2010, Volume:8 Issue:2


Preparation Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculums tolerance the salinity and develop suitable carrier material

Dyna T. Hmodii , Jamal S. Alkobaisy , Yass K. Ham

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Biofertilizer play avital role offsetting the deficit produced by nutrients loss and has great contribution in supporting the continuous agriculture effectively. thus an attempt to isolate rhizobium bacteria from soybean plant roots from different field in Baghdad and Anbar governorates was carried out and identified as Bradyrhizobium japonicum.These isolates were tasted for salinity tolerance, ability to dissolve phosphate compounds, producing Indol acetic acid , producing sidrophore, thin 5 different local materials as a carriers were added to the selected isolates, Glucose sugar was also added to support the selected material, Inoculation efficiency for nitrogen fixation and salinity tolerance were carried out after 30 days of storage period at different temperature . Results showed the following :15 isolates belong to B. japonicum were obtained .Isolates Kd2, Kr3, Kr2 showed there intensive ability of growth (+++) at salt concentration of NaCl (3-5)% with change in color of colonies to yellowish brawn.Isola Kd2 showed significantly in superiority in dissolving phosphate compounds rate diameter of 11.6 mm on solid media.and able to produced indole acetic acid (IAA) in media by amount of 13.60 and 11.5 mg /L before and after salinity adaptation . Isolates Kd2A and Kr2A showed ability in resisting toxic effect of Dithen and Kitolite materials after salinity adaptation with 0.1% concentration of salt. Powdered dates nuclear showed highest rate in loading isolates cell Kd2A isola with density 7.66 Log cfu/ml the process of 5% glucose support resulted in increase in numerical density rate 8.86 Log cfu/ml with using 3 ml volume of inocula par 5 gm carrier.4 C storage temperature for 30 days period showed the possibility of isola cell remaining active and reproducing them back with density of 6.96 Logcfu/ml. the isola kept its ability to grow at salinity concentration of rate 4.82 ds/m and nitrogen fixation at rate 2.71 and 2.49 mg N/L under salinity level of 3.82 and 4.82 ds/m.

Effect of rainfall intensity, slope and two soil conditioners on bulk density and modulus of rupture for some IRAQI western soils under simulated rainfall condition

Emad T. Al-Ani , Zaki A. Hassan , Ali H. Al-Baya

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study have been conducted to know the effects of rainfall intensity, land slope and Bitumen & wheat straw addition on the changeability of soil bulk density and modulus of some soils at western Iraqi soils under simulated rainfall. Soil samples have been taken from (0-30cm) depth for four regions which are: Zangora, Mhammadi, Madheek and Heet whose erodibility classes are; high, moderate-high, moderate and low respectively. The samples air dried and sieved through 4 mm diameter sieve then situated in experimental flumes. البحث مستل من Two types of conditioners Bitumen and wheat straw were mixed with 5cm depth of soil at 1% concentration and 6 M gm. ha-1 levels respectively. Containers fixed in four slopes 0, 3, 5 and 7%. All treatments have been distributed randomly in three replicates for each one, according to CRD design with factorial experimental. All the experimental units were exposed to simulated rainfall at two intensities 30 and 53 mm. h-1 for 30 minutes. Soil bulk density and modulus of rupture . The interaction between soil erodibility and rainfall intensity also showed high significant effect on the two traits. Two conditioners had high significant effect in decreasing the two studied soil physical properties but wheat straw showed prevailed in its effect than Bitumen.

Effect of Magnetic Conditioning of Saline Water Characteristics on corn plants growth (Zea mays L.) and up take of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium

Bushra Mahmood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

A biological Pots experiment was conducted in lath house of soil and water sci.Dept. using silty clay loam Typic Torrifluvent soil collected form Agriculture College fields. The soil was fertilized by 240 kg N.ha-1 as Urea fertilizer ,75 kg P.ha-1 as super phosphate and 120 kg K.ha-1 as Potassium sulphate fertilize. Corn seeds were planted in spring 2007 irrigated by tap water with electrical conductivity of 0.4 dS.m-1 and drainage saline water 7.4 ds.m-1 with and without magnetic . 10 Weeks after planting , plants were harvested, hights and dry weight of shoots were measured also total uptake of N,P and K nutrients were measured . The results of this experiment showed that Corn Plants hight ,dry weights ,total uptake of N,P and K nutrients were significantly decreased when drainage saline water used as campared with tap water with decreament 10.8 ,28.9 ,17.7 ,22.7 ,17.8 % of these characters respectively. On other hand magnetic water significantly increased all studied characters as compared with non-magnetic. The increase were 17.7 ,34.6 ,23.8 ,28.4 ,21.9 % for plant hight , dry matter weight ,total uptake of N ,P and K nutrients respectively. The results also indicated that there was a significant interaction between water quality and magnetic water , The highst values were obtined with magnetic tap water treatment with no significant differences between magnetic saline drainage water and non-magnetic tap water.

