2018, Volume:16 Issue:1


DETECTION OF THE SOME HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN THE LOCAL BULLS TISSUES IN KIRKUK DURING THE WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS

A. A. Alperkhdrim , M. I. Abdullah and Z. Kh. Khid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

For the purpose of investigating the levels of some heavy contamination metals in muscle, liver and kidney meat for Cattle in Kirkuk governorate in winter and summer seasons, samples were collected randomly from males (aged 16-18 months) from three districts of Kirkuk governorate (Downtown, Daquq and Debs) During the December and February (winter season) and July and August months of (summer season). There was a significant effect (p?0.05) on the factors (meat type, location and season) in the concentration of lead, Kidney meat in the Downtown in the winter season recorded the highest concentration of lead and significant difference (6.678 ppm) The lowest concentration (0.881 ppm) was found in Liver in Winter. The highest concentration level of cadmium in muscle in summer season from Downtown (3.336 ppm), and lowers Concentration of cadmium (2.106 ppm) recorded in kidney from Daquq in summer season. The concentration of zinc in the Liver at the Downtown in the summer season was the highest concentration (140.052 ppm), while the Kidney in the winter season from Downtown recorded the lowest concentration (30.54 ppm). For Copper the liver in the Downtown in the winter season had the highest concentration (24.520 ppm), while the Liver from the Downtown at summer was recorded lowest concentration (2.383 ppm). For Cobalt, in winter season in Kirkuk, the Muscle recorded the highest concentration of cobalt (7.344 ppm), while the lowest concentration was recorded in Kidney the Winter season from Downtown (1.062 ppm). All types of metals recorded levels higher than the internationally accepted limits.

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION AND PROPORTION OF MIXTURES OF ACTARA INSECTICIDE AND GINGER OIL IN THE MORTALITY RATE OF LARVAE OF GREATER WAX MOTH, GALLERIA MELLONELLA L.

S. K. AL- Jamil

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

During this study the toxic effect of Actara and ginger oil of Zingiber officinale, individually or in combination, on the 3rd and 5th instar larvae of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. was investigated. The percentages of mortality of 3rd and 5th instars larval stage exposed to Actara, at concentrations of 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 µl/ larva, after 24 hours exposure were 17.50, 25.00 and 32.50 %, and 10.00, 12.50 and 17.50 respectively. The percentages of mortality of 3rd and 5th instars larval stage exposed to mixture 1:1 of Actara insecticide and ginger oil at concentrations of 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 µl/ larva were 26.60, 40.00 and 50.00% (for 3rd instar), and 20, 26.60 and 33.30% (for 5th instar) respectively, after exposure period of 24 hours. While the mortality of 3rd and 5th instars larval stage exposed to the mixing ratio 1:2 (Actara insecticide and ginger oil) of the same concentrations and same exposure period mentioned previously, were 36.60, 46.00 and 63.30 % (for 3rd instar), and 26.60, 36.60 and 46.60% (for 5th instar), respectively. Whereas in the mixing ratio 1:3 (Actara insecticide and ginger oil) of same concentrations and same exposure period mentioned previously, the mortality (3rd and 5th instars larvae) were 53.30, 63.00 and 90.00 % (for 3rd instar), and 33.30, 46.60 and 63.00% (for 5th instar), respectively. The synergistic ratios for 3rd and 5th instars larval stage exposed to mixtures 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (different concentrations of Actara insecticide and ginger oil), were 1.25, 1.6 and 2.4 (for 3rd instar), and 1.88, 3.50 and 4.01 (for 5th instar), respectively, after 24 hours of exposure. This indicates that a combination of different concentrations of the Actara insecticide with ginger oil produced synergistic effect.

