2010, Volume:8 Issue:1


Effect of some soil and water properties on degradation of poles bottoms of transportation lines of electric energy

Yaas K. Hamza , Jamal N. Abdul-Rahman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

Abstract The study was showed that the soils of more studied stations were moderately texture (silty loam, clay loam and silty clay loam) while, the second station was just coarse (loamy sand). Also, the study was showed that the plasticity limits (liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index) increased with increasing of clay content of soil samples in studied stations. The results showed an in crease of electric conductivity (ECe) and percent of soluble salts by increasing of clay content of studied soils. Also, the results showed an increase of concentrations of SO4-2, Cl-, Na+, Mg+2 in more of studied soils, that’s caused accumulation of sodium, magnesium chlorides and calcium, magnesium sulfates beside concrete bottoms of transportation poles of electric energy, that conduct of degradation and failure of it with time. Also, the study showed that the salinity and depth of ground water caused accumulation of salts at soil surface by capillary and because of depth of ground water was at the critical depth of ground water that increasing the salinity of soil surface in the study stations.

Effect of some soil and water properties on degradation of poles bottoms of transportation lines of electric energy

Yaas K. Hamza , Jamal N. Abdul-Rahman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

Abstract The study was showed that the soils of more studied stations were moderately texture (silty loam, clay loam and silty clay loam) while, the second station was just coarse (loamy sand). Also, the study was showed that the plasticity limits (liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index) increased with increasing of clay content of soil samples in studied stations. The results showed an in crease of electric conductivity (ECe) and percent of soluble salts by increasing of clay content of studied soils. Also, the results showed an increase of concentrations of SO4-2, Cl-, Na+, Mg+2 in more of studied soils, that’s caused accumulation of sodium, magnesium chlorides and calcium, magnesium sulfates beside concrete bottoms of transportation poles of electric energy, that conduct of degradation and failure of it with time. Also, the study showed that the salinity and depth of ground water caused accumulation of salts at soil surface by capillary and because of depth of ground water was at the critical depth of ground water that increasing the salinity of soil surface in the study stations.

Effect Of Irrigation Depth and Foliar Application of Zinc Upon Some Growth Indicators Of Corn (zea mays L.)

Naif. M. Fayadh , Fawzy M. Ali , M. Al-Kubiasi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

Afield experiment had been carried out in autumn -2006 to study the effect of irrigation depth and foliar nutrition application of Zinc on some growth for the spicies Zea mays L.var IPA 5012. A factorial experiment was applied according to Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates .The experiment included two treatments namely; irrigation (I) with two levels (I1 and I2). The I1 treatment received enough irrigation in germination and maturing stags which equal (130 and 150) mm respectively, but received deficient irrigation in vegetation and flowering stags which equal (180 and 140) mm respectively. The I2 treatment received deficient irrigation in germination and maturing stags which equal (65 and 95) mm respectively, but received enough irrigation in vegetation and flowering stags which equal (225 and 215) mm rspectively. The second treatment namely Zinc spraying (Zn) which contents three levels (Zn0, Zn1 and Zn2). The Zn0 treatment, is the control (sprayed with water only). The Zn1 treatment in which the plant sprayed three times with 50 mg Zn/ L, and the Zn2 in which plant sprayed three times with 100 mg Zinc/ L. The results showed: that I2 treatment gave the highest growth indicators particularly net weight seed/ ear, weight of one seed and wet weight of plant which shows (15.6, 4 and 12)% increament continuously comparing with I1 treatment. While The Zn1 treatment gave the highest level for net weight seed/ ear, wet weight of plant ,number of seeds in one line and leaf width. The increasing percent were (6.7, 2.3), (16.9, 10.8), (6.7, 1.5), (5.9, 5.0)% in comparesing with Zn0 and Zn2 treatments, continuously. Also Zn2 treatment showed a significant increament in ear length. The increasing percent was 6.8% in comparing with Zn0. I2Zn1 achieved a significant increament in the average of net weight seeds/ ear, and weight of one seed. Also interaction of Zn1 with I1 and I2 showed a significant increament in the average of seeds number in one line and leaf width.

