2011, Volume:9 Issue:1


Effect of spraying boron on growth and yield of three varieties of cotton Gossypium hirsutum L.

Raad L. Aboud , Fahdel R. Othman , Mohammed A. A

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Field experiment was conducted during the spring season of 2008 in the fields of Mosul Technical Institute Cotton research unit to study the in pact of spraying boron in different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mg. g-1) on three varieties of cotton plant (Ashore, Lashata & cooker 310) for cotton yield addition components of spraying boron was applied in three times: first spray was stated with the stage of vegetative growth after 45 from planting, where the second applied with the stage of vegetative and flowering buds after 75 from planting, and the third spray after two weeks from the second spray. The result of the study showed that the Lashata variety was significantly dominated the other studied. Varieties in terms of plant height, number of vegetative and fruiting branches, number of open bolls and technological changes varieties which are: boll weight, seeds index, lint index, hair weight and total cotton yield: 107.1 cm., 18.46, 4.64, 41.9, 4.54 gm., 8.08, 5.78, 622.1 kg/ d. and 4.53 ton/ h. respectively. The responses was obvious in high concentration of boron used for the three studied varieties .

Evaluation of water distribution patterns for sprinklers in sprinkler irrigation system

Moatasim D. Aga

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This experiment was conducted at Al- Sheri khan which located North of Mosul to study the effect of the irrigated area (144,216 and 270) m2 ,the shape of irrigated area (square, rectangular and triangle ) and the the riser height 0.6, 0.9 and 1.6 m on all of coefficient of uniformity (CU%) and Distribution uniformity (DU%). Results indicated that clear differences at the three treatments. The smallest area 144 m2 gave highest coefficient of uniformity (CU%) and Distribution uniformity (DU%) 77.16% and 62.97% respectively. Also the area (square shape) was superiority compared with another shapes, and gave the highest (CU%-- DU%) with increased ratio 27.93%-- 45.59% respectively. The increasing in riser height 0.6, 0.9and 1.6m gave the highest values of (CU%-- DU%), and the 1.6m riser height gave 71.74and 59.85% (CU%--DU%)compared with riser height 0.9—0.6m respectively with clear increasing 10.65-18.98%.

Evaluation of water distribution patterns for sprinklers in sprinkler irrigation system

Moatasim D. Aga

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This experiment was conducted at Al- Sheri khan which located North of Mosul to study the effect of the irrigated area (144,216 and 270) m2 ,the shape of irrigated area (square, rectangular and triangle ) and the the riser height 0.6, 0.9 and 1.6 m on all of coefficient of uniformity (CU%) and Distribution uniformity (DU%). Results indicated that clear differences at the three treatments. The smallest area 144 m2 gave highest coefficient of uniformity (CU%) and Distribution uniformity (DU%) 77.16% and 62.97% respectively. Also the area (square shape) was superiority compared with another shapes, and gave the highest (CU%-- DU%) with increased ratio 27.93%-- 45.59% respectively. The increasing in riser height 0.6, 0.9and 1.6m gave the highest values of (CU%-- DU%), and the 1.6m riser height gave 71.74and 59.85% (CU%--DU%)compared with riser height 0.9—0.6m respectively with clear increasing 10.65-18.98%.

Effect of urea and superphosphats fertilizer and its thier interaction in some chemical properties of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

Sabah S. Al-Ani , Abbas J. Al-Saedi , Suha D. Tw

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

An experiment was carried out by using post in kalar horticulture Station / Sulaimania province on soil taked from once region sields during growing season of 2008-2009. The objective was to study adding increasing levels of urea fertilizer which is ( 0.0, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80 ) gm /Pot and superphosphate fertilizer which is ( 0.0, 0.24, 0.48 ) gm / pot in some chemical properties of grain for wheat I P A 95. This experiment was carried out by completely randomized design (C. R. D) with three replications. Results in dictated of clear increase in all the studied characteristics (concentration for each nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium and carbohydrate percentage with increasing levels of fertilizers).

Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on some growth characteristics for corn genotype (Zea mays L.)

Fhadel H. Mukhlif , Ahmed R. Al-Rawi , Omar A. Al

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

A field experiment was carried out in two seasons (autumn and spring) respectively in College of Agriculture University of Al - Anbar to study effect of nitrogen levels on some growth characteristics for six genotypes under different level of nitrogen Split plot design in R.C.B.D. with three replicates. Nitrogen fertilizer levels in main plot, while genotypes were arranaged as sub_plot .The results indicted that leaf area index and dry weight were a significant differences effect in genotype and nitrogen fertilizer However, the genotype IPA 5012 instrenght in growth where give highest rate to leaf area index amounts (3.922 and 3.830) for two seasons respectively, and excellence the same genotype lpa 5012 and single hybiridize (spiro-440663) in the dry weight, give weight amounts (353.66 and 365.55 gram/ plant) for two seasons respectively.