THE ROLE OF THE BIO-FERTILIZER OF LOCAL ISOLATES RHIZOBIUM AND PSEUDOMONAS STRAINS IN REDUCING THE LEVEL OF THE FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATION OF THE PLANT

A. Abd-Al-Hadi , A. S. Mahmoud and B. A. Kanaan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

A field experiment was carryout in the city of Ramadi during 2016-2016 and with full design RCBD For the purpose of knowing the effect vaccination with bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas (Isolated from agricultural soil). In reducing the amount of chemical fertilizers added according to the recommendation of the Ministry of Agriculture, and the results showed the superiority of the treatment of bacteria Rg (Isolation of isolated rhizobium from the leaves plant) with F2 fertilization level (half of the fertilizer recommendation). In the form of plant height on the rest of the transactions and an increase of 33.4% for the comparison treatment, and the treatment of Rg with the level of F2 fertilizer fertilizer and amounted to 82.33 node-1 in the number of root nodes formed at the roots of the plant the Rg treatment with F2 fertilization achieved the highest weight of the root contract of the plant when compared with the control treatment of 239.6 mg-1 The total yield was 109.4% for the treatment of Rg with the F2 fertilization level of the comparison treatment, while the concentration of N and P in the vegetative group of 2.75% and 0.28% for the treatment of Rg and Ps were isolated at the F2 fertilization level respectively. The concentration of N and P in the soil was 58 mg / kg -1 soil and 7.86 mg / kg -1 soil for treatment Rg and Ps at the F2 fertilization level on the relay.

USE OF PCR TECHNIQUE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF RHIZOBUIM AND PSEUDOMONAS BACTERIA THROUGH THE GENETIC SEQUENCE OF DNA USED AS A BIOLOGICAL VACCINE FOR FABA BEAN

A. Abd-Al-Hadi, A. S. Mahmoud and B. A. Kanaan

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Soil samples containing bacteria were collected from the area rhizosphere area for several leguminous plants and were initially identified as rhizobium nodal bacteria collected from the roots of the leguminous plants of Rb bead band , Re bekea and Rg jat. Pseudomons were isolated from the soil as isolates were used as a bacterial biological vaccine for the The effect of these isolates on the plant of the rest was higher. The treatment of Rg was higher in nitrogen status in the plant and soil. The ratio of the increase was higher than the comparison treatment78.51 % 111.5% on the sequence. The treatment Ps exceeded phosphorus in the plant and soil with an increase of84% and 71.7%on the sequence, Experiment conducted t Djerba diagnosis using PCR technology for the purpose of knowledge of the DNA sequence, as they were classified within the global genetic tree and obtained four sets of genetic diagnosis as the first group with a similarity of 95% of the isolates R.legumiosarum R.sp and the second group and the third proportion of 97 % Of the Japonicum phaseoil isolates and the fourth group had a 99% isolation ratio of P.floureceni.

THE SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOME SOIL PROPERTIES For Al- HAFFAR EAST PROJECT - AL-DEWANA PROVINCE BY TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

M. K. AL-Riffay and A. T. Noman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

This study was done on semi-detailed soil survey map of east AL-Haffar project, which located in AL-Dewana province between longitudes 44° 51- 00= - 44° 38- 00= and latitudes 33° 38- 00= - 33° 57- 30=. The project total area was 50000 ha, which survived in 2015 by ministry of water resources /the ecological studies department, included 92 Soil pedons, the traditional method was done with a constant distance of 750m were involved all studies pedons. The spatial variability of some physical, chemical and Morphological properties of these soils were studies, using time series analysis . The results were as follow, the statistical models that are appropriate to describe the soil properties variation. The most frequent was ARMA and autocorrelation coefficient for soil properties was lower than in case of dependence or random lows, which required more samples relying on the autocorrelation of the soil properties was weak (less than 0.5 ) and required more samples in the random status.

ROLE OF SOME ORGANIC AND MINERALS MATERIALS ON REMOVALS OF HEAVY METALS OF SEWAGE AND ITS EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF CORN IN TOW CALCAREOUS SOILS

