 2004 and spring 2005, two sizes (20-35) mm and (40-55) mm were used, the types of nutrient solution (grow more, grow plus, king life) were sprayed twice, the first after 45 days from planting and the second after 21 days from the first sprays. After the harvest, curing was done and the potatoes tubers were kept in bags with 5 kgs for the experimental unit with 3 replicate, CRD were used. All the treatments were stored at 4 + 2 o C for 3 months. Reconditioning were used for the potatoes taken from the cold store. The experimental results shows that no significant differences due to the seed sizes in the percentage of weight loss in the first season, while the smaller seed size enhanced the weight loss up to 4.88% as compared with the large tuber seeds which reduced it to 3.99 %. Spraying with grow more increased the percentage of weight loss up to 4.42% as compared with spraying with grow plus which reduced this percentage to 3.66% for the first season. In the second season, spraying with king life increased this percentage up to 5.97% as compared with spraying with grow more which reduced this percentage to 3.41% at the end of store period. There is no significant differences due to tuber seed size and type of nutrient solutions used in this study on the percentage of decay. There is no significant differences due to the tuber sizes used in this study in the number of sprouted eyes in the first season. The small size tubers increased this percentage up to 61.1% in the second season as compared with large size tuber which reduced this percentage to 57.1 %. The control treatment significantly increased the percentage of sprouted eyes up to 46.9 % as compared with the treatment with grow plus while reduced this percentage to 37.7 % in the first season, while in the second season treatment with grow more increased the percentage up to 69.2 % as compared with control which cases a reduction of this percentage to 50.7 %.

Effects of Organic and Nitrogen Fertilizers on Growth and Productivity of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

H. N. Farhan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The study was conducted in the west area of Iraq on the right side of Euphrates river, during Spring season of 2004. The goal was to study the effects of organic fertilizer (cow manure) and nitrogen fertilizer (urea N 46 %) on growth and productivity of potato crop var. Diesseri. Cow manure fertilizer used in two levels (0, 20 ton/ h) while nitrogen fertilizer used also in two levels (0, 200 kg N/ ha). Complete Block Randomized Design with three replicates was used in this experiment. The results showed the following: 1. Superiority of organic fertilizer treatment (20 ton/ ha) in comparing with nitrogen fertilizer treatment in most morphological, physiological and productivity characters. 2. Superiority of nitrogen fertilizer treatment (200 kg N/ ha) in comparing with organic fertilizer treatment in chlorophyll contents and total tuber number per plant. 3. Organic fertilizer treatment gave total yield and protein percentage in tuber 34.844 ton/ ha and 1.78% respectively. While nitrogen fertilizer treatment gave 30.636 ton/ ha and 1.68% respectively. Control treatment gave total yield 19.511 ton/ ha and protein percentage 1.32% respectively. 4. Organic fertilizer treatment increased yield and protein percentage by 78.5% and 34.6% respectively compared with control treatment. 5. No significant interaction between nitrogen and organic fertilizer treatments.

ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS AND HETEROSIS FOR SUMMER SQUASH GROWTH, YIELD, AND ITS N, P, K CONTENT

K. D. H. Al-Jebory

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Eight inbred lines of summer squash were crossed in line x tester method. The parental lines [6 lines (female) + 2 Testers (male)] and their off springs (12 hybrids) were planted out in the Vegetable Field of Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib during the spring season of 2002 in RCBD. The experiment aimed to evaluate the yield of hybrid and their parents, beside the N, P, K content in the leaves, and to estimated heterosis and genetic parameters in some characteristics. The results showed the superiority of the two inbred lines (T1 and L8) in N concentration in leaves, number of nodes in the branches and leaf area. Inbred lines T2 and L5 had higher values of number of flower set and plant yield. However, the inbred lines (female) showed a superiority in P concentration in leaves as compared to the mean. The hybrid (L8 x T1) had higher values of N concentration in leaves, number of nodes in the branches and leaf area, while the hybrid L8 x T1 showed the higher percentage of hybrid vigour in N%. The hybrids (L4 x T1), (L7 x T1) and (L7 x T2) had higher values and the higher hybrid vigour in plant yield (3.1, 2.55 and 2.28 kg / plant respectively). These hybrids regarded as promising hybrids. The inbred lines L8 (with N concentration in leaves, number of node in the branches and leaves area) L4 and L7 (with number of flower set and plant yield) showed GCA effect in preferable trends. There parents are good combiner and could be used to improve some characters in squash. Two hybrids (L4 x T1) and (L8 x T2) had the best SCA effect in plant yield. The results showed greater ?2sca than ?2gca in plant yield , leaf N content, and number of nodes in the branches, Therefore these traits were effected by over – dominance gene effect. Narrow – sense heritability (h2n.s%) was low while broad – sense heritability (h2b.s%) was moderately high which could be used in hybridization method to improve plant yield and N content. The lines (female) had a high contribution to total variance for studied traits . The line x testers had a good contribution in total variance, while the testers were of low contribution to total variance for some traits.