Effect of Liquorice Extract on yield and Storage life of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jaq: Fr.)

Abdullah M. Abdulhadi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This study was conducted in the cold storage unite in the Dept. of Hort., College of Agric., University of Baghdad starting in 20/ 1/ 2009. The white strain of oyster mushroom was imported from Jordan. The spawn was grown on wheat seeds. Wheat straw was used as substrate. Commercial formaldehyde 2% was used for sterilization of the straw. Plastic bags (30 X 51 cm) was used and 1 kg of moist substrate in each bag used for spawning. The bags were transfered to the incubation room at 25 ± 2ْ c for one month then to the growth room. Humidifier was used to raise the humidity to 80-90% and fluorescence lamps were used to raise light to 400 Lux. Water extract of liquorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra) was used with the following concentration: 0% , 5% , 10% , 15% and 20%. The extract was injected (30ml.) inside the plastic bags using 50 ml. syringe. Injection was done during three stages of growth. The first injection was in the middle of the incubation stage and the second injection was in the begning of the Pinhead stage and the third injection was in the begning of the fruiting body stage. The results showed that treatments with Liquorice root extract during the three stages significantly increased fruiting body weight and total yield and dry yield and the biological efficiency of oyster mushroom. Treatments also reduced the production cycle and increased the percentage of dry matter, and increased the percentage of protein content of the fruiting body. Storage life of the oyster mushroom was improved because of the reduction of weight loss and dry matter loss and protein loss during 15 days of storage at 2 ±1ْ c. Treatments with liquoric extract in the begging of the fruiting body stage reduced the percentage of decay during cold storage. The results of this study showed that the best growing stage for liquorice extract treatment was the beging of fruiting body stage and the best concentration was 20%. Treating oyster mushroom with 20% Liquorice extract in the begging of the fruiting body stage increased fruiting body weight to 15.98 g and increased total yield to 852.8 g/kg of substrate and increased the dry yield to 115.42 g/kg of substrate and increased the biological efficiency to 85.3%.

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Calcium Spraying in Garlic productivity and improve the quality

Faraj M.AmeenFaraj

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This study was conducted at the field of the Department of Horticulture – College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad – Abu Ghraib during the growing season (2005 – 2006)to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization and calcium spraying on growth and yield in local garlic cultivar, The experiment include 9 treatments wich were the interactions between three levels of nitrogen fertilization,[ no fertilization(N0) ,80 kg/ha ( N1) and 160 kg / ha( N2)] and three concentrations of calcium foliar application ,[ no spraying( Ca0) , 2,5 gm ( Ca1) and 5 gm (Ca2)] ,Each treatment replicated three times in Factorial Experimental arrangement with RCBD . The experimental Results showed that interaction ofnitrogen fertilization and calcium spraying (N2Ca2) significantly gave the highest plant height of 54,36 cm , dry weight of Total vegetative of 18,52 gm and the highest average bulb weight of50,85gm and the highest number of cloves per bulb of 33,16 and yield of 15,45 ton / ha-1 .while the lowest values of these parameters were found in the control treatment (N0Ca0). The T.S.S and cloves diameterdid not affected by nitrogen and calcium treatments.

Effect of spraying some organic fertilizers on growth and yield and quality of three potato cultivars

Omar H. Muslah , Sadek K. Sadik , Majed A. Hanshal

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Abstract An experiment was carried out in one of the private fields in Amiriya (10 km south of Fallujah), Anbar province, to study the effect of spraying some organic fertilizers on growth , yield and quality of three potato cultivars during spring season of 2010, seed tubers (class Elite) were planted at 6-2-2010. Plants were spread at 45 days and 65 days from sowing. Use the randomized block design full RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with three replicates, the means were compared according to L.S.D. test at 5% significant level. Spraying of Bepton was superior in plant length 104.44 cm, leaf area 49.86 dm2, chlorophyll 49.18 SPAD unit, number of marketable tubers plant 6.67 tubers, total plant yield 889.1 gm, dry matter 16.88 %, starch 11.56% and specific density 1.0640 g/cm3 , compared with Bihorm solution. Desiree cv. was superior in plant length 114.56 cm, marketable tubers yield plant 630.1 gm, dry matter 15.93 % and specific density 1.0594 g/cm3, compared with Avalon and Arizona cv.