Evaluation of some Rocks and Clay Mineral in Adsorption of Cadmium from Wastewater of Chemical Complex of Phosphate in Iraq

Akram A. Al-Hadethi , F. M. Al-Greary , A. M. Al-Z

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

The presence of high concentration of cadmium (Cd) in the by-product treated wastewater of phosphate industry in west of IRAQ caused real heavy metal pollution for soil, water resources, and crops in the area. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effective method to reduce cadmium concentration of treated wastewater. Four locally available materials namely rock phosphate, bentonite clay, lime and silicate rocks were evaluated as cadmium adsorbing agents. Effect of weight and piratical size in Cd adsorption capacity of each material were also evaluated. Results showed that adsorption capacity of the tested materials in the following order: rock phosphate> bentonite clay> lime> silicate rocks. Results also showed that the that the best size making higher adsorbing is < 0.1 mm, then 0.1 – 0.5 mm and then 0.5 – 1.0 mm. Also, the amount of Cd adsorbed by each material increase with the increase of weight of adsorbing material added per unit of wastewater. Amount of Cd adsorbed in relation to weigh of material added is in the following order: 0.5 gm > 0.25 gm > 0.1gm. While the adsorbing decrease with the increase of material particle size. Also First order equation was the best fit equation which is described the adsorption of cadmium in four tested materials, particles size and weights of materials added.

Chemical study for three Iraqi truffles types

Ali A. Al-Rawi , Amal M. Taha

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

The chemical composition and nutritional quality of three types of truffles were studied. Samples collected from Al-qaim and Hadytha , are Terfezia boudieri (black truffles), Terfezia claveryi (brown truffles) and Tirmania nivea (white truffles). The results could be summarized as follows: The truffles could be considered nutritionally as a good source for protein, fats and ascorbic acid . and the results also showed the range 23.0–26.1% protein, 3.1–6.9% fat, 6.8–12.9% cured fiber, 5.2–6.1% ash and 1.5–4.9 mg. 100 g (truffle) ascorbic acid for Al-qaim truffles and for Hadytha 23.1–25.3% protein, 3.5–6.5% fat, 6.5–11.3% cured fiber, 4.1–6.3% ash and 1.8–4.8 mg. 100g (truffle) ascorbic acid. The types of truffle were higher in: protein (T. n. > T. b. > T. c.), fat (T. n. > T. b. > T. c), cured fiber (T. n. > T. c. > T. b.), ash (T. b.>T. n.>T. c.) and ascorbic acid (T. b. > T. c. > T. n.). The truffles could be regarded as a good source for essential amino acids.

Effect of seeding rate, Nitrogen levels and rate of application of herbicides on growth of bread wheat

Reasan K. Shati , Sabiha H. Al-Lami

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

A field trial was conducted at the experimental farm, Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib in 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 seasons to investigated the effect of seeding rate (120, 180 and 240 kg.ha¬2), nitrogen levels ( 240, 300 and 360 N kg.ha-2) and rate application of herbicides (Topic 250 gm a.i ha-1+ Logran 125 gm a.i ha-1 and Topic 500 gm+ Logran 250 gm a.i ha-1). A randomized complete plot design (RCBD) according to split – split plot was used with three replications. The following results could be summarized as follow : Rate seeding 240 kg.ha-1 gave a high value of leaf area index (6.1 and 6.9) dry weight of crop (509.6 and 670.4 gm.m¬-2), rate growth of crop (41.0 and 46.0 gm.m¬-2.day-1) and net assimilation rate (5.7, 6.0 gm.m¬-2.day-1)in the two seasons respectively. In both seasons 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 and at all stage growth of plant especially at stage 102 day from date planting. The high level of nitrogen fertilization 360 kg.ha-1 caused increasing of most characteristic as leaf area index, dry weight of plant, rate growh of crop and net assimilation rate. The treatment recommendation of Topic and Logran at first season gave high value of leaf area index (6.1) and rate growth of crop (41.9 gm.m-2 day) at second season. The treatment of full recommendation of rate application of Topic and Logran gave high value of leaf area index (7.5) and dry weight of plant (484.4 gm.m¬-2.day-1). Rate of seeding 240 kg.ha-1 with 360 kg.N.ha 1 gave in both seasons high value of leaf area index 6.6, 7.2 dry weight of crop (699.2, 597.2 gm.m-2) and rate growth of crop (43.7 and 47.7 gm.m-2.day-1) respectively.The treatment recommendation of Topic and Logran with nitrogen fertilization 360 kg N.ha-1 at first season gave high value of leaf area index 6.6 but at second season gave full recommendation high value 8.0. From these results we can conclusion that the wheat is positive response to study factors, so we can use competition method to control a weed, instead of herbicide in order to keep clean environment.