Effect of Foliar Spray (AL -Nahrain) Planting Date and Heat Accumulation on Seed Germination and Growth of Two Cultivars of Green Peas (Pisum sativum L.)

K. A. A. Al-Jebouri , M. A. H. Al-Jumaily

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

* Hort. Dep. - College of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad ** Hort. Dep. - College of Agric. / Univ. of Al-Anbar Abstract The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Horticulture Department/ College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad Abu-Ghraib, during the winter season of 2000–2001, to study the effect of Nahrain liquid fertilizer and heat accumulation on growth of green peas (Pisum sativum L.). Two cultivars of peas (Local and Jof) were included in this study with two seeding dates (1-10 and 1-11-2000) and four treatments from of the fertilizer spray were (zero, one, two, and three) foliar application, were used a factorial within split plot desugn was with three replication . The results showed that the local cultivar of pea required a 11 and 13 days to complete the emergence while Jof cv. Took 10, 12 days for the two planting dates respectively. The heat requirement of local cv. Differed from the Jof cv. By 20 and 10 heat unit for the time sawing date respectively. The 50 % blooming date of local cv. Plants was 10 days earlier than Jof cv. For both seasons. Also there was decrease in the heat requirement for the local cv. By 100 heat unit from the Jof cv. For the both seasons. The time from planting to harvesting was prolonged by 10, 15 days for both seasons respectively and its heat requirement was greater by 100, 50 heat unit for both seasons respectively. The local cv. Was superior to Jof cv. In days to 50 % (66.1 and 77.5 days).

The effect of dietary supplementation with locally prepared probiotic and comertial product ( Biotronic SE ) on productive performance of laying hens

M .A. Al-Noori , H. L. Sadik , M. F. Abdul Ghani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This experiment was conducted in Therthar poultry fields of the animal's product Theraar company consist two periods. The first period from one day old up to 20 weeks of age. 315 chicks were used in an experiment included 7 treatments. (3 replicat/ treatment. Each repl. Consist of 15 chicks). The second period of experiment started at 21 weeks up to 40 weeks of age. 189 laying hens of the first peroid were used in an experiment contained 7 treatments (3 replicat/ treatment. Each repl. Consist of 9 hens). Two periods included, the first treatment considered as control (T1) without any additive, in the 2nd t¬reatment (T2) supplemented with 3kg local probiotic / ton feed , the 3rd t¬reatment (T3) supplemented with 5kg local probiotic / ton feed, 4th t¬reatment (T4) supplemented with 7kg local probiotic/ ton feed, the 5th t¬reatment (T5) supplemented with 1kg Biotronic SE/ ton feed, the 6th t¬reatment (T6) supplemented with 2kg Biotronic SE / ton feed, the 7th t¬reatment (T7) supplemented with 3kg Biotronic SE/ ton feed. The results of the first stage showed that using 3, 5 and 7 kg of local probiotic/ ton feed caused significant reduction (P < 0.01) in feed intake as compared with Biotronic SE treatment and control treatment. Significant improvement (P < 0.01) was obtained in feed conversion coefficient in local probiotic and Biotronic SE treatments compared with control treatment at 20 weeks of age. The results of second stage showed Significant improvement (P < 0.01) for treatments with added local probiotic in egg production rate (HD%),egg numbers for hen, feed conversion coefficient, accumulative egg mass and meat and blood spots. and significant reduction (P < 0.01) in accumulative feed intake as compared with control treatment. The treatment with added 2 kg Biotronic SE / ton feed improved significantly (P < 0.01) as compared with control treatment in egg production rate (HD%), egg numbers for hen, feed conversion coefficient, accumulative egg mass and meat and blood spots. But treatments of added local probiotic improved significantly over Biotronic SE treatments in most productive traits except accumlative feed intake during the accumulative period (140 days).