Effects of organic and nitrogen fertilizers on growth and nutrients content for date palm cv. Khastawi Planted in Gypsifrious Soil

N Feraon A. Hussein. A.Sahar , L.KH. Khleawee , K

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This experiment was conducted during the growing season 2009 and 2010 in AL-Falluja date palm research station province fellow general date board/Ministry of Agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of the organic and Nitrogen Fertilizers treatments on vegetative growth characters (length of leaves, length pinnae, chlorophyll contents in leaves and nutrients contents (leaves nitrogen contents, carbohydrate, phosphorus, potassium and C/N ratio) on Khastawi date palm at six years age. Experiment was include four organic fertilizers levels (0 ,10 ,20, 30) kg/tree , and four nitrogen fertilizers levels (0, 200, 400, 600)gm/tree .The experimental results showed : organic fertilizers level (30) kg/tree was significantly on effect length of leaves, nitrogen , carbohydrate content and given highest superior in all parameter mentioned these rates were (205, 229) cm, (0.83, 0.91, 5.30, 5.60) % during both seasons respectively , Than the control treatment losses average these rates were (nitrogen fertilizers level (600)gm/tree gave highest length of leaves, nitrogen These rates were (221, 331) cm, 0.85, 0.96)% during both seasons respectively. The interaction between organic fertilizer and the nitrogen fertilizer showed significant effect on the average of length of leaves and the highest nitrogen, carbohydrate content .The organic fertilizers level (30) kg/tree and nitrogen fertilizers level (600)gm/tree given highest on the length of leaves, These rates were, (240.0 ,258.0) cm (0.95 ,1.08, 5.61, 5.85) % during both seasons respectively , and highest superior in all parameter mentioned. Than the organic fertilizers level (10) kg/tree and nitrogen fertilizers level (200)gm/tree given the losses average length of leaves ,nitrogen,and carbohydrate content. These rates were (197.0, 220.0) cm, (0.83, 0,93 ,5.38 ,5.62) % during both seasons respectively.

The effect of dietary supplementation of L.Arginine to the diet on productive performance of native turkey hens

Walled M. Razuki , Hazem J. Al-Daraji , Mohammed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Abstract This study was conducted at the Poultry Research Station (Abu Ghraib), State Board of Agriculture Research, Ministry of Agriculture for the period from 30 September 2009 to 24 January 2010 to study the effect of adding different levels of the synthetic amino acid L­Arginine (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 %) to turkey diet on productive performance of the native turkey. A total of 60 females, 32 weeks of age were randomly selected from the native turkey stock that breeded in Poultry Research Station (Abu Ghraib). The birds were distributed randomly into 4 treatments. The females were distributed into 12 pens (replicates) with 3 replicates for each treatment, five females were assigned for each replicates (15 females for each treatment). The results showed that treated the birds with L. Arginine resulted in a highly significant increase (P<0.01) in H.D and H.H egg production, egg mass, egg weight, and cumulative eggs number for all periods of the experiment.

Protien Concentration prepared from Poultry by Using Plant Herbs and Studying its Chemichal and Functional Characterstics

Amera K. Nasser

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

A protein concentration was prepared from heads and legs of poultry by using plant herbs, papin enzyme (69.79 unit/mg protein) and distilled water. The highest yield was gotten from plants herbs 32.07% in comparison with that prepared from papin and distilled water 21.00% and 5.75% respectively. The results also showed a significant increase in dissolving rate of the protein prepared by plant herbs 81.40%, while that of the other treatment were 80.46% and for papin and distilled water respectively with the increase of water absorbed and the ability of fat binding which did not differ than the commercial protein. The result s demonstrated that viscosity of protein prepared by different treat was similar 0.765 and 0.77 for plant herbs and enzyme respectively. Foam size of protein prepared by plants herbs was bigger even after 60 mints, while other treatments showed different foam size after 10 mints. Emulsion of protein concentration prepared by herbal plants showed better stability comparison with commercial concentrates.

Effect of supplementation sodium bicarbonate on milk yield and composition and some blood parameters of Damascus goats fed high concentrate diet and restricted roughage

Basem J. Wadi , Refaat A. Salman , Amer M. Ahmad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Sixteen Damascus does were used to study the effect of supplementation sodium bicarbonate on milk yield and composition and some blood parameters of Damascus goats. The does were divided into four equal groups (4does for each group), to receive one of four levels of NaHco3 namely 0, 0.75, 1.25 and 1.75 kg /100kg of concentrate which followed ad libitum to all does and hay were restricted about 20% of concentrate. The experimental period was divided to tow stages, The first 3 weeks was adaptation period and the last tow weeks as experimental period. Rough and concentrate intake and daily milk were recorded daily and milk samples for each does were taken 7 times throughout the experimental stage for chemical analysis. Blood samples were taken in the last day of the experiment. The results indicated significant increases in milk production and fat corrected milk (FCM) with the 1.25 kg of bicarbonates' level. The fat percent was increase with the increasing of bicarbonate to 1.25 kg level. But the solid not fat (SNF) and blood parameters did not affect by bicarbonate addition.