Effect of water irrigation quality and mulching on the moisture and salt distribution and cauliflower yield Brassica oleracea under drip irrigation system

Saady S. Al-Zobae , Abdulla H. Al-Sheikhly

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted in Al-Raid Experimental station, Ministry of Resources, 20 km west of Baghdad, during autumn season 2008, in silt clay loam soil classified at typic torriflvent, to study the effect of water irrigation quality, soil mulching on the moisture and salt distribution and cauliflower yield under drip irrigation system. The Experimental design was Factorial Experiment with RCBD in three replicates. The study includes two factors: 1- Water quality, which includes three factors: a- Irrigation with river water (WR) ( 1.1 ds. m-1). b- Irrigation with saline water (WS) ( 4.5 ds. m-1). c- Alternate irrigation (WA).2- Soil mulching includes two factors: a- Soil mulching with black polyethylene (M). b- With out mulching (W). The results can be summarized as follows: It was notice that the moisture content increase at the emitter sources and decreased away from the source vertically and horizontally for all treatment at the end of the irrigation, the wetting front increase away from the emitter source with increased the depth of the soil. Also the wetting front movement increase vertically and horizontally when the soil covered with black polyethylene, also the leaching requirement caused increase the moisture content for irrigation treatment with saline water. Saline soil increase vertically and horizontally away from the emitter source, and moved with wetting front away from the emitter source when the irrigation depth increased. The higher salt accumulation was found at wetting front vertically and horizontally, and the salt was distributed increasingly with the depth in soil mulching treatment, also it was found that the salinity of salt water treatment was greater than the alternate and river water treatments respectively. Irrigation treatments and mulching were effect on the yield, The higher yield was 42.95 ton / hector when irrigated with river water and mulching compare with low yield 22.03 ton/ hector when irrigated with saline water and with out mulching.

Effect of organic fertilizer on availability of macro nutrients N, P, K and the product of garlic

Iman K. Mohammed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

A field experiment was conducted at the Field of the college of Agriculture at Abu – Ghraib in Silt clay Loam soil at 2008 – 2009. Treatments included Cow manure at Levels 0, 20, 40 T. h-1 and Sheep manure at Levels 0, 20, 40 T. h1- in randomized complete blocks design with three replicates and their effects on increasing the availability of macro nutrients N, P, K, in soil and increasing the yield of Garlic. Samples of soil have been taken before planting and 150 days after planting. Results showed that the highest concentration of N, P, and K on the higher level of availability of N, P, and K was at levels 40 T. h-1 of cow and sheep manure consequently . Also higher yield of Garlic was achieved at Level (40 T.h-1) as it reached 17.29 and 16.47 T.h-1 for each of cow and sheep manure consequently in comparison with control treatment (13.53) T.h-1. The results proved an increase in the number of leaves/plant as well as in the height by cm at this level of addition too.

Effects of sowing dates on yield and yield components of five maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes

Nawfal A. Al-Mashhadani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Five Genotype of maize were used in this study were planted in autiem seoson of 2009 by using arandomiz complete blook design with three replication . The aim of this study was study the effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of five maize genotypes. Results showed that sowing plants on 30th july give the highest earlength (23cm ), row number perear( 18 row ) weight of 1000 kernels ( 325 gm), and total grain yield (11.5 t / ha ) . grain yield per hectare ( 11.5 t/ ha ) by sowing during 30 July.

Effects of sowing dates on yield and yield components of five maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes

Nawfal A. Al-Mashhadani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Five Genotype of maize were used in this study were planted in autiem seoson of 2009 by using arandomiz complete blook design with three replication . The aim of this study was study the effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of five maize genotypes. Results showed that sowing plants on 30th july give the highest earlength (23cm ), row number perear( 18 row ) weight of 1000 kernels ( 325 gm), and total grain yield (11.5 t / ha ) . grain yield per hectare ( 11.5 t/ ha ) by sowing during 30 July.

Responses of cumin Cuminum cyminum L. to field practices and effect on volatile oil and S, Active ingredient Physcis Trait

Akeel N. A. Al-Mohammedi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

A field experiments was carried out during the winter seasons 2007 -2008 at testing field crops Science Department University of Baghdad-Abu Ghraib in order to determine the response cumin crop.. Cuminum cyminum Lfor some farm operations and their impact on voltial oil and physics active ingredient. , traitThe experiment study the effect of different levels of Phosphorus fertilizer are (0,50,70,90 kg P / ha) and four spaces between plants (10, 15, 20, 25 cm). The experiment carried out within the system of testing the factorial experiment has been used according to Random Complete Block Design (RCBD)with three blocks .Considered statistically analyzed the data according to the desing of each practice and experience compared to averages of transactions on the basis of test least significant difference (LSD) 5%Level of moral study results showed that : The addition of Phosphorus fertilizer show significantly increase in terms given level of 70kgP/ha higher value of voltial oil and physics trait s amounted to 3.85%,32.32 L/H ,0.989,0.989 M/ML,1.41. Spaces between plants caused significantly effect in voltial oil and physics trait terms given the of planting (20 cm ) the highest value reached 3.66%,28.48 L/H,0.976,0.983 M/ML,1.35 . Interaction was significantly between the levels of Phosphorus fertilizer and spaces between plants was given treatment as morally 70 kg p /ha Spaces between plants of( 20cm) reached the highest 4.04%,34.44 L/H ,0.993,0.989 M/ML,1.45.from results of (HPLC) given level of 70kgP/ha and planting (20 cm ) the highest value of active ingredient Cuminaldehyde and ?-pinene and p-cymene which amounted to 50.70% and 7.33% and 3.91% respectively .