Response of Growth, Yield and yield Quality of Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) to planting method and Distance Between Hills

Sana K. Hasan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

A field experiment was implemented in Al–Garma, Al–Anbar province during fall season, 2004 to assess the effect of planting methods (redges and rows) and distances between hills (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 cm) on some growth, seed yield and yield quality of Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) local cultivar. Split-plot arrangement was used according to randomized complete block design with four replicates. The results obtained were as follows. Redge method was the superior in growth traits, number of pods/plant (59.37 pods), 100 seed weight (3.49 g), seed yield (1479.89kg/ ha), protein yield per area unit (462.83 kg/ ha) compared with rows method (50.09 pods/ plant, 3.37 g/ 100 seed, 1193.06 kg seed/ ha, 370.56 kg protein/ ha). While rows method was superior in number of seed per pod. The two methods were not significantly differed from each other in harvest index and protein ratio of seed. Increasing the distance between hills led to significant increase in all studied traits except harvest index, which significantly increased in narrow distance (5 Cm). Planting distance of 25 cm had the highest averages of growth traits, number of pods/ plant and protein ratio in seed, While the distance of 20 cm had the highest averages of number of seed/pod, 100 seed weight, seed and protein yields per area unit. Interaction between planting method and distance between hills significantly effected in most growth traits, yield and yield quality. Plants in redges under effect of 20 cm distance gave the highest dry matter yield, seed yield and protein per area unit, whereas the lowest averages of these variables was obtained from plants sowing in rows under the effect of narrow distance (5 cm). From this study, it can be concluded that the highest seed and protein yield were achieved using redge method with 20 cm distance between hills.

The Genetic Analysis of Combining Ability, Gene Action and Estimation of Some Genetic Parameters for Corn

Abdul-Majyd A. Al-Rawy , Abed M. Al-Jumaily ,

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

A field trial was carried out on the Field Crops Research Station of State board of Agricultural Research Abu-Ghraib. Five inbred lines of maize were used in this study using full diallel cross in spring season in 2008 to produce twenty F1 crosses. Seed crosses were grown in a randomized complete block design with three replicates in fall season 2008. The objective of this study was to identify and select superior maize inbred lines based on their performance as well as to evaluate their single-cropss hybrid performance based on results of analysis of combining ability, gene action and estimation of some genetic parameters using the approach of Griffing (1956b) the third method with fixed model. The results of statistical analysis showed that there were highly significant differences among crosses for all the studied traits except the number of ears/ plant was not significant. Results of genetic analysis showed that the MSgca, MSsca, and MSrca, were high significant in all studied characters except for number of rows/ ear in (GCA) and for days to 50% silking and number of rows/ ear were not significant added for ear length was significant in (RCA). Indicating the importance of both additive and non additive gene action in the control of these characters. The inbred line AGR11 was found as the best general combiner for ear length (0.813), rows number (0.200), number of grains/ row(2.36) and grains yield/ plant(9.58). The best cross (AGR3 x AGR21) and (AGR11 x AGR21). These crosses showed good positive (SCA) effects along with better mean performance (40.9, 196.8) and (41.9, 171.8) respectively for grain yield per plant, and most of the traits. The ratio of (?²gca) to the (?²sca) and (?²rca) was less than 1.0 in all studied characters, except for ear length, number of grains / row and grains yield which was more than 1.0 in reciprocal crosses. The values of dominance genetic variance were more than that additive genetic variance for all characters in diallel crosses, while the values of additive genetic variance were more than that dominance genetic variance except for the ear height, leaf area and number of rows per ear for all charscters in reciprocal crosses. This reflects the exceeded one for the value of average dominance degree for all studied characters in both diallel and reciprocal crosses except for days to 50% silking, ear length, number of grains/ row and grains yield/ plant in reciprocal crosses which was less than 1.0. As for broad sense heritability it was high for all studied characters in both diallel and reciprocal crosses except for days to 50% silking, number of rows/ ear and grains yield/ plant which were low in reciprocal crosses, but narrow sense heritability was low for all studied characters in diallel crosses while it was heigh for most of the traits in reciprocal crosses. The results indicate that some inbred lines could be used in a breeding program to develop new versions of high yield per plant and SCA to produce better grain yield hybrids, and most studied traits were under over dominance gene action. This showed that developing elite hybrids were the best method for improving maize grain yield.