Effect of feeding different levels of concentrate on the yield and chemical composition of milk in Damascus goats in Iraq

A Salym A. Al- Dabbaghmer T. Abdula , Sadek A. Ta

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

The trial was carried out on four groups of Damascus does, each group consists of four does which were isoproductive and their in the third lactation to study the effect of feeding four levels of concentrate (namely 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 or 1.5 kg per 3kg of milk production) on milk yield and composition. The concentrate mixture consisted of 67% ground barley, 20% wheat bran, 10% soybean meal, 2% limestone and 1% salt. A good alfalfa hay as a roughage was fed ad libitum to all does. The group feeding for each group regime was followed. The experimental period was divided to two stages, the first is preliminary 3 weeks and the last two weeks as experimental stage. Roughage and concentrate intake and daily milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples for each does were taken 7 times throughout the experiment period for chemical analyses. The results indicated that there is a significant increase in milk production when concentrate levels was increased in the ration to 1.5 kg/3kg milk, but differences were not significant among the other treatments. The differences of milk fat percentage were not significant between the three first treatments but the differences are significant between the 4th and the other three treatments. The percentages of (SNF) were increased insignificant with increasing of the concentrate levels in the diet. The percentages of milk protein were increased levels between the treatments.

Genetic evaluation of sires and daughters for average daily milk yield in two stations of Holstein cows

Sadi S. Khalaf , Firas R. Al-Samarai

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

A total of 2714 records of average daily milk yield and 2035 records of average milk yield per day of calving interval belonged to Holstein cows maintained at Nasr and Esihaqi dairy cattle over period from 1995 to 2001 were analyzed. The aim is to evaluated sires and daughters genetically according to average daily milk yield and average milk yield per day of calving interval before adjusting for fixed effects and to estimate heritability and repeatability for two traits. The General Linear Model within SAS program (2001) was used to investigate the effects of some factors (season and year of calving, parity, age at first calving, herd and length of lactation) as groups, on average daily milk yield, and also to study the same effects except length of lactation which was changed to length of calving interval on average milk yield per day of calving interval. Component of variance for the random effects was estimated by RMEL method. The Harvey (1991) program was also used to estimate BLUP values for sires and daughters. The overall means of average milk yield was 11.81 kg and the effect of all fixed factors were significant (p < 0.01) except age at first calving which was not significant .whereas means of average milk yield per day of calving interval was 9.24 kg and all fixed factors were significant ( p < 0.01). The heritability and repeatability for average milk yield were is 0.17 and 0.23 respectively, the same parameters for average milk yield per day of calving are 0.14 and 0.23 respectively. There is a wide range in BLUP values of average milk yield estimated %ranged from- 2.37 to 1.33 kg for sires and -4.32 to 4.38 kg for daughters Whereas BLUP values of average milk per day of calving interval ranged from – 0.51 to 1.04 kg for sires and –3.86 to 5.14 kg for daughters.

The effect of oral administration of vitamin. E and selenium on semen quality and viability for awassi rams

Abd Al-Kareem A. Hobi , Ahmed Y. Al-Dulaimi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Abstract This study was carried out at Sheep and Goat Farm that pertaining to the Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the period from October, 2009 to March, 2010 to investigate the influence of vitamin E and selenium on semen characteristics and viability in Awassi rams. Eight rams with average body weight 52 kg and 2-4 years old were randomly divided into 4 equal groups(2rams group).The first group was regard as control whereas groups 2-4 were weakly administration with 200mg vitamin E(1),5600µg/head of selenium(2) and 200mg vitamin E +5600µg of selenium/head (3) respectively.Better (P<0.05) semen characteristics were observed in vitamin E and selenium administered rams as compared with control group. Moreover, group 4 (vitamin E+selenium) was superior (P<0.05) in semen viability in comparison with other experimental groups.