A.A. Hassn and H. S. Muthen

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

A study was conducted in the Collage of Agriculture/University of Baghdad-Abugraib the alternative location for the University of Anbar during the spring 2017, to evaluate the efficiency of some materials organic and mineral in treating sewage from heavy metals and its effect on some soil characters and growth of corn plants (Zea Mays L.). Eexperiment was done using tow types soil clay loam and loam using pots to study the effect of using treated sewage with Phosphate rock, Bentonite, Peat moss and Soil and the untreated sewage and river water. Treated sewage prepared by making columns of materials used for treatment with 40 cm depth, then sewage mixed with heavy metals (concentration of 10 mg. L-1) poured through the column from the top and then filtered water collected and used to water corn plants where pots were watered according to treatments. At the end of the experiment some phenotypic growth indicators were measured and heavy metals concentrations measured in green leaves and in soil. experiment results showed Plant height was increased in both soils when irrigated with sewage treated with phosphate rocks and sewage treated with organic matter and the percent was 20.85 and 6.62 for both soils compared to untreated sewage. Significant difference in plant height recorded for plants irrigated with sewage treated with phosphate rocks by percent of 7.54% compared with plants irrigated with river water Plant dry weight was increased for maize plants watered using sewage treated with phosphate rocks, peat moss, bentonite and soil and the rate of increase was 45.61, 12.51, 17.77 and 4.68 % respectively compared to the dry weight when untreated sewage used. Cadmium concentration was increased as a result of using untreated sewage for irrigation compared to cadmium concentration in the soil. Differences in (Cd, Pb and Cu) concentration between treatments where it was reduced in soil when watered with sewage treated by phosphate rock. Cadmium, couplet and Copper concentration in leaves reduced by irrigating using sewage treated with phosphate rock, bentonite, peat moss and soil compared to irrigation treatment with untreated sewage for both soils.

EVALUATE THE ROLE OF WASTE REACTION(pH) ON THE CONCENTRATION OF CD, PB AND CU

A.A. Hassn and H. S. Muthen

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

A study was conducted in the collage of agriculture/ University of Baghdad- Abugraib the alternative location for the University of Anbar during the spring 2017, to evaluate. the impact of pH on heavy metals concentration (Cd+2, Pb+2 and Cu+2) in sewage, eight different pH values were prepared (7.5, 8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5, 10.0, 10.5 and 11.0) or each studied metal which has to be added to the sewage with concentration of 100 mg. L-1. Solutions were shaked and filtered using filter paper, and the metal concentration was measured using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Obtained results presented that rising sewage pH led to reduction of heavy metals concentration, highest reduction was for the two elements cadmium and couplet where their concentration decreased to 55% at pH of 11.0, while the copper gave 53% at the same pH value for sewage.

EFFECT OF BACTERIAL AND MYCORHYZA BIOFERTLILIZERS AND MINERAL RECOMMENDATION LEVELS ON GROWTH AND YEILD OF POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L.)

S. M., Abed ,F. M. Ali and I. A. Abed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Field experiment was conducted in Al-jazeera region-Albuassaf at spring season 2017 in silty loam soil to know the role of A. chroococcum and G. mossae in bio-fertlilizer individulty , mixed and inter feransce bio-fertlilizer with meniral fertilizers on Potato growth and yield Burren class. Results showed that biological bio-fertilizer with increased some vegetation growth parameters (height, Aerial stalks, Numbers, Dry weight, potato yield and total potatoes yield), Quality parameters (percentage of Dry material, starch and protein), The interaction in the studied factors gave increasing in vegetation Azotobactor, Mycorhyza and Meniral fertilization individualy significantly growth and quality and quantity properties of potato. The tri interaction between biological bio-fertilizer with A. chroococcum and G. mossae and Meniral fertilization gave the highest values in vegetation growth quantity and quality properties of yield for all he studied treatments compared with Dry, individual and control treatments which recorded highest mean at level 75% of fertility with Intermixed bio-fertilizer of Aerial stalks number, Dry weight of vegetation part which reached 7.33 stalks, plant1,318.3 gm.plant-1 respectively and qualitative yield properties (mean of tubers weight 161.55 gm.plant1, quality properties like dry matter 8.11Mecagram.ha-1, yeild of plant 1918.7gm.plant-1 , total yield 42.64Mecagram.ha-1, yield of marketing 39.85 Mecagram.ha-1 and percentage of starch and protein content reacted 13.03 , 9.87% respectively.

EFFECT OF BIO-FERTILIZERS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS IN MUNG BEAN PLANT (VIGNA RADIATA L.)