The effect of dietary supplementation with locally prepared probiotic and imported product (Biotronic SE) on laying Performance diets contain diffirent levels of barley

M .A. Al-Noori , H. L. Sadik , M. F. Abdul Ghani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This experiment was conducted in Therthar poultry fields of the animal's product Theraar company. The effect of adding local probiotic and the imported Biotronuc SE to the feed was studied with different levels of barley on productive traits of laying hens at 21 weeks upto 40 weeks of age. Two hundred and fourty three laying hens at 21 weeks of age distributed on 9 treatments with three replicates for each treatment. The local probiotic was used at a level of 5 kg / ton fed with 3 levels of barley 12, 22 and 32 % of diet. The Biotronic SE was used at a level of 2 kg / ton fed with the presence of 3 levels of barley 12, 22 and 32 of the diet and 3 levels of barley 12 , 22 and 32% of the diet without any additive. Using 5 kg/ ton local probiotic and 2 kg / ton Biotronic SE in this experiment according to the manufacturing company of these products. The results of this experiment showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in egg production rate , accumulative egg per hen, feed conversion coefficient, feed intake, egg mass and accumulative egg weight with increasing the level of barley in the die. whereas, treatments of adding Biotronic SE and local probiotic with different levels of barley were improved significantly (P < 0.01) as compared with treatments contained the same levels of barley without any additives in productive traits of laying hens. Morever, Biotronic SE treatments were significantly improved over local probiotic treatments with these levels of barley 22 and 32% of the diet in productive traits of laying hens. Morever, local probiotic treatments were significantly improved over Biotronic SE treatments with the level of 12% barley of the diat.

Using of the Beet pulp in common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

A. A. Al–Shammaa , M. F. Abdulgany , H. S. Al-Ami

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

An experment with commn carp fish was conducted fpr 60 days atarted in November sixty common carp fish where used with average weight of 23.69 ± 0.02 gm and 12 fish in each treatment with Tow replicates (6 fish in each aquar) kept control between 18–23 C° by automatically programmed hot water geazer, Five treatment were obtained as a result og including beet pulp, yeast, moalsses, methionine and lysine as follow: - Treatmemt (1) control. - Treatmemt (2) 15% beet pulp treated with yeast plus molasses. - Treatmemt (3) 20% Beet pulp treated with yeast plus molasses. - Treatmemt(4) 20% Beet pulp+molasses+0.2% methionine + 0.2% methionine + 0.2% lysine. - Treatmemt (5) % Beet pulp treated with yeast+molasses+0.2 mthioni+0.2% lysine. The result of the experiment indicated that the best treatment was that contains 15% Beet pulp treated with yeast puls molasses which gaue the following result: Wight gain (7.89gm), feed conversion ratio (5.05), feed conversion efficiency (19.85), protien efficiency ratio (0.79) and protrin productive value (11.89%) more over, the result indicated that ration contained (20%) Beet pulp treated with yeast with added molases caused reduction in hemologlobin (HB) (5-6) and paked cellvolume (18%). The conclusion from this result of both exponents indicated that the possibility of using 10% of Beet pulp in normal carp fish ration and there is possibility of in creasing this percentage up to 155 when molasses is added.