Effect of Vitamins A and E on Some Reproduction Parameters in the Sheep

Amyra S. Al-Slyvany , Abdul-Ellah A. Al-Zubaidi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This study has been carried out in Ninevah Research station at Al – Rashidia General Assembly for agriculture investigations, under supervision of department of animal production –college of Agriculture and forestry. The study was started on July and continued to until December of the year. Thirty six clinically healthy Awasi weand female weaned lambs of four months age were used. They were divided randomly into four groups. The first group was considered as a control group. The second group was given two twise weekly 100-000 I.U. Vitamin A, the third group was given two twise weekly 55 mg of Vitamin E, and the fourth group was treated with 100.000 I.U Vitamin A and 55 mg Vitamin E two times weekly. All the animals were fed a concentrate ration which contained 13.7% protein and 2465 kcal/ kg metabolic energy. Weights of the female lambs were taken monthly up to nine months of age. At the fifth months, blood samples were taken from monthly from the jugular vein of the fasted animals, and the following parameters were measured taken to study the main levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone hormone. At the seventh months of age the rams were used to the estrus was detect, lambs showed the first estrous was registered and its weight was taken. (weight at puberty). The result revealed the following: 1- The mean weight of the weaned female lambs was 23.4 kg. 2- First estrus (puberty) was detected at seven month of age in groups of vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin A and E during the period 26/10/2005 to 8/11/2005. Results also showed that, there were an improvement of conception rate in the group treated with both vitamin A and E (66.66%) followed by group of vitamin A (44.44%), while the control group showed a less conception rate (22.22%) followed by group of vitamin E (11.11%). 3- Results revealed also, that the age at puberty was seven months in the groups treated with vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin A and E. whereas, the age at puberty in control group was eight months. 4- Results also showed that lambs body weights at puberty were 37.87, 35.05, 36.85 kg for groups of vitamin A, Vitamin E and vitamin A and E respectively. Where as the body weight of control at puberty was 34.12 kg. 5- All treated groups with vitamin A vitamin E and vitamin A and E. showed significant increase (p<0.05) in their body weight at ninth month of age (43.69, 43.33, 43.44 kg) as compared with control group (39.50 kg). 6- Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the all the groups, showed significant (p<0.05) of Vit E group on FSH level (0.7980 nanogram/ml plasma from the group treated with vitamin A and control and nanogram/ml. No such differences were obtained in the sixth, eighth and ninth months of age. However, group of vitamin E also showed significant differences (p<0.05) in LH level (1.8532 nanogram/ml plasma) as compared with group of vitamin A and control (0.0660 and 0.0482 nanogram/ml plasma). Results also showed that group of both vitamins A and E had significantly (p<0.05) higher LH level (0.5264 nanogram/ml) than that of vitamin A (0.213 nanogram/ml). No such differences in LH levels were obtained in sixth and eight month of age. Results also showed a significant differences (p<0.05) in progesterone level of group treated with vitamin A vitamin E and group treated with both vitamin (1.2842, 1.5096, 1.1371 nanogram/ml) respectively. As compared with control 0.7378 nanogram/ml in the seventh month, however, group of animals treated with A and E and group treated with vitamin A, showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in their progesterone level. (3.3628, 2.53 nanogram/ml) as compared with group of vitamin E and control (0.2886, 1.1779 nanogram/ml) respectively.

Use of lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. casei to manyfacture therapeutic lebna by centrifugation

Lamees T. Al-Hdeedi , Amer A. Alsheikh

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Three kinds of therapeutic lebna were manufactured using lactobacillus acidophilus (Lb. a) and L. casei, (Lb. c) Each bacteria species was added at 10% separately. Three types of milk were employed, namely, full cream fresh milk, ful cream reconstituted milk and reconstituted skim milk. The chemical changes of the processed products including fat content, titratable acidity and pH were monitored. The totoal soild contents for the three typed milk were unified to about 26%. The changes in fat content for the three types of milk and for both species of bacteria ranged between 0.06 – 5.4 %, 1.0 – 1.3 ml for titratable acidity and pH 4.4 – 4.6. The obtained results showed variation in viable logarithimic counts among milk types and (Lb.a, Lb.c) bacteria. Values ranged between 11.5 – 11.9 /g A of one cycle in logarithimic counts was observed monthly for each drop species and types of milk in 3 months of storage. The investigation also revealed that processing therapeutic lebna from full cream raw milk resulted in better organoleptic taste than product processed from full cream reconstituted milk. The latter exceeded the product manufactured from skimmed reconstituted milk. The investigation also showed that using Lb.c in lebna processing resulted in better results for aroma compared to Lb.a.

Effeetivity of three isolaty of Trechoderma spp. In increaning phosphor and some micronutrients avaliabity

Hamed S. Magir , Usana A. Alwan , Haddy M. Abood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three local isolates of the fungi Trichoderma spp.(T.9,T.26,T.28) in increasing availability phosphor and some micronutrients (Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu) as one of the supposed mechanism of growth enhance. The results revealed the ability of the three tested isolates in increasing the solubility of Rock phosphate and increasing the (P) availability which recorded (0.53,1.34 and 1.57) mg/ L respectively compared to 0.02 mg/L at in control treatment. Results also showed that isolates T.9,T.26 and T.28 soluble of MnO2in broth culture (3.46 ,3.03 and 3.o3 )mg/L and ZnO (37.63, 31.63 and 36.62 ) mg /L as compared to (28.7and 2.3 ) mg/L for two element in control treatment. No increment in Cu and Fe solubility was recorded .