Heritability and Genetic Gain in Maize

Benan H. Hadi , Karyma M. Wuhaib

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This research was conducted at the farms of the Dept. of Field Crop Science/ College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad, during two seasons of 2004. The objective of the study were to assess genetic variance for some characters of maize (Zea mays), and their contribution to yield variation; and the correlation among characters in addition to the heritability and genetic gain of four selection criteria based on the highest yield, harvest index, grain weight, and grain per ear according to each criteria, 100 plant grain seeds were selected and mixed. During fall seasons seeds were distributed among treatments in four replicates according to RCBD whine a split plot arrangements. The characters grain number per ear, dry weight and yield efficiency contributed to the whole yield variance (1998.77) by 27.27 and 270% respectively. These characters gave the highest heritability (0.49, 0.49 and 0.48) and the highest genetic gain (64.15, 64.09 and 63.32) respectively. Phenotypic variance was higher than genotypic for all characters under study. There was a positive genetic correlation between grain yield and other characters. The highest correlation coefficient was found with yield efficiency (0.901), dry weight (0.884), grain number per ear (0.853) and ear number per plant (0.788). The phenotypic correlation was also high (0.84, 0.661, 0.835 and 0.781 respectively). Yield was not significantly correlated with leaf area index (0.085, 0.004, 0.047, 0.0359 and 0.038) respectively. All genotypic values were higher than phenotypic, for phenotypic is controlled by genotype

Effect of phosphorus fertilizer and gibberellic acid on seed and oil yield of Cheiranthus cheiri

Sami K. M. Ameen , Maha I. Salih

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

A stady on the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels and Gibberellic acid (GA3) concentration, on seed and oil yield of Cheiranthus cheiri was conducted. Four levels of P 0.20, 30 or 50 g/ l and three concentrations of GA3 0.50 or 100 mg/ l were applied. Results showed that the highest level of P (50 g/ l) was significantly increased 1000 seeds weight, % of linolic acid and % of olic acid (1.71 g, 17.80%, 9.17%) respectively. While 30 g/ l of P elevated % of olic acid in leaves and seeds weight (4% and 5.74 g) respectively. Gibberellic acid at 100 mg/ l was superior in increasing 1000 seeds weight, % of lenolic acid, % of linolinic acid, % of olic acid and % of total fatty acids (10.07%, 18.49%, 9.33% , 37.92%) respectively. The interaction between P levels and GA3 concentrations was highly effective on % of oil studied.

Effect of Foliar Spray (Al- Nahrain) Fertilizer and Planting Dates on Yield of Two Cultivars of Green Peas (Pisum sativum L.)

Majid A. H. Al- Jumaily , Khudair A. A. Al- Jebou

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

An experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Horticulture Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib, during the winter season of 2000-2001, to study the effect of Nahrain liquid fertilizer and planting dates on the yield of green peas (Pisum sativum L.). Two cultivars of peas (Local and Jof) were included in this study with two seeding dates (1/ 1 and 1/ 11/ 2000) and four sprays from fertilizer were used (zero, one, two, and three) foliar application, using afactorial within split plot design was with three replications. The results showed that local cultivar gave higher results than Jof cultivar in relation to the number of pods/ plant (30.36 and 26.67 pods/ plant), yield/ plant (0.243 and 0.198 kg), early yield (6.96 and 5.80 Ton/ h), total yield (10.80 and 8.80 Ton/ h) and pods weight (9.24 and 8.25 gm). Also the first seeding data (1 October) was superior in early and total yield (9.0 and 10.88 Ton/ h) for two seasons respectively compared to second seeding date (1 november) whic was gaves (3.76 and 8.72 Ton/ h). the response of all foliar application from Nahrain fertilizer was positive and significant ejectively with twice of spray. the double and third interaction the tween factors were significant in all characters study.