Genetic analysis by using full– diallel crossing of maize

Abdul-Razzaq Y. Al-Zawbaai , Nadhum Y. Abed , N

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Full – diallel cross was carried out among four inbred lines of corn (Zea mays L.) in Spring season (2006). In autumn season (2006) a comparison experiment was carried out at Al– Madain Field in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Study was conducted to identify and select superior maize inbred lines based on their performance parse, as to evaluate their single– cross hybrids performance based on results of analysis of combining ability and the first method with fixed model . Significant differences were found between genotypes in all studied characters and most of hybrids gave significant heterosis. Results of diallel analysis showed that heterosis in diallel hybrids which was greater than reciprocal hybrids for most characters except for plant height and ear height . Diallel hybrids (1×4) , (2×4) gave higher positive hybrid vigor for weight of grain and grain yield (13.5% , 17.6%) respectively . Some parents showed preferred GCA effect in characters consecutively with preferred SCA effect for grain yield and many other characters .The ratio of variance of general combing ability (?2gca) to the specific combining ability (?2sca) and of the reciprocal (?2rca) was less than 1.0 in most studied characters , expect for plant height and ear length in reciprocal hybrids which was greater than 1.0 . The value of dominance degree was less than 1.0 for most studied characters in both diallel and reciprocal hybrids. As for broad and narrow sense heritability , it was low for all studied characters in both diallel and reciprocal hybrids . Genetic variance dominance values (?2D) was higher than genetic variance additive values (?2A) for most of other studied characters important grain yield was (154.8) in diallel hybrids, (66.3) in reciprocal hybrid this was indicating the importance of both additive and non additive gene actions in the control of these characters .

Effect of NP fertilizer application on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) after cutting

Rabah S. Shareef Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

The experiment in Al-Qaim city western Iraq to Study the effect of NP fertilizer application three levels ( 0 , 200 , 300 ) Kg NP. h-1 after cutting of barely crop in 2007 Using Random Complete Blocks Design ( RCBD ) with three replicates . The maximum result was done through the fertilizer levels 300 Kg NP.h-1 in Significantly over the other levels in the plant height ( 72.53 cm ), Dry weight of plant ( 32.92 g / m 2 ), green forage yield( 4.90 Kg / m2), grain yield ( 12.77 g / plant ) , weight of 1000 seeds ( 35.8 g ) and grain number ( 61.7 grain / spikes ). On the other level 200 Kg NP. h-1Significantly superiorzed in spikes (177.3 spike / m2 ) on the level without fertilizer .

Effect of phosphate fertilizer in the ratio in percentage of Infection on corn Sesamia cretica Led. And relationship to yield production

Ali F. Hassin , Naser M. Naser , Hussam F. Alawa

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Experiment was made in AL- Qadisiyah province on maize during the autumn season 2007, to know the impact of four levels of phosphate fertilizer (zero, 160, 200, 240 kg P2O5/ h) and two batches.First add all the amount of phosphate fertilizer at one time when agriculture, and the second was added in two waves, when agriculture first and the second after (45 days) from the first installment. Used in the experiment design sectors indiscriminate full R.C.B.D. Used the seeds of Class of (IPA 3003) parents of hybrid maize. Results showed that the level fertilizer 240 kg P2O5/ ha in reducing the incidence of insect after (8, 10, 12 weeks) and at harvest amounted to (2.34, 4.00, 7.86, 15.26)%, respectively, compared to the treatment of comparison and level fertilizer 160 kg P2O5/ h which gave the highest rate of incidence of this insect, also gave the same level fertilizer increase in the sum total of the plant and the winning 5,648 and 6,141 and 7,288 and 8,056 tons / h respectively in the above levels of fertilizer.

Study of Boron Effect on six peanut cultivars using GGE biplot

Adel Y. Nasralla , Intesar H. Alhilfy , Ali F. A

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Superior cultivars have to be identified through multienvironment trials (MET) and chemicals factors in different levels on basis of multiple traits. The study revealed effect of different levels of boron, the chemicals factor, on six peanut cultivars using GGE biplot and GT biplot. GGE biplot analysis of peanut yield explaned 99% and 99.6% of over all variance, for each season, respectively B300 was the highest one. G4 was more variant than others with increase of levels. While G1 , G2 and G3 had slowly variance meant that were more stable.GT biplot illustrated 86.1% and 85.3% of over all variance, for each season, respectively. It graphically displayed the interrelationships among (Y1 and Y6) and ( Y3 , and Y7) and among other traits facilitated visual cultivar comparison and selection for certain environments and chemical growth factors.