Production and evaluation of quail meat Coturnix coturnix at different ages (Physical merits and sensory evaluation of meat)

M. F. Abdul Ghani , S. A.Taha , W. F. Al-Khamisi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This study was conducted to evaluate meat of quail strains (European & Asian) during the period from 21April to 21 Oct. 2004. 90 birds for each strains aged 14 days were reared at the poultry farm of Agric. College, Univ. of Al-Anbar.. At the age 42,70 and 90 days we are taken 30 birds from each strain to slaughter for determine physical traits water Holding capacity (W.H.C), cooking loss (C.L), total pigment (T.P) and test panel (tenderness, juiciness, flavor and palatability). The data revealed, no significant differences were found between strains in W.H.C, C.L and T.P of thigh piece, also no significant differences found between strains in W.H.C, C.L. of breast piece, while Asian strain had more pigment than European strain, also the age and the interaction between age and strain had more effect on physical traits. There was no significant differences between strains in tenderness, juiciness, flavor for each thigh and breast pieces, while palatability of the thigh and breast were acceptable at age 42 days.

Effect of vaccination by Eimeria tenella vaccine locally produced on immune response and performance of broilers.

A. A. Al-Hamadani , I. K. Shubber

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Efficacy of vaccination against coccidiosis by using local produced Eimeria tenella vaccine was tested. This had been done by testing vaccine roles in protection of broilers against the infection with Eimeria tenella. Four different routs of vaccinations namely (crop inoculation, drinking water, feed, and spray) were applied. Three attenuated gamma-radiation dozes for oocysts were tested (200 – 250 – 300) and two diffrernt oocysts number (1000 – 2000) as vaccine doze were implemented in this experiment on 10 days old chicks. The results revealed that vaccination with any routs with any numder of oocysts attenuated with any dozes of gamma-radiation gave significant (P< 0.05) differences in immune response and birds performance when compared with two control treatments which were not vaccinated. Birds vaccinated through crop inoculation or drinking water of 2000 oocysts which attenuated by 200 gray of gamma radiation gave a significant improvement in both of birds immunity and performance than the other routs and dozes.

The effect of adding vitamins A, E, and K in broilers rations vaccinated by Eimeria tenella vaccine locally produced on some physiological and productive characteristics of broilers.

A. A. Al-Hamadani , I. K. Shubber

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding (6.6 , 160 , 5) mg/kg from vitamins (A, E, K) respectively to the rations of broilers which were vaccinated by Eimeria tenella vaccine locally produced and the effect of this addition on the improvement of some physiological and productive characteristics of broilers. 360 faw bro unsexed day old chicks were used. They were divided into nine treatments with two replicates. The results revealed that the addition of vitamins A and E combined in the rations gave a significant (P<0.05) improvement on some physiological and productive characteristics of broilers compared with only vaccinated . Vitamin K, however, had no significant effect on physiological and productive characteristics except in packed cell volume.

The Effect of Different Birds Density and Levels of Metabolizable Energy and Protein on Broiler Performance

S. M. Al-Jashami

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of birds density (12, 14 and 16 birds/ m2), the level of metabolizable energy (3000, 3100, and 3200 k. cal./ kg. feed) and crude protein (19 and 21% on broiler chicken performance by using 1512 birds aged 28 days. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in weight gain in the 5 and 6treatments compared with other treatments, while the treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 revealed a significant difference in feed consumption. The feed conversion was well in hanced within the birds of treatment 5, 6, 11 and 12. The weight gain significantly decreased with the increase of the bird's density. The bird's density of 12 birds/ m2 exhibits a significant increase in weight gain (1218 gm.) with feed consumption (2919 gm.) and feed conversion (2.4). The birds feed diet containing 3200 k.cal significantly weight gain (1196 gm.) with a feed conversion (2.38). In contrast, there was a significant difference in feed consumption in birds treated with 3000 and 3200 k.cal. The birds fed with 21% crude protein exhibited a significant increase in weight gain and feed consumption compared with 19% crude protein. It may be conclude that the rearing of birds in a density more than 12 birds/ m2 has not economic importance unless some other factors are available such as good management, suitable feeders, waters and good atmosphere condition.