Effect foliar spray of potassium and companion Ion on tuber content of N , P and K and quality characteristics of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) CV. Desiree tubers

Mohamed Z. K. Al-Mharib , Fadel H. Al-Sahaf

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This experiment was carried out in the experimental field , Horticulture Department , College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad , Abu-Ghraib , during fall 2006 and spring 2007 seasons using Desiree cultivar potato seeds class (A) in fall season and class (Elite) in spring season. In this experiment the effect of potassium spray and companion ion on tuber content of N , P and K and quality characteristics of potato tubers were tested. Three potassium fertilizers (K2SO4 , KNO3 and KCl) at three concentration (0 (control) , recommended 5 g K2SO4 / l, 5.80 g/l KNO3 and 4.28 g/l KCl, 1.5 times of the recommended concentration were used where 5 g K2SO4 / l was used as the recommended concentration. Solution of above mentioned salts was foliar applied twice , first 45 days (vegetative growth stage) and second 65 days (tuber bulking stage) after planting. Randomized Complete Block Design was adopted with three replicates. Least significant differences (L.S.D) at 5% probability was used to compare the means. In fall 2006, potassium nitrate treatment at recommended concentration resulted in a highest content of N and K in tubers (1.24% , 2.25% respectively) compared to the control (0.86% , 1.65% respectively) . Potassium sulfate treatment at recommended concentration increased P% in tubers (0.46%) as compared with spraying potassium chloride 6.42 g/L which reached lowest P percentage (0.39%) . In spring 2007, S1 treatment significantly increased N content in tubers (1.24%) as compared with the control (0.91%) while spraying potassium chloride at recommended concentration resulted in highest K% in tubers (3.14%) as compared with the control (1.89%) . In fall 2006 , recommended 5 g K2SO4 treatment had highest percentage of dry weight , starch and specific density (16.51% , 10.75% and 1.062 g / cm3 respectively) compared to the control treatment (14.38% , 8.82% and 1.052 g / cm3 respectively) . In spring 2007 , recommended 5.8 g KNO3 / L treatment resulted in highest percentage of dry weight , starch and specific density (21.05% , 14.76% and 1.084 g / cm3 respectively) as compared with the control treatment (18.75% , 12.72% and 1.073 g/cm3 respectively).

In vitro propagation of Dahlia variabilis

Mohamed A. Salman , Mohamed Sh. Hamad , shaymaa n

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

Several experiments were carried out to propagate Dahlia variabilis throughout tissue culture during period of 2004 to 2005. In tissue culture lab.- Horticulture- College of Agriculture- University of Baghdad. The studies included the effects of type of explants, plant growth regulators, adenine sulphate and seed extraction of Johnson grass. The results indicated that 100% response was achieved when apical shoots and single nods explants were cultured on free MS medium. The highest number of shoots/explant (4.00) were achieved when shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2µM of both BA and IAA. Adding of 60 mg/l adenine sulphate to the medium increased shoots number to 6.80 with 7.27 cm length. The addition of 300 ml/l of alcoholic extract from immature seeds of Johnson grass increased shoot number ( 2.50 shoots/explants), while modifying the medium with 200 ml/l of water extract of mature seeds of Johnson grass was superior on shoots length (7.76 cm). The highest root number/explant (5.00) and length (5.00 cm) were achieved when MS medium supplemented with 3 µM IBA. Shoots cultured on half MS salt strength supplemented with 45 g/l sucrose and 3 µM of IBA gave the highest number and length of roots (8.00 roots/explants, 10.40 cm). A 100% success of acclimatized of plantlets was achieved when they were planted in 1:1 peatmoss and loam under controlled humidity.

Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Nigella Sativa L. (Black Cumin) on some physiological Traits and Enzymes of Broiler chicks (Hubbard Type)

Hamyd A. Dekeel , Ali H. AlHillali , Walid I. AlJ

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

The effect of feeding different level of Nigella sativa L. on blood constituents on Hubbard broiler chicks were studied. An experiment with 150 days old chicks was conducted from one to 56 days of age, there were five dietary treatment groups, (control group) and 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8% of Nigella sativa L. represented by (T1, T2, T3, T4) respectively, Results showed that increasing of Nigella sativa reduced plasma cholesterol and Triglycerides and the adding of Nigella sativa L. caused increased in total plasma protein and improved in blood picture (RBC, Pcv and Hb), the inclusion of different levels of Nigella sativa L. failer to effect on GOT and GPT enzymes in blood.