The presence of Pseudomonas spp. bacteria in soil irrigated with wastewater

Rand M. Abdalrahman , Hutaf A. Alsalim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

The effect of treated and untreated wastewater on Pseudomonas spp. bacteria was detected. Soil samples were collected from a cotton cultivated field that divided into five plots which irrigated with different irrigation water : regular irrigation water (W0), well water (W1), untreated wastewater (W2), and two ways treated wastewater (W3,W4). The numbers of Pseudomonas spp. bacteria were significantly high in soil irrigated with wastewater in general (W3, W2, W4 respectively). The differences between these treatments (W3, W2, W4) were highly significant compared to the soil irrigated with well water (W1) and the soil irrigate with regular irrigation water (W0), as the last two treatments (W0,W1) did not differ significantly from each other. The study showed the presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria in the soil irrigated with regular water and well water (W0, W1) and the absence of these bacteria in soil irrigated with waste water. The study also indicates the present of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in the soil irrigated with treated and untreated wastewater (W2,W3,W4) and in large numbers, in addition to their presence (in low numbers) in soil irrigated with regular water and well water (W0,W1). This clarifies the role of using wastewater in changing soil environment and its natural flora.

A study of some physical and chemical characteristics for compost of heterogeneous of cellulose during the fermentation period for mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus

Moustafa N. Al-Heeti , I.A. Assaffii , Moufak M

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

The study was conductedto prepare a compost in a favorable formola for white botton fungi to achieve the best results and to identify the most important masurments that must be taken into account when preparing the compost. The results indicated that the highest temperature during fermentation period was obtaind in the mixture compost (50% wheat straw with 50% reed straw) inoculated with Streptomyces O3 which was reached 32 degree centigrade on the seventh day after the fermentation start. Fermentation period and temperatures were inversely related for all the treatments, and ammonia smell disappeared from wheat straw compost after 30 days after the fermentation start. However ammonia smell continued to 41 days in the mixture compost. Wheat straw compost recorded the highest electric conductivity and total dissolved salts which were 21.30 Ms / cm ; 10.76 g / liter respectively. On the other hand the concentration of hydrogen ion in all composts were between 7.79-8.14 pH.

Evaluation of two methods, the direct method and sweeping– net for sampling of some arthropoda insects associated with foliage of some cotton varieties

Intisar M. Amen Al-Jboory , Musa M. Al– Hasnawy ,

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Afield experiment was conducted at the field of the College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, Baghdad to evaluate the efficacy of two sampling methods, the direct method and the sweeping – net , to estimate the population density of some insects and mites associated with the foliage of three cotton varieties (Abu-Ghraib , Daes and Ashur). A sampling program on a regular basis has been developed during the season. Results showed clear differences in the types and numbers of insects collected in every method way. The main species collected by the two methods were: the whitefly, Bemesia tabaci, leaf hopper, Asymmetrasca decedents and cotton thrips, Thrips tabaci. There were no significant differences in the numbers of the whitefly for the three varieties by the direct method which amounted to (3.89, 4.39, 4.09) individual/ 5 leaves respectively, while there were significant differences when using the sweep– net, in which the highest numbers was recorded on Daes (6.05/ 5 leaves), which/ differed significantly from the numbers on the varieties Ashur and Abu-Ghraib (11.7 and 13.00)/ 5 leaves respectively. There were no significant differences in the numbers of leaf hopper, A. decedents and cotton thrips T. tabaci colleted in every way for the three varieties. The leaf hopper numbers ranged between 15.39 to 16.19/ 5 leaves by the direct method and 1.80 to 1.39/ 10 sweep-net, while thrips numbers ranged between 1.29 to 1.39/ 5 leaves and, 1.19 to 1.42/ 10 sweep– net. In addition to the main insects species collected above, other species collected by the sweep– net alone included: the cotton seed bug, Oxycarenus hyalipennis, bud and flower bug, Crenotides pallidus (Rambur). Among insect predators collected both methods on all varieties the ladybird, Coccinella septumpuntata L., the ladybird with 11– spots, C. undecimpuntata L., numbers of the last species have been higher on Abu– Ghraib variety (1.32/ 5 leaves), compared 0.89 and 0.99/ 5 leaves for the varieties Daes and Ashur respectively. The anthocorid bug, Orius albidipennis (Reuter) numbers were higher on the variety Ashur (1.06/ 5 leaves), compared with (0.79, 0.89)/ 5 leaves on the varieties Abu-Ghraib and Daes, respectively. Numbers of syrphid fly was relatively similar on all varieties and ranged between (2.18– 2.39)/ 5 leaves. The, aphid lion, Chrysoperla sp. and Scymnus sp. Were collected in low numbers from the varieties by the sweeping– net. The possibility of benefit from the use of the two sampling methods for detecting the presence of insect pests and their predators and to assess vital numerical density in cotton fields also discussed.