Improve quality and sensory properties for minced poultry meat patties by using powder of Rosmary (Rosmarinus officinolis)

N. N. Abed Al–Hajo

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The aim of this study was to improve quality and sensory properties for minced poultry meat patties by using powder of Rosmary (0.05%, 0.10 and 0.15%) with stored at 4oc for 0, 2 and 4 days, and done some chemical, physical test and sensory evaluation of this Product. The data obtained revealed the following: Addition of Rosmary powder to minced poultry meat led to significant (P<0.05) increase in moisture content, pH, WHC and a significant (P<0.05) decrease in cooking loss percentage, PV, TBA and FFA. Sensory evaluation data of flavor and juiciness were improve (P<0.05) by the addition, also overall acceptability increased (P<0.05) when the concentrate of Rosmary increase until 0.10% While acceptability of Patties decrease in 0.15%. In conclusion, the results revealed the possibility of using 0.10% Rosmary powder in poultry meat patties which improved some chemical, physical and sensory evaluation and led to safety when the patteis stored at 4oc for 0, 2, 4 day without showing undesirable changes in quality or sensory characteristics of processed product.

The effect of adding extract and powder Anthemis nobilis to broiler ration on some quality and sensory breast meat of boiler

Nadia N. A. Al-Hajo , D. K. Ibrahim , G. Y. Butr

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This study were carried out to study the effect of adding 0.6% level of Anthemis nobilis (extract and powder) to broiler ration on some quality and sensory characteristics of breast meat of boiler, the data revealed :There were significant (p<0.05) increase in percentage of moisture, protein, Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and the degree of flavor, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptance, While there were significant (p<0.05) decrease in percentage of fat, cooking loss, drip loss and Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) and Peroxide Value (PV) and this Value increase when the meat stored for 4 days. There were no significant differences in the degree of pH, Sensory evaluation score (Flavor, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptance) were improved when the Anthemis nobilis added, and there were a high degree in the sensory scores specially When the plant were added as a powder to the ration. The results of bone darkening showed that the darkening period of storage doesn’t effect when the Anthemis nobilis add in the three period of storage. (1, 2 and 3 moths) in - 20o c. We can concluded that addition of 0.6% of Anthemis Nobilis caused improvement in quality characteristics and sensory evaluation of breast meat, and use the powder of this plant have a high degree than watery extract for all characteristics we study.

The Effect of Age and Cooking Methods on Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Iraqi Awassi Sheep Meat

Nadia N. A. Al-Hajo , S. A. Taha , Mohamed. j ,

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The objective of the present experimental were to study the effect of cooking methods (Boiling and Roasting) of different ages for Iraqi Awassi Sheep meat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 years) with use of Longissimus Dorsi muscle. The results indicated a decreased in the percentage of Moisture and Ash accurred with increased of age, and increased when roasted comparative with boiling, the percentage of Protein, Fat and cooking loss increased when age increased and when we use of boiling method, Carbohydrate also increased when the age increase. In sensory evaluation data, we notes that the slaughter of Awassi Sheep until 10 years of age didn’t decreased the sensory evaluation (Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavour, Palatability, Color and Texture) for LD comparative with the same muscle for Ewes that slaughtering in yearling age. On the whole, the results revealed that the content LD from Moisture, Fat, Protein, Ash and Carbohydrate similarity in age from 2–9 years and the Awassi sheep didn’t show undesirable changes in quality or sensory characteristics when the age increased comparative with the author kind of Sheep.

Prediction of body weight by using some body measurement in broiler chicks at different ages

A. M. Motlak

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

This study was conducted in Al-Dawwar poultry farm Al-Anbar, the objectives of this study were to find out some statistical relationships among body weight and body measurements (breast width, shank length and keel length) and estimate correlation coefficient among body weight and body measurements. Results showed that the variation in body weight was high with respect to the chicks of this study at different ages, while it was showed lower variation with deferent body measurements. Correlation coefficient among body weight and body measurements were positive and significant (p?0.05) at the ages 2 and 4 Weeks. Result showed that the breast character associated with body weight

Efficiency of intramuscular immunization with Different antigens of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina to resist Infection with Toxocara cati , Toxascaris leonina in white mice

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The study included the effect of intramuscular injection of white mice (Balb/c) with unemberyonated eggs emberyonated eggs, dead larvae, live larvae and excretory secretory products of in-vitro cultured larvae of dogs ascaris to immunize white mice against the experimental infection by cat Ascaris. The results showed that the highest reduction rate in the number of larvae is 65.08% then 62.79% , 61.60%, 61.09% finally 61.05 when give the excretory secretory products live larvae, unemberyonated eggs, dead larvae and emberyonated eggs, respectively. The better antigen against experimental infection by T.leonina is the live larvae of the same worm (52.68%) , the live larvae of T.canis ( 51.15%).