Survey of vesicular– arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) associated with citrus roots in Baghdad city

Usama A. Alwan , Hadi M. Aboud , Faleh H. Said ,

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

The results of isolation and identification of (VAM) Mycorrhizae with citrus roots in 14 locations around Baghdad city the predomance of Glomus and Gigaspora genus in the most surveyed locations citrus trees , in spite of high frequency appearance of the first genus . The species Glomus mosseae , showed the high frequency occurrence throughout the year tightest occurrence in ( April , May and October ) at ( 27 , 29 and 25 ) spore 5gm soil respectively while the species Gigaspora margarita was the high frequency occurrence species beyond to the genus Gigaspora and recorded highest occurrence in ( April , May and October ) at ( 9 , 10 and 9 ) spore 5gm soil respectively while another species like Glomus fasciculatus , Glomus destriticola and Gigaspora Calospora appeared in low percentages .

Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Spraying Terra-Sorb on Growth and Yield of Some Potato Cultivars Solanum tuberosum L.

Shaymaa A. Al-Qaisy , Sadeq Q. Al-Baity

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study was conducted in vegetable farm, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad for fall season 2008 and spring season 2009. To investigated the influences different applied to the soil of nitrogen fertilizer and foliar sprays (Terra-Sorb) on growth yield some potato cultivars. RCBD design for split-plot was adapted, the cultivars Binella and Riviera for fall season and Desiree and Riviera for spring season were main-plot. While the seven levels of N fertilizer with control treatment in sub-plot as follows: (T0) as control (without fertilizer) and (200 , 400 , 600 Kg N/ha) and ((200 , 400 , 600 Kg N/ha + 3ml/L terra-sorb) and only (3ml/L terra-sorb). The results shown the superior of Binella and Desiree cultivars in vegetative and yield characters, compare with Riviera cultivar. While the fertilizer treatments significantly influenced the vegetative characters, the highest level of( 600 Kg N/ha + terra-sorb) significantly gave the highest emergence percentage (92.12 and 100.0%), numbers of main (4.15 and 4.70 stem/plant), the highest of plant (68.41 and 77.55 cm), leaf area (7793.4 and 10534.4cm2), leaf area index (4.15 and 5.61), the percentage of chlorophyll in leaf (41.83 and 45.83 SPAD), the dry weight of vegetative parts (63.13 and 66.78 g/plant) for fall and spring season respectively. While (400 kg N/ha + terra-sorb) significant influenced the number of tubers (9.50 and 10.78 tuber/plan), plant yield (1033.3 and 1034.3g/plant), total yield (49.11and 53.52tan/ha) for both season respectively.

Effect of stratification and Gibberellins on seed germination and seedling growth of Apricot Prunus armeniaca L.

Sameer A. Ali , Nazik H. Khalil , Eiada A. Obaid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

The study was conducted in the canopy of wood in the Department of Horticulture / Agriculture College / University of Baghdad during 2006 season .Seeds of Apricot were brought fr0m local variety of last season fruits .The objective of this study to investigate the response the Apricot seed to stratification and Gibberellins treatments ,the result showed that the percentage of germination was increased to 90% when seeds treat with 2000 ppm of Gibberellins and with out it ,the plant high and stem diameter were increased to 19.67 cm. and 0.23 cm. respectively in the same treatment , while the leaf number for every plant increased to 20.67 leaves when seeds treated with 1500 ppm of Gibberellins with stratification and the leaf area was increased to 68.45cm2/plant in the same treatment and the percentage of chlorophyll increased to 39.80% when seeds stratificated for eight weeks, while the characteristics were decreased from this results in the other treatments.

Detection of fungi associated with watermelon roots and their effects in seed germination and seedlings

Kamil S. Juber , Theyab A. Al-Esawee , Ahmed H. R

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This experiment involved a survey of damping - off and root rot disease of watermelon in Anbar , Baghdad and Babylon provinces. Determination of pathogens and testing their pathogenesity were also investigated. Results of the field survey showed the existence of the disease in all the surveyed provinces with 13%-27% root rot and post emergence damping off disease and decrease the percentage of germination to 40%-57% in all the surveyed regions. Results of isolation and identification showed the presence of 12 genera and 10 species associated with the infected seedlings. The fungus Fusarium solani was found to be present in all surveyed areas in mean percentage of occurrence of 27.03%. The, F. oxysporum , Phoma spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Cylindrocarpon spp. waer found to be present in percentage of 7.1%, 11.2%, 14.0% and 16.6% respectively. Results of pathogenicity tests of some fungal isolates which were associated with watermelon roots showed that the isolates gave a significant reduction in percentage of seeds germination of watermelon and increased the percentage of disease severity , R. solani isolate (O) had the maximum effect where the germination percent was 6.6% and the disease severity was 93% followed by F. oxysporum isolate (B) where the percentage of seeds germination and disease severity were 10% and 90% respectively , ther isolates showed variable significant reduction in percentage of seeds germination of watermelon ranging betwee 16.6% - 50%. The isolates also increased the percentage of disease severity which were ranging between 50% - 83.3% compared with control treatment in which the germination percentage and disease severity were 90% and 0.0% respectively. Results of the interaction between some of pathogenic fungi isolates showed a reduction in percentage of seeds germination and increase in disease severity . The combination between R. solani (O) isolate + F. oxysporum (B) isolate and R. solani (O) isolate + F. oxysporum (B) isolates + Cylindocarpon sp. The (A) isolate reduced percentage of seeds germination to zero and increased disease severity to 100%. Other combination O+A and B+A reduced percentage of seed germination to 3.3% and 6.6% respectively and increased the disease severity to 96.6% and 93%, respectively.