Effect of supplementing ground Blackseeds (Nigella sativa L.) and garlic (Alium sativa) powder to the diet on some production traits of broiler chickens

Ahmed K. Al-ani , Maad A. Albaddy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 1% black seed and/or garlic powder on some productive traits. The transactions were as follows: The first treatment (T1): Diet comparison, free of any additives. Second treatment (T2): the addition of 1% of the seeds of the Nigella sativa. Third treatment (T3): the addition of 1% of powder Alium sativa to dietary. Fourth treatment (T4): the addition of 1% of the Nigella sativa and 1% of powder Alium sativa to dietary. Atotal of 300 day old,nonsexed Ross broiler chicks, were allocated into four treatment groups with three replicates each one (25 chicks/replicate),during all the experimental period which is lasted at 42 day old. Results showed thet body weight,body weight gain and feed efficiency were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the birds supplemented with 1%(black seed + garlic powder) in comparison with other treatments.However,black seed,and garlic powder groups(1% of diet) surpasses control groups with relation to all traits included in this exeriment mortality percentage,and feed intake were not significantly differenced between the treatment groups.

Effect of Adding Different Concentrations of Thymus vulgaris and Curcuma longa in the Ration on Productive Performance of Broiler

Mothana A. Al-Noori

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This experiment aimed to study the effect the adding different levels of thymus vulgaris and curcuma longa powder in the diet on the productive performance of broiler chicken . A total of 225 day old, non sexed Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatment groups assumed of : control group (T1) , T2 and T3 treatment, supplemented with thymus vulgaris powder to birds diet at the levels of 0.5 and 1.0 % of diet, respectively . Treatment 4 and T5 supplemented with curcuma longa powder to birds diet at levels of 0.5 and 1.0 % of diet respectively . Results revaled that, the addition of different levels of thymus vulgaris powder (T2 , T3) and one level of curcuma longa powder (T4) to the broiler diet noted in significant improvement as productive characteristics included the body weight and body weight gain as compared to control (T1) and (T5) . The results also revaled that the addition of different levels of thymus vulgaris and curcuma longa powder were significant improvement the feed conversion efficiency and significant decreased in feed consumption as compared to control group. In conclusion, the supplementation of curcuma longa powder at a level of 0.5 % (T4¬) and thymus vlugaris powder at levels of 0.5 and 1.0 % (T2 and T3) to the diet resulted in obvious improvement respecting many aspects of productive performance of broiler chicken. There for , both thymus and curcumin can be used as nutritive supplements in broiler diet to improve productive efficiency of broiler.

Effect of pH on some functional properties of Mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk

Jaber M. Menahel , Firas A. Saleh , Nahla T. Al

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

In this study, three treatments of Mozzarella cheese. Cheeses prepared by direct acidification with lactic, citric and acetic acids to reach pH 5.6, 6.56 and 5.4 respectively and a control prepared by conventional method using cow’s milk were used to study the effect of pH on some functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. Result showed an increase in moisture and soluble nitrogen percent and a decrease in total protein, fat and salt in lactic acid treatment compared with control. Cheese acidified with citric acid showed an increase of moisture with decrease in pH value, while there was no effect on total protein, fat and salt. No difference was noted for cheese made with acetic acid except the elevation in moisture and decreasing in total protein. Organoleptic evolution revealed non significant differences between marks given for flavour, test, body and color in acetic acid treatment. There was a significant reduction in body marks for citric acid treatment and a significant increase in color marks for lactic acid treatment. Use of lactic, citric and acetic acids help to improve body and color of cheese comparing with control

Effect of Trichoderma spp.in inoculium levels on sour orange (Citrus arantium) seed germination and seedling growth

F. H. Abood , M. R. Abood , Hady M. Abood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five inoculium levels (0,2,4,8 and 16 gm/kg ) of three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (T.9,T.26 and T.28) on seed germination and seedling growth of sour orange (Ctrus arantium ) . The results revealed the variation among tested isolated in their effect on sour orange seeds germination as manifested by the period required for germination (PRG) and the percented of germinal . The all tested isolates (T.9,T.26 and T28) )at 2 and 4 gm/kg soil showed significant reduction in PGR (20.3,23.6),(19.6,22.3) and (21.6,26.3) days respectively as compared to (28)days in control treatment ,significant increment in seed germination percentye also was recorded for these inoculium levels (77.3 ,68.6 ) , (80.00 , 68.00) and (73.30 , 73.30) respectively . Inoculium levels more than 8gm/kg soil showed different ability rated from no effect to harmful effect. The results also showed that the tested isolates ( T.9 ,T.26 ,T.28) showed no significantly defference in enhancement seedling growth for all tested growth parameters . The highest increment in plant high rat,root long ,shoot fresh weight ,root fresh weight ,shoot dry weight and root and dry weight when (16,4,16,16,8,4)gm/kg inoculium levels used as compared to both ther tested treatment and control un treated treatment .the optimum inoculation level was varied according to used isolate and tested growth parameter