Field studies on the effects of the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill on the mites Tetranychus urticae Koch. on potato

Luaay K. Alani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

A field study was conducted in the location of the department of Horticulture – College of Agriculture to determine the effect of Beauveria bassiana against the two spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae on potato. The concentrations of B.bassiana used were 1x104, 1x106, 1x108, in addition to the positive control as the pesticide fytoclean and negative control as distilled water. The best response was found at 1x108 of the fungus. The number of mite eggs was reduced from 42.33 in the control to 4.33, 4.67, 3.33 egg/leaf for the three concentration. respectively. Moreover, the mobile stages were also reduced from 26.00 in control to 6.33, 3.67, 2.67 individual/leaf respectively. However, the insecticide fytoclean used as positive control reduced the number of eggs and moving stage to 1.67, and 1.00 individual/leaf. Results of this study indicate the importance of introducing the fungus Beauveria bassiana in the biological control of mites.

Predation efficiency of Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on different stages of jasmine whitefly Aleuroclava jasmini Takahashi on citrus leaves

Hamza K. Al-Zubaidy , Rady F. Al-Jassany , Nidaa

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

The study was conducted in laboratory at 27 ±2ْ C temperature and 60-70% relative humidity to evaluate the predation efficiency for the predator Clitostethus arcuatus on different stages of Aleuroclava jasmini on citrus leaves. The results showed that predator larvae feed on all immature stages of jasmine whitefly and the predation percentage was increased due to an increase in larval age. The average number of preys per predator larva were 1095.6 eggs, 1124.9 crawlers, 803.1 2nd nymphal instar, 360.8 3rd nymphal instar and 122.1 4th nymphal instar, while the duration of development of larvae were 11.3, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3 and 15.1 days when they feed on eggs, crawlers, 2nd nymphal instar, 3rd nymphal instar and 4th nymphal instar, respectively. The predator adults began to search and feed on preys after about one hour of emergence from pupa stage and prey all stages of jasmine whitefly. The average number of preys consumed by each predator adult during ten days were 1599.3, 1137.1, 644.5, 282.0, 156.3 and 120.2 of eggs, crawlers, 2nd nymphal instar, 3rd nymphal instar , 4th nymphal instar and adult, respectively.

Effect of some artifical diets on queen the native queens of Apis mellifera L. (Apidae: Hymenoiptera) rearing in queenright colonies by using Jenter pparatus

T. Al-Ghazaly , Ali S. Al-Aarajy , Aied N. Oueed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

In a field studies were conducted in a private apiary located about 9 Km south of Kufa city. The experiments lasted for two spring seasons. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of some artificial diets on the native queens reared in queenright colonies by using jeter apparatus. The results showed no significance effect of diets was observed on transferred larvae acceptance percentage (TLAP) compared with the control colonies (which fed natural diets, honey and pollen). The TLAP of the test colonies were 21.10 ,21.48 and 5.40 % in colonies fed sucrose solution 50% , hony with date palm pollen and honey with Bee Pro® respectively while it was 35.96% in the control treatment. Hony with date palm pollen showed a significant reduction in days required for queen development, which was 14.91 days compared to 16.16 days in control colonies. A colonies fed, hony with date palm pollen, produced more royal jell per cup in age of 3rd days, which was higher than the rest of the treated colonies , but was not significant.

Using Efficiency of Labor and Capital Resource in the Production Fields on Chicken Meat (Jalawla– Diyala Governorate)

Shayma’a A. K. Al- Roubey , Eskander H. A. Al- K

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

The aims of research to analysis of revenue and cost items to determine the economic efficiency of projects, chicken meat through the application of certain economic criteria for judging the efficiency of projects to conduct their productivity. Have been met the requirements of the research, which needs the data depending on the form-resolution, distributed randomly on a sample of producers of chicken meat in terms of (Jalawla - Diyala Governorate) was 9 projects and is accounted for almost 50% of the population studied. The results showed that variable costs account for approximately 68.5% of the total costs and the fixed costs which represented 31.5% of the total costs. And the results showed too the economic criteria used in assessing the efficiency of resource use for projects of chicken meat, (profit, net cash income, net farm income, return on farm management, return on labor, the total value of the net, net worth) that all categories of tenure has achieved remarkable returns positive except the last category (8.5- 10) thousand birds. In contrast it was found that when applying the standard payback period of capital that the results vary from one category to another. And when calculating the return on investment dinar found that the above was about 2.1 diners at the category (1- 4) thousand birds have been recorded in the last category (8.5- 10) thousand birds a minimum return on investment, as the dinar was about (0.9) diners which reflected negatively on standard net present value and total return and standard management and farming work.