Effect of salt stress on vegetative growth characteristics of four potato cultivars plantlets in vitro

Lamyaa kh. Jawad , Mubashar S. Omer , Fadel H. Al–

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

An experiment was carried out at the laboratory of tissue culture, Horticulture Dept., college of Agric., University of Baghdad, to evaluate the effect of salt stress on vegetative characteristics of four potato cultivars plantlets (Agria, Ajeba, Mondial and Desiree). five concentration of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM/ l) and/ or Na2SO4 (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50mM/l ) were supplemented to the vegetative growth medium. Results could be summarized as follows : Application of 25 mM NaCl/ l to the growth medium increased, number of shoots /plantlet (5.67) and dry weight of shoots and roots (0.022, 0.013 gm), whereas, concentration of 50-100 mM NaCl /l had inhibitory effect on vegetative growth. The Na2SO4 application at 12.5 mM/ l on the other hand, increased slightly (non significant) vegetative growth characteristics, while the concentration 25-50 mM Na2 SO4 L had deliterious effect on shoot and root growth .Shoot content of chlorophyll was decreased while proline content was increased as the concentration of either salt was increased .Desiree and Mondial had the greatest shoot growth ,while Ajeba and Agria had the lowest . The interaction between the two salts on vegetative growth was significant where, the greatest number of shoots was found when 25 mM NaCl with 12.5 mM NaSo4 l were added whereas ,highest dry weight of shoots and roots , and shoot content of chlorophyll a and total were resulted from the application of 25mM NaCl with no application of Na2SO4 highest concentration of both salts resulted in highest content of proline in the shoots. Desiree cultivar treated with 25mM NaCl l had the greatest number of shoots and dry weight of roots.

Effect of winter pruning on some fruit characteristics of apricot trees Prunus armeniaca L. c.v. Labeeb -1-

Mustafa. E. A. Al-Hadethi , Waleed A. A. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study was conducted in the apricot orchard , Horticultural Department , College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad . Abu Ghraib . during the growing seasons of 2008 – 2009. Apricot trees Labeeb – 1 cultivar, four year old were used . The study included two methods of pruning , the first method was thinning (t) and the second method was heading (h) , in each method three level of pruning was used no pruning ( t1or h1 ) , removing 25 % (t2 or h2) or 33 % ( t3 or h3) branches of the trees . Each treatment replicated three times at Factorial Experiment with RCBD . pruning was done during February on the branches with 6 cm long and over. The experimental results showed that thinning 33% and heading 25% of branches (t3h2) significantly gave the highest fruit set percentage of 16.96 and 26.37% and the highest yield per trees of 22.18 and 30.03 Kg/ trees and the highest average fruit Wight of 18.93 and 20.46 g/fruit and fruit size of 19.49 and 21.67 cm3/ fruit and highest T.S.S of 18.50 and 19.60% for both seasons respectively, while the lowest value of these parameters were found in the control treatment. The total fruit acidity does not influenced by method of pruning.

The effect of locally produced probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on histology and intestinal microflora of gut White Leghorn*

Bushra, S. Zangana , Saad A. Naji

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study aimed to study the effect of diet supplementation with probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on histology and intestinal of White Leghorn (WL) laying hens. A locally prepared probiotic were used each one gram of this probiotic contain at least 1010 Colony Forming Units of Bifidobacterium, L.acidophilus bacteria and 108(CFU) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Aspergillus niger fungal respectivally. The prebiotic used in this study were consist a non starch oligosaccharide of S.cerevisiae yeast after crashing of cell wall .The synbiotic used in this study were prepared by mixed an equael amount from probiotic (Iraqi probiotic) and prebiotic. A total of 180 WL laying hens, 16 weeks old were randomly allocated into four treatment groups . Hens in T1 group were fed a standerd laying diet and used as control group. Hen in T2,T3 and T4 were fed diet supplemented with 5 Kg/ton of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic respectively. The experiment was conducted in poultry farm at Agriculture College– University of Baghdad for the period from 27th May 2005 to first of Jully 2006. The data for the present study showed that feed supplementation with probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic were significantly (P<0.01) increased villi length and cryps depth of the duodenum region as compared with the control group. The microbiological study data also revealed feed supplementation with probiotic, prebiotic and symbiotic were significantly (P<0.01) increased Lactobacilli and decresced Coliform bacteria count in crop, jujinum and cecum of laying hens.