J S. Al-Kubaisy, M. B. Al -Jumaily and K. H. Mutla

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Field experiment conducted in University of Anbar- College of Agriculture fields (alternative site in the Abu Ghuraib) for season 2016, three kinds of bacterial isolates are: Rhizobia legumenosorum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus megaterium were getted from. Agricultural research service - Ministry of science and technology and inoculation density 1x109 cfu/ml, seeds were contamination with inoculation, after a few minutes seeds were planted, field experience designed according to (RCBD), the synthesis of bacteria without fertilizer formulations, synthesis with quarter fertilizer formulations (R., R.+B., R.+P., R.+B.+P.) and control (100% fertilizer formulations only) after 70 days from the cultivation, the plant's height, number of branches, total dry weight and leaf area was measured, the results showed that the treatment of Triple combination for bacterial isolates with quarter recommendation MBP25 showed significantly increased in all study vegetative growth characteristics than other treatments and control, excelled in plant height (65.8 cm plant-1), the number of branches (5.6 branch), vegetative total dry weight (62.8 g plant-1), and leaf area (49.5 cm plant-1) followed by treatment MB25 while control treatment recorded minimum values these.

SPATIAL - TEMPORAL VARIATION FOR VEGETATION COVER INDEX IN AL- MUTHANA AGRICULTURAL PROJECT BY SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES

H. M. Al-Qaise , M. A.- Al-Ani and A. A. Makhilaf

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

The current study carried out to know the spatial –temporal Variance for Normalized difference vegetation index in Al-Muthana agricultural project which locate on Al- Muthana governorate with total area 12,050.5 hectares. The climate data for governorate were collected through study periods. five satiate images Landset Tem for study region were cut out from Landsat reference which captured during 21-04-1972, 18-04-1992, 31-04-2002 and 17- 04-2017. The necessary corrections and improvements were made to the images by using Arc view 10.2 program. To evaluate the variation on Normalized vegetation index (NDVI) values for the project spatially and temporally, images classified to four classes depending on natural difference value. The results showed no significant heterogeneity in NDVI during period 1972-1982 but it was become more clearly difference to appear in 1992, were the values of NDVI raised temporally for most locations, while the spatially difference showed at period 2002 a clearly variation, thus areas for most studied physiographic units were decreased, and this destruction in the areas were continued to the least levels at 2017

ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS IN ( GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM ) BY USING PLANT DENSITY

A. H. Noaman

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

A field Experiment was Conducted at the farm of Agriculture collee , University Of Anbar, the alternative location (Abu – Gharib) during the season of 2016 to study the effect of planting density (66666, 55555, and 47619) on the yield of the seed cotton and its components for eight cultivars of Upland cotton (CA22, IK347, Lachata, Aleppo 33, Montana, Coker 310, Sp 8886, Iranian 16). Split plot design within R.C.B.D with three replication was used. The varieties as a main plots, while the three siding rates as sub plots with three replication. Genotypic, phenotypic variances and coefficient of variability broad since heritability percentage of fiber index for all planting density (D1, D2 and D3) were high (91.8, 86.9 and 90.5) respectively. Path coefficient analysis that number of bolls and fiber ratios for plant density (D1 and D2) gave highly effect direct (0.92 and 0.94) respectively, while weight of bolls gave high indirect effect from (D3) (0.99).

EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF DOUBLE, SINGLE HYBRIDS AND INBREDS OF MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT PLANT POPULATION AND ESTIMATE HETEROSIS AND HYBRID VIGOR (SOME AGRONOMIC TRAITS)