Effect of Volatile Oils of Some Medical Plants on the Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Levels in Mice

H. K. Yaqob Al-Salman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The aims of This experiment were to study the effect of volatile oils from three types of plants which are: Nigella sativa, Foeniculum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis, They are well known medical plants and they are used commonly in traditional medicine. Volatile oils extracted by steam distillation. The biological activity studied In-vivo by oral administration of volatile oils into BALB / C male mice at doses of (0, 1, 2, 3, 4) mg / g BW for (7, 14, 21, 28) days. Serum glucose level was decreased by volatile oil of Nigella sativa at dose (2 mg/ g BW) or more. The blood glucose levels was (94.5 ± 1.24 mg/ 100 ml blood) as compared to control group (129.8 ± 0.98 mg/ 100 ml blood). No significant difference in glucose level was noticed between control group and group 3 and 4 at the treatment with volatile oil of Foeniculum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis respectively. The study showed that the volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis caused significant reduction in blood cholesterol level at dose of (3 and 4 mg/ g BW) for (14 days) or more. The cholesterol level was (134 ± 1.82 and 128.9 ± 2.32) mg/ 100 ml blood respectively as compared to control group (159.87 ± 0.91) mg/ 100 ml blood.

The effect of the aqeous extract of the leaves of Achillea fragrantissima on some Bacteria

Hanaa A. Yaseen

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the Aqueous extract of the leaves of Achillea fragrantissima were tested in vitro on six species of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis kebsiella pneumoni and Pseudomonas a eroginosae. The results indicated that the aqueous extract has an inhibitory effect on most of the tested bacteria. The inhibitory action on gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Was more than that against gram negative bacteria.

Azamethiphos Effect on the House fly, Musca domestica through the Different Seasons of the year

E. A. Al-Bayyar , T. M. Abed , S. S. Selim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Two groups of house flies were chosen to be compared with a laboratory group in their resistance to the insecticide (Azamethiphos) for a whole year period. Two ways of insecticide application were used, the first by spraying and the second by adding insecticide to drinking water. Results showed that resistance varied according to seasons and the house fly group collected from garbage was most resistance to the insecticide than the one collected from gardens and the group raised in the laboratory. Seasons also had significant effect on insect resistance, insects were more resistent in summer than in other seasons because of activity of insects and sutable invironment more over denaturation of insecticide by high heat in summer.

Stem rot and leaf spot of Eucalyptus sp and its control

G. A. Shaker

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Infected specimens of Eucalyptus spp. Myrtaceae received from local nursery were examined; they showed rotting and browning at the basal regions of their stems. Isolations were made from the affected portions and a profusely growing fungus was obtained consistently and it was identified as Pestalotia maculiformans. Successful pathogenicity tests were also carried out. Effect of three fungicides Benlate, Topsin and Dithane M-45 on the growth and sporulation of the pathogen was studied in vitro and in vivo, Benlate was found to be most effective even at 0.001 gm liter amongest all fungicides tested.

Economic evaluation for Alfalfa Farms under spring irrigation system

M. A. Khalaf , A. A. Aljabar

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Hence this study directed to evaluate Alfalfa farm irrigated by Springer irrigation system, which located in western desert, north Eufraties river away from its stream about 6 k.m. Technical and economical criteria have been got via on going work of this farm ,it point out that this farm has sound contribution to preserve water comparing with same area planted with same crop irrigated in traditional water flow irrigation system, it is fund that annually consumption water for sprinkler system about 5000 m3/ Donam less than the other way which consumpt about 8690 m3/ Donam. The production of each m3 for the farmer is about 2.1 k.g. of dried Alfalfa to the price of 320 I.D. More that its counter part of wheat, which is 6 k.g. per m3 its price about 240 I. D. Economically the economic criteria point out the positive ness of this farm performance, when the addative value reaches to total of 399 Million I.D. annually and the pure addative value of about 355 Million I.D., it is found that the invester can regain his capital in about 4.6 year and he obtained aprofit of about 204.8 Million I.D. and the invested Dinar achieved about 25% profit in average.