The use of uropygial gland removal as treatment for delayed in sexual maturity in commercial layer stocks

Rashad S. AL- Mahdawy , Saad A. H. Naji

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of uropygial gland removal in overcome the problem of delayed sexual maturity in commercial lying hens stocks. The first experiment was carried out at Alnahrwan poultry farm from 1-3-2005 to 28-2-2006. A total of 25000 Isa Brown laying hens were divided into two treatment groups. The first group which consist of 20000 hens were used as control group (T1). The second group (T2) which consist of 5000 hens were subjected to surgical removal for uropygial gland at 24 weeks old. Hen day (HD) egg production were calculated monthly throughout the experimental period which was lasted for One year. The data from this experiment showed that egg production percentages and cumulative egg production were gradually increased for T2 hens after Uropygialectomy. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups for the lasted eight months from the production year. The second experiment was carried out at Al-Haramen poultry farm at Karbala governorate from 1-12-2007 to 30-9-2008. A total of 9000 Hisex Brown Laying hens were divided into two groups. The first group which was consist of 6000 hens was used as control group (T1). The second group (T2) which was consist of 3000 hens was subjected to surgical removal for uropygial gland at 28 weeks old. Egg production and cumulative egg production were calculated monthly throughout the experiment period which was lasted for 10 months. The data showed that egg production percentages and cumulative egg production were gradually increased in second group. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups for the last three months. Blood serum estradiol concentration were significantly (P> 0.05) increased in uropygialectomized hens when compared with non treated hens. The overall results for the present study suggested that uropygialectomy were benefit in overcome the delayed sexual maturity in commercial laying stocks.

Activity evaluation of alcoholic extract of resin produced from Boswellia carterii against two types of fungi which cause fungal mastitis in-vitro

Adel K. Khalaf , Ammar H. Salman , Salah M. Ashoo

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

In this study the antifungal activity alcoholic extract of resin produced by the plant Boswellia carterii was evaluated on two types of fungi isolated from milk of cows infected with mycotic mastitis: Aspergillus niger and Blastomycis dermatidis compared with some potent antifungal drugs : Nystatin, Clotrimazol and Tolnaftate. seven concentrations of the plant extract and antifungal drugs were used (5,10,15,25,50,75,100 mg/ml). the plant extract showed antifungal activity against both types of fungi elicited by decrease in the diameter of their growth zone inversely related with increasing concentrations of the extract.

Effect supplementation of Nigella sativa , Artemisia annua and thier mixture to the diet on some hematological, immunological and biochemical characteristics on broiler

AbdAlwahab B. Hussain , Muthana A. Al-Noori , A

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study aimed to evaluate the effect supplementation Nigella sativa , Artemisia annua and their mixture on some hematological, immunological and biochemical characteristics on broiler chicks. one hundred thirty five unsexed broiler chicks Ross breed of one day old have been used in this study.The chicks were distributed into 7 groups randomly. T1 was regarded as the control group that given an basic ration without any additive. T2 supplementation 0.25% Nigella sativa,T3 supplementation 0.5% Nigella sativa, T4 supplementation 0.25% Artemisia annua, T5 0. 5% Artemisia annua T6 0.25% Nigella sativa + Artemisia annua T7 0.5% Nigella sativa + Artemisia annua. The result showed a significant increase (P<0.05) hemoglobulin in all groups as compared with control group except T4 and T5 Also study showed a significant increase (P<0.05) of Packed volume cell in all groups as compared with control group except T5 while the highest degree 29.55 in T3 compared with control group 25.48. All treatment showed significant increase on in serum total protein except T3. Also the globulin concentration showed significant increase for treatments group T5,T6 (P<0.05) compared with all treatments and showed same group a significant decrease (P<0.05) in cholesterol in compared with control treatment

Effect of Supplemental Garlic Powder on Productive, and cholesterol level Characteristics of Broilers

Ahmad A. A. Al-Doury ,

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study was carried out at the Poultry Farm, Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the period from first of March to May 25, 2006. Three hundred one-day old unsexed Ross chicks were used. This was conducted to determine the effects of addition of garlic powder during the period 1 to 56 days with levels of 1 and 3% on some productive characters and cholesterol level. Results showed that the body weight and weight gain was increased significantly (p<0.05), for the groups that fed diet Supplemental with garlic powder compared with the control group, Non-significant differences were occurred between treatment groups in feed conversion ratio and feed consumed. A Significant decreasing (p<0.01) has showed in cholesterol level in treated groups compared to control groups.

Effect of coating table Eggs with plant oils and plastic coats on sensory evaluation during storage

Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

The objective of this novel study was to evaluate the coating of table eggs with some natural oils and plastic film and their effects on sensory evaluation of fresh eggs and after storage for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Fresh table eggs were distributed into two main treatments : the first, storage at room temperature and the second, storage at refrigerator temperature, each main treatment was sub divided into five groups as follow :1- Control group, 2-Corn oil group, 3-Dill oil group, 4-Black seed oil group . 5-Plastic film group were finstly wrapped with plastic film. All groups (except the control) was thermostabilization treated at 56.7ْC for16 min. . The data obtained revealed that fresh egg groups had acceptable flavor score ranged from 6.2 to 6.5 , these values were gradually verified (P<0.01) after storage for 8 weeks to be weakly acceptable and ranged from 4.1 to 5.0 at room temperature, and from 4.3 to 5.2 at refrigerator temperature for different groups. Fresh egg groups had acceptable 6.4 score appearance, no significant differences were appeared after storage for 8 weeks at room or refrigerator temperature. Storage eggs at room or refrigerator temperature for 4 and 8 weeks significantly (P<0.05) decreased appearance score compared with fresh egg groups. Coating table eggs with natural oils and plastic film reduce the deterioration in sensory evaluation of stored eggs. Using dill or black seed oils better than others were recommended.