Effect of planting dates on some agricultural pests on four cotton cultivars in karkok province

Hattam M. Hussain , Wael M. Jasim , Jasim K. Moha

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of planting date on some agricultural pests on four cotton cultivars in the region of Karkok during the growing seasons of 2000 and 2001.Results showed that planting date and cotton cultivar had an obvious influence on pest infestation which was too low except for whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gen and the leafhopper Asymmytrasca decedents (Boali) during both seasons. The lowest population density was 8 individuals/5 leaves recorded on Lashata cultivars planted in 1/4/2000. The highest number of insects was16 idividuals/ 5 leave on Kocker cultivar . The lowest and highest general means were recorded for1/4 and 15/4/2001 planting dates respectively. As for the second growing season , the number of whiteflies and leafhoppers showed no significant differences in most cases. The general means were 7.1 and 1.0 individuals/5 leaves respectively recorded on Lshata cultivar.. The spiny bollworm Erias insulana Boisd was almost absent during both seasons except for the last reading of September for the growing season of 2001. The lowest percentages of infestation was about 9% on Kocker and Marsumi cultivars planted in 1/4/2001 and the highest percentages was 20% recorded for the same cultivars planted in 15/4/2001. The feasibility of utilizing these results in the management and production practices of cotton in Iraq was discussed.

Identification of a strain of cucumber mosaic virus from the bean in Iraq by biological and serological techniques

Layla J. Sabir

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This study was undertaken to identify a strain of cucumber mosaic virus infected bean Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto. Symptoms on indicator plants and of serological tests (double immuno-diffusion & Immunostrip-ELISA) were used to justify this goal. Symptoms manifested on bean and indicator plants indicated the presence of a strain B of cucumber mosaic virus (B-CMV). Partial purification of the virus isolate from N. tabacum cv. Rustica was achieved by precipitating the virus by 50% (w/v) ammonium sulfate. The absorption ratio at 260/280 nm of the purified preparations was found to be 1.7. The yield of the purified virus was 220 mg of virus/kg of plant leaves. An antiserum for the isolate with a titer of 1/512 was obtained by 4 intramuscular injections of purified virus at 2.6 mg/ml in a rabbit. Precipitation lines between wells containing the antiserum of the virus and those containing purified virus or extracts from infected plants by double immuno-diffusion test on agarose gel were appeared.

Compatibility Between nutrient Elements and Salicylic Acid For Induced Systemic Resistanes Against Pythium aphanidermatum on Cucumber Seedlings Damping– off

Alaa K. Hassan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This Study was conducted to evaluate the compatibility between nutrient element and fungicides to induced systemic resistance against damping– off of cucumber seedlings incited by Pythium aphanidermatum, under greenhouse condition. It was found that integration between Ridomil 2.5 G with salicylic acid and silicon or calcium nutrient and Beltanol with salicylic acid and silicon ,and salicylic acid with silicon significantly reduced damping off and disease severity to 0.00, 1.66; 0.00, 6.66; 0.00, 6.66 and 0.00, 3.33% respectively, Compared to control treatment (Pathogen only) which caused 86.66, 85.00% respectively. Over that, these treatments caused significant increase in dry weight of shoots and roots. These results revealed to apply fungicide and nutrient element in IPM program to control the pathogen.

Mortality factors on the hibernating larvae of the corn borer Sesamia cretica Led. (Phalaenidae: Lepidoptera)