Economics of scale and supply function for projects of rearing lamps in the district of Anbar

Kh. K. Saleem , Mishal Abid Khalaf

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

Generally the meat of sheep and especially for Iraqis people is considered an important and product Moreover it formed significant Cato of Iraqi budgetary who cannot neglect the Iraqi meat of sheep, Therefore the projects which produce this commodity become important. The analyzing costs and determining optimum size of those projects would contribute the rationalization of commodity production to achieve technical and economic efficiency which will get benefits for the producers and consumers. This study aims to estimate the costs of scale for long period to product lamps meat and used them to estimate the perfect size for this project and estimate the supply function of product it showed that the perfect size is achieved by rearing 618 sheep per year and then sold out them when they are 25 kg for one lamp to reach for one project nearly 15106 kg. The minimum cost for the product at the same level from production is a bout 4225 I D per kg . it is showed that the quantity which supply by the producer increasing to reached a bout 19043 kg when the price which may reach for one kg to 12000 ID. This study aims at estimating the costs of scale for long min period for lamps meat and to use them to estimate optimum size for this project and estimate the supply function of this product showed that the optimum size is achieved by rearing 618 sheep per year and then sold out when they are 25 kg for each lamp which reach for each project nearly 15106 kg .the minimum cost for the product would is about 4225 ID per kg. the results showed also that the quantity which is supplied by the producer increasing to reach a bout 19034 kg when the price becomes 12000 ID .

Level of Suitable Extension Recommendions of Field Foliar Application for Vegetables Farmer in AL-Tarmyia District – Baghdad Governorate

Nidhal Salman , Ahlam Talib , Khalida S. Mohamm

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This research aimed to the Level of Suitable Extension Recommendions of Field Foliar Application for Vegetables Farmer in AL-Tarmyia Distrtct – Baghdad Governorate The process of Building the Level of Suitable Scale stages, these stages are: The first: Literatures Folders Extension in field of, Plant Production containing of Fifteen Recommendions .The second: A preliminary Suitable Scale was showed to a group of experts and specialized persons in agricultural extension field to express their opinions about fields and items of the Suitable scale and its fitness. the . .the third: Used the Four Suitable scale consists of: Completely Suitable,Partiall Suitable, Unsuitable, Don’t no. and put degrees of the Four Suitable scale according to: Completely Suitable four degrees, Partially Suitable three degrees , Suitable, Unsuitable two degrees and don’t know one degree. The research population is(650 farmer)in (8 villages). Samples were chosen from both 1.A sample was randomly chosen using the stratified method a percentage of (15%) the numbers are (41 farmer). 2.A sample was randomly chosen a percentage of (50%) the numbers are(4 villages).A questionnaire used to collect dates from the sample. The statistical tools used are the percentages, Half spilt coefficient. This research ended to the Level of Suitable Extension Recommendions of Field Foliar Application for Vegetables Farmer in AL-Tarmyia Distrtct – Baghdad Governorate in the Unsuitable level. The research recommendations that aiming to support the level of suitable, that reflected a positive improving productivity and production of farming system.

Effects of organic and nitrogen fertilizers on growth and nutrients content for date palm cv. Khastawi Planted in Gypsifrious Soil

N. A.Sahar , L.KH. Khleawee , Kh. A. Al-Hamdani

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:9 Issue:1

This experiment was conducted during the growing season 2009 and 2010 in AL-Falluja date palm research station province fellow general date board/Ministry of Agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of the organic and Nitrogen Fertilizers treatments on vegetative growth characters (length of leaves, length pinnae, chlorophyll contents in leaves and nutrients contents (leaves nitrogen contents, carbohydrate, phosphorus, potassium and C/N ratio) on Khastawi date palm at six years age. Experiment was include four organic fertilizers levels (0 ,10 ,20, 30) kg/tree , and four nitrogen fertilizers levels (0, 200, 400, 600)gm/tree .The experimental results showed : organic fertilizers level (30) kg/tree was significantly on effect length of leaves, nitrogen , carbohydrate content and given highest superior in all parameter mentioned these rates were (205, 229) cm, (0.83, 0.91, 5.30, 5.60) % during both seasons respectively , Than the control treatment losses average these rates were (nitrogen fertilizers level (600)gm/tree gave highest length of leaves, nitrogen These rates were (221, 331) cm, 0.85, 0.96)% during both seasons respectively. The interaction between organic fertilizer and the nitrogen fertilizer showed significant effect on the average of length of leaves and the highest nitrogen, carbohydrate content .The organic fertilizers level (30) kg/tree and nitrogen fertilizers level (600)gm/tree given highest on the length of leaves, These rates were, (240.0 ,258.0) cm (0.95 ,1.08, 5.61, 5.85) % during both seasons respectively , and highest superior in all parameter mentioned. Than the organic fertilizers level (10) kg/tree and nitrogen fertilizers level (200)gm/tree given the losses average length of leaves ,nitrogen,and carbohydrate content. These rates were (197.0, 220.0) cm, (0.83, 0,93 ,5.38 ,5.62) % during both seasons respectively.