Economic losses of lesser date moth (Batrachedra amydraula. Meyrick) (Cosmopterygidae:Lepidoptera) on the two cultivars, Varieties Khastawi and Zahdi of date palm in the middle of Iraq

Khamees A. Al-Dolimey , Reda S. Al-jorany

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

The study was conducted in date palm plantation in Tarmiia, Baghdad province, Iraq, during 2003 growing season in order to estimate the economic losses of lesser date moth (Batrachedra amydraula. Meyrick) on two cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dectylifera L.). The results showed that average number of fruits in Zahdi was 30801 fruit / tree at the last week of April and became 17238 fruit / tree at the second week of July . Of the 15349 fallen fruit / tree there were 980 infested fruits which amounts to a percentage economic loss of 5.37% equaling about 7.84 kg / tree . Where as in Khastawi there were 29844 fruit / tree at the first week of May and became 11200 fruit / tree at the end of July ، so that the number of fallen fruits were 18644 of which 6702 were infested amounting to a percentage economic loss of 37.43% equaling 44.68 kg / tree. The study indicated a significant positive relationship between number of larvae and number of fallen infested fruits . It was averaged between 0.004 – 12.76 larvae / 100 fallen infested fruits in Zahdi , and 0.43 – 32.02 larvae / 100 fallen infested fruits in Khastawi , when the percentage of infestation in fallen fruits was 0.2 – 45.6% and 5.4 – 94.2% in Zahdi and Khastawi respectively . Coefficient of correlation (r) was 0.990 in Zahdi and 0.994 in Khastawi

Detection of fungi associated with grape fruits and evaluation of the efficiency of some plant originated powder for fungi growth inhibition

Saba B. Al-Juboory , Kamil S. Juber , Adnan I. A

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study was carried out to detect the mycofloras that accompany the grapes in the field and to determine the percentage of their occurrence and test the efficiency of some plant parts powder in reducing such percentages. The results of isolation and identification of the fungi that associated with grape taken from the orchards and local markets of the middle Iraq governorates have shown the existence of 15 species of such fungi, the identification of five then regarded for the first record on grape fruit in Iraq: Aureobasidium pullulaus, Fusarium oxysporum, Cylindrocarbon destractans, Penicillium glabrum and Ulocladium chrtanum, and the most frequent ones are Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata ; the highest percentage of each is 93.3 and 40.0 % respectively, and another species like A.flavus, F.heterosporum, F. oxysporum, Mucor racemosus. Penicillium glabrum, Rhizopus stolonifer have been existence in all the samples ranged between 7.3-36.7%, while the rest of fungi existence in one to three samples. Testing the efficiency of the pomegranates peels powder (Punica granatum L.), Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and spearmint (Mentha logifolia L.)leaves, the results have shown the variation of the powder used in inhibition the growth of some fungi tested on the culture media PDA ; the effect of each powder differ in different fungi also varies in that the powder of pomegranate peels records the highest percentage of inhibition 100% in A. alternata treatment and the lowest percentage 33.3% against A. niger ; next in efficiency we have the powder of cauliflower and spearmint in the highest percentages of inhibition recorded are 77.12 and 82.00% against A. alternata while the lowest percentages of inhibition for both are 0.0 and 17.34% respectively when tested against A. niger

Attractance of honeybee workers to subsides and supplementary of honey and pollen and their influence on colony activities

Kamela W. Shahir , Radha S. Al-Jorany

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Many experiments were conducted to measure the attractance of honey bees workers to food supplements inclouding (Sugar solution 60%, different concentration of whey +sugar solution 60% ) and protein subsides (Powders rape seeds ,checking vetch + broad bean and their mixture) in some apiaries in Baghdad and AL-Mussab cities. Results showed that the workers of honey bees preferred the Sugar Solution 60% and whey 50 ml + 50 ml sugar solution than other syrup mixture. The number of workers attracted during 2 hours of observation were 366.76, 358.55 respectively compared with 24 workers 2 hours in whey Syrup alone. Results showed that feeding honey bees inside colonies with mixture of whey 75 ml plus 25 ml sugar solution 60% twice per week increased the area of brood , pollen and honey.

Efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii for biological control of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

Hamood M. Saleh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

A study was conducted under field conditions to evaluate the efficiency of two entomopathogeaic fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii to parasitize whitefly nymphs and adults. Results revealed that V. lecanii showed the highest perecentage of parasitism (73.4%) on adults and nymphs on egg plant under field conditions at AL-Nehrawn compared with B. bassiana isolate 1 and 2 (56.7 and 50.4% respectively) after 10- days of treatment. When used conidia suspension of V. lecanii with 0.02% triton caused the highest parasitism (90%) after 10 days of treatment. In a field experiment at AL-Tuwaitha, the results indicated that V. lecanii showed that highest percentage of parasitism (90 and 80.66%) compared with B. bassiana isolate 1 and 2 (68.66, 60 and 53.33, 48%) when used 0.02% triton and 0.2% corn oil resectively after 10 days of treatment . While in a green house experiment , the results showed the use of V. lecanii and B. bassiana isolate 1 together was more effective in parasitizing (90%) than use of either one alone (70.3 and 81% for V. lecanii and B. bassiana isolate 1 respectively) on adults and nymphs after 15 das of treatment . There was a clear reduction in the number of colony forming units (CFU) viability of V. lecanii and B. bassiana isolate 1 and 2 with time of storage, for the fungal viability storage at room temperature was less efficient than storage at 4 0C .