Hameed H. Al–Karboli

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This study was conducted on the hibernating larvae of the corn borer, Sesamia cretica Led. after the harvest of sorghum crop at the experimental fields of the college of Agriculture in Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad of the fall season 2008. Laboratory results showed the isolation and identification of two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin, Verticillium lecanii, the bacteria Bacillus subtilis and the Ichneumonid wasp Coelichneumon sp. (Ichneumonidae: Hymenoptera) from the hibernating larvae of the corn borer S. cretica which considered to be as a new records on the corn borer in Iraq. Symptoms of the infection on hibernating larvae begans on January and continued till the emergence of the first generation of the borer. Laboratory inspection of 706 hibernating larvae showed mortalities of 7.22%, 0.70%, 0.99% and 0.42% for entomopathogenic fungi, bacteria, Ichneumon wasp Coelichneumon sp and for unknown reasons respectively, However fungal parasitism was considered to be the most important and could have a role as a mortality factor for the hibernating larvae that decrease adult emergence from the hibernation. Results of the pathogencity test of M. anisopliae on different stages of the borer revealed that fungus suspension caused significant and high mortality rates on eggs, reaches more than 98% after 3 days of treatment. Mortality of the fifth instars' larvae after 6 days was 23.3%. Percentage of treated larvae reached pupal stage was 63.3% compared with 90% for the control treatment. However pupal stage found to be less sensitive to pathogen infection, mortality rates found to be decreased to only about 6.6%. The possible use of the entomopathogenic fungi M. anisopliae after its formulation as a biocontrol agent for the corn stem borer and other insect pest was also discussed.

Effect of over wintering types on the activity of the honey bee and the infection by the fungis

Mohamed A. Alkinani , Rady F. Al-Jassani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This study was carried out in three different apiaries close to Baghdad city (Abou Graib, College of Agric. Kan dhari) with 18 colonies of honey bee in each location during 1999-2000) season. Result showed that the fungus Aspergillus flavus was responsible for the dark wax frames during the over wintering. Farther, the differences of the over wintering conditions effected the numbers of the infected frames by fungi in these locations. The colony with one or two layers which was uncovered had low number of infected frames with large brood area. While the colonies with one or two layers which covered with polister and Jute resulted large number of infected frames with low brood area. There lore, the colonies with one or two layers which were uncovered showed better performance and passed overwintering successfully under Baghdad city environmental conditions.

Evaluation of the efficiency of luring food and colored traps in attracting Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephretidae)

Raghad K. Al-Jobory , Rady F. Al-Jassani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

This study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of Luring and colors traps in attracting and catching the adult of med. fruit fly Ceratitis capitata in citrus orchards in Baghdad and Salah Eldeen provinces during planting season 2008. Results indicated that different traps have had different effect to attract the adult flies. The New fly luring bait was more effective than the Dap fertilizer bait; higher numbers of flies were caught in the case of first bait in both locations respectivety. On the other hand a less number of flies were caught when Goldben bait and vinegar bait were used. None of adults had been caught in control treatment.As for colored traps, there was a significance variation. The Yellow and white traps seemed to have a good attraction for flies. Whereas the orange, green, and blue traps had no attracting effect. According to the results of this study the (New fly luring bait) and (Dap fertilizer) placed in yellow and white traps would be recommended against this pest within an IPM programmed.

Effect of Tobacco and Sulpur powders for the control of lesser date moth Batrachedra amydraula. Myer. Cosmopterygidae: Lepidoptera on the Khastawi cultiva

Khamees A. Aliwey , Tarik M. Al-Fahdawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

The lesser date moth Batrachedra amydraula .Meyr. is considered a major pest of date palm in many places of the world including Iraq causing significant economic losses. A field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Tobacco powder, Sulphur powder and their mixture on the lesser date moth infesting khastawi cultivar close to saglawia region in Al-anbar province during the spring season of 2008 . Results revealed that a better control was obtained with the Tobacco powder and it,s mixture with Sulphur, at one week, two weeks, and three weeks after treatment. The general means were (11.7, 12.7, 24.7%) for the three treatments respectively compared to (21.1%) in the control treatment.

Cost/ Benefit analysis of dusts seed dresing on three genotypes of corn (Zea mays L.) with difference resistance to common smut disease on corn

Abdulrazzaq Y. Al-Zwobaie

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:8 Issue:1

The economic:cost/ benefit analysis of seeds dresing with two fungicides(vitavax and Divideend) with three genotypes of corn Zea mays L.possising difference resistance to common smut disease on corn caused by Ustilago maydis (Shahad highly.IPA5012, moderate and Neelum susceptable), Factorial Experimenta in RCBD design was used. The cost , benefin and the ratio between them was calculated for ech fungicide treatment. Results midcated economic benefic for all fungicides even with highly resistant caltivar (2100dha)whit vitavax (2400dha).Result were also indicated that the benefit of the first fungecids was(4513 D) compard to (2726 D)for the second. The ratio of susceptible to resistance genotype treated with fungicide was very switable 1:3.5 which indicate that the first fungecides was very switable for seed dressing for all genotype tested.