The level of Knowledge For AL-Ramadi Farmers To White Fly (med fly) And Its Relation With Some Independent Factors

A. A. Khamis

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The aim of this study is to identify the knowledge level of orchard farmers in ramadi province to a citrus pest (white fly) specifically in al-sofia and al-jazeraa areas. A random sample with a percentage of (30%) were chosen out of (92) farmers that means the sample was (28) farmers . A standard measure of (23) questionnaire with a total grade (degree of 46) fixed to answer by farmers in a layout sheet. Results showed that the knowledge level of farmers to this pest was approximately (3-38) degree with an average of (17.5) degree, and the general look to this pest was medium, this weakness in knowledge which in focused on the identification of destructive stage, control and the identification of the insect .also, the a significant correlation between the knowledge level and the independent factors such as (the area and relation of farmers with information sources). The study also included number of recommendations to farmers related to this pest and methods of this control.

The Influence of Security Conditions Present on Some Practices of Agriculture and Marketing for Already Vegetable Farmers

A. A. Khamis

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

The aim of this study is to determine the security situation that faces the vegetable farmers in Al-Ramadi province and its influence of Agriculture, Marketing and extension that are related to any specified vegetable. A random sample of (10%) was chosen from the total group of farmers that account (520) farmers distributed to nine areas. A total sample became (47) after rejecting five of their inaccurate responses. A standard measure of (19) questions that are related to security situation and other similar measures for agricultural, Marketing and Extension were taken in consideration. A questionnaire sheets and interviews were used for gathering information's. Results showed the security situation for farmers declined according to the information's obtained in that (70.22%) declared a decrease in their security situation. This research had agreed influence on the decline of agricultures, servicing, marketing and extension. This express the presence of a significant correlation between the security situation and other mentioned situations. Finally, the study gave some recommendations and objectives to take of cure and give rise to the resent condition that assumed to be better.

Wheat Grain Farmers Desire To The Use Of Central Pivot Irrigation (A survey study in Al- Saqlawia region)

A. I. Al-Awsi , I. H. Al-Saad , A. H. Lafta

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

Because of the farmers Psychological important and their effects on the farmer's responses and responsibilities for any new methods of farming, the aim of this study was to know the desires of farmers toward the use of central pivot irrigation in the Al –Saqlawia , its relates personal changes of farmers . A random sample of (5%) out of (1000) farmers was chosen to be (50) farmers under research, A tetrahedral scale included (20) different items was used from which anyone can conclude the desire of farmers to using this new technology in irrigation , Another similar scale were used to figure out some of the independent variables such as (the farmers technical suitability level , their acceptance to any new technology, All data were collected in one lay out sheet and sometime personal interviews were done. Results indicated that the degree of their desires and ranged from (10-48) degree with an average of (27.6) degree, These impressions of the farmers took a medium range that might get increased, In other words (76%) of farmers had positive desires toward the new technology of irrigation. Results also indicated a significant and positive linear relationship do all mentioned variables, The level of the suitable technology for farmers was good and there was an increased desire to accept using the new techniques, Some recommendations are also included in this research that may help in developing extensional programs related to agricultural techniques.

Training Needs For Hait Date Palms Farmers Related To The Identification And Control Of Certain Date Palm Pests

A. I. Al-Awsi , I. H. H. AL-Saad , A. A. Al-Hadi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, volume:6 issue:1

For a better agricultural and economical status of date palm trees and to know where our standing would be, the aim of this study is to study the important needs for training farmers on the main requirements for date palm identification and control. The study was done on a sample of (36) farmers selected randomly from the total numbers (358) farmers. A standard measure for the required needs is done by specifying five pests (insects, diseases) and (25) items were put developed measuring the needs of those farmers. Results showed the required training needs for date palm farmers were high and their scores were ranged (0-34) degree an average of (14.3) degree. A percent of (44.45%) farmers were within the level of high training need according to low scores they had gotten to that specified measure. There was a linear significant regression between the required training level and personal qualifications such as experience in date palm plantation and their satisfaction with economical return and finally their responding to the recommendations given about date palm.