Effect of soil treatment with some biological agent on controlling damping off disease of eggplant caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

Jasem M. Al-Isawi , Moyasar M. Jarjees

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil treatment with some biocontrol agent to control eggplant seedling damping-off. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani was isolated and identified as a causal agent of seedling damping-off on eggplant.Eight Rhizoctonia solani isolates were obtained from infected root and seeding eggplants . Pathogenicity test by using cabbage seeds indicated that all isolates were pathogenic but their level of Pathogenicity was different. The isolates Rh6 and Rh7 were the most severe isolates among other isolates. Three Azotobacter chroococcum isolates were obtained from wheat rhizosphere soil and identified according to their cultural, biochemical and microscopic characters. Pathogenicity test showed that A. chroococcum had highly antagonist effect against R. solani isolates where they were inactivated the fungus growth.. Peat moss treated with biological agents was increased the germination percent and decreased the infection percent of disease. Peat moss treated with both T. harzianum and A. chroococcum was resulted 86.7%, 86.7% germination after two and five weeks respectively and use efficiency 82.6%.

Use of Honeycomb method selection to improve oil content of sunflower seeds

Hashem R. Latheth

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Selective programe by honeycomb method was used to improve oil content of sunflower seeds (Coban) cultivar. This programme started with progeny test. Individual plants were selected in spring of 2006 continuoly for five selective cycles. Selection was carried out for the best oil content and grain yield on the basis of parent off spring regression for progeny test. Plant performance was preserved by sibbing between the individuals of the same progeny. Results show that selection had anoted impact on oil content, which have been increased from 36.45 to 43.52 %, this increament was 7.07 % as compared to the original community. The genetic gain average for oil content for each cycle was 0.67. On the other hand higher genetic gain was 6.3%, and for each selection cycle reached 3.5%. The average of heritage percentage reached 42.7% for each cycle. The best genotype among the genotype stubied that gave the highest oil content were HCC, HCC9, HCC10. The percentages, however, were 43.96, 43.35 and 43.23% respectively. It is also obvious that selection did not effect significantly the plant highet, seed number and on plant yield.

The Economic Using of Fertilizers on the Wheat Production

Imad A. Al-Sonbul

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

This research aims studding the optimal economic using for varieties levels of nitrogen and sulfuric fertilizers added in field experiment on breads Wheat (class Abu Graib 3) during two seasons respectively at Baghdad University. Application of (60 kg N and 400 kg Sulfur) per hectare resulted the optimal combination with maximize profit which difference from the combination technicians choose (180 kg N and 1200 kg Sulfur) per hectare. Another aim to this research to be application stretch for the econometric researches, include all the crops, agricultural food products and for the agricultural production resources to raise the level of technical field and the agricultural experimental and researches centrals.

Water Crisis and its Influence on Agricultural Sector in Iraq for period 1990-2007)

Bassim H. Al- Badri , Ahmed A. Muhammad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

The scarcity of water resources in Agricultural sector is very critical now. The irrigated agricultural sector in Iraq balled about (85%) from water resources that belongs to the agricultural sector . In the same time there was decreasing in water amount supplying to Iraq from Tigris and Euphrates by the rate (2%), the decreasing in water amount in Tigris was (3.3 %), while the increasing in water amount in Euphrates record annual average growth about (1.81%) in period (1991-2007), this decreasing influence on quality of two rivers water because the salt increasing in both of them. The receptor water rate belong to agriculture in this period was (46.68) milliard cubic meter yearly, and total requirements of water to agricultural purposes was (30.05) milliard cubic meter yearly in study period .The water lost rate were (16.36) milliard cubic meter yearly in (1990-2007).

Economic Analysis of Sunflower Crop in Wasit governorate AL-Kut Province Applicable Model– Field Study 2006

Najah A. Abdulkareem

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:2

Despite the importance of sunflower crop as oil crop and a source for nutritional protein, it still cultured in narrow limit all over the country due to the difficulties that facing its culturing which are represented by heavy and cost serving processes required to produce this crop. So, this study aimed to estimate total production cost function for this crop and calculate the percent of achieved size economics in Wasit governorate for the agricultural season 2006. The estimate results indicated that variable cost had the highest percentage of total crop cost for the studied sample as it represented 90% of the total cost. That was because the items of variable costs included most sunflower production costs since maintenance cost took the first tank (22.1%) followed by fertilizers (19.43%) , then machines and instruments repairing (14.6%) followed by the other items. The first costs represented only 10% of total costs due to the absence of most of their items. The results of this study demonstrated that the typical production size of the crop is 126.06 tons. The country estate possession size of the studied sample ranged from 10 to 300 hectare with none of size classes has the typical production size which is determined by this study. The cubic function was used as it has high significance indicators.