A. N. Abdel-Amir and B. H. Hadi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

field experiment was conducted during the fall season 2017 at the fields of Field Crop Department - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad in order to evaluate the performance of double, Single hybrids, and their inbreds of maize (ZM43WIZE, ZM60, ZM49W3E, ZM19, and CDCN5) in two plant densities. The Study included the comparison among five inbreds, ten single hybrids, and fifteen double hybrids. The experiments were conducted according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replication, using the spilt plot treatment arrangement, where the two densities 60 and 80 thousand plants h-1 were randomized in the main plots and the 30 genotypes in the subplots. The results showed the superiority of the single and double hybrids over their inbreds in all the studied traits. The earliest single hybrids (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) in tassling and silking reached 56.33 and 60.33 days respectively. The double hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) To reach the tassling was 56 days and did not differ between the hybrids among them in access to silking and the earliest (ZM43WIZE × ZM49W3E) (ZM60 × CDCN5) with a period of 60.17 days. The earliest single hybrids and the double hybrids had negative heterosis and hybrid vigor (ZM49W3E × CDCN5), (ZM43WIZE × ZM49W3E) and (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) The highest mean plant height was 245.9, 233.9 and 231.6 cm respectively, which is higher than the general mean. (ZM43WIZE × ZM49W3E) The highest mean ear height was 107.87 cm followed by the hybrid (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) which reached 107.05 cm and the hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) which was 101.77 cm and did not differ significantly, the hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM60) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) by giving the highest height of the plant reached 295.9 cm while the double hybrid gave the(ZM60 × CDCN5) (ZM49W3E × ZM19) the highest average ear height reached 112.45 cm followed by the double hybrid (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) (ZM60 × ZM49W3E). The single hybrid ) ZM60× ZM49W3E (giving it the highest mean of 16.28 leaves number followed by the hybrid (ZM60 × 5) by 16.03 leaves and did not differ significantly from the remaining hybrids except for the hybrids (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) and (ZM60 × ZM19) gave least leaves number (15.25 and 15.17) sequence. (ZM60 × ZM19) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5) by giving the highest number of leaves of 17.08 leaves followed by (ZM43WIZE × ZM19) (ZM49W3E × CDCN5), (ZM43WIZE × ZM60) (ZM19 × CDCN5) , (ZM43WIZE × CDCN5) (ZM60 × ZM19), (ZM49W3E × ZM60) ( ZM19 × CDCN5), (ZM60 × CDCN5) (ZM49W3E × ZM19) and (ZM43WIZE × CDCN5) (ZM49W3E × ZM19), reaching 16.48, 16.38, 16.37, 16.33 and 16 .27 and 16.23 respectively, which is higher than the general average and the average inbreds and the average of the single and double hybrids . Most of the single and superior double hybrids were characterized by the height of the plant and the ear and the number of leaves by the positive hetrosis and hybrid vigor in the desired direction

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS OF SORGHUM UNDER WATER STRESS

H. H. Jasim and L. I. Mohammed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

To estimate some genetic parameters and heritability broad sense and selection index to some genotypes selectee by selection from two local varieties of sorghum under two planting methods, traditional and honey comb. Two experiments were carried out in experimental field of Filed Crop Dept. of College of Agricultures - University of Baghdad/ AL-Jadrea, in spring and fall seasons of 2017. Two local varieties, Abo- Akefa and Red seed varieties were grown, according to five selection criterion, Earliness, less plant height, large head, higher grain weight and no. of grains per head, under 5% of selection intensity for each selection criteria to attained higher grain yield. The seeds of selected plants were collected, that represent the first cycle. There were 24 genotypes (10 selected genotypes for each variety with their origins and common varieties, Rabih and Inkath). RCBD by split plot arrangements with three replicates were used, water quantity, 100, 75 and 50% from water requirements were occupied main plots and genotypes were occupied sub plots. The results had shown that there is a difference in the ratio of genetic variation to environmental variation for all characters under irrigation quantities, higher ratio of genetic variation to environmental variation for CGR in physiological maturity, no. of grain per head and plant height (25.73, 1431.70 and 27.20, for all irrigation quantities, respectively). PCV and GCV got relatively close for no. of days to 50% flowering and to maturity in all irrigation quantities. However, higher GCV got to plant height in full irrigation, dry matter of leaves in physiological maturity in 75%, grain yield per plant, productivity and WUE in 50% of full irrigation. h2b.s % after one cycle of selection was increased for most traits. CGR in physiological maturity gave higher h2b.s in full irrigation and 50% of it, plant height in 75% of it. No. of grains per head gave higher selection index (1431.70, 1183.54 and 924.38, respectively). It can be conclude that No. of grains per head, plant height and yield efficiency gave higher selection index and higher to moderate h2b.s, suggesting that they could be used as selection criteria to improve sorghum in Iraq

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF HUMIC ACID IN GROWTH AND YIELD TRAITS FOR SEVERAL CULTIVARS OF BARELY

A. M. AL-Qaisy and R. S. AL-Fahdawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

A field experiment was carried out during winter season of 2015-2016 in fields of Agronomy department-College Agriculture/ Anbar University (Abu-Gharaib) that located within Longitude 44° East and Latitude 33°North in order to study the effects of four concentrations of Humic acid 0, 1, 2 and 3 cm3 L-1 in growth and yield traits for three cultivars of barely (IPA265, Bohoth244 and IPA99). A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used according to the arrangement of split plot with three replicates, where the concentrations of Humic acid occupied the main plots while the cultivars occupied the sub plot. The results of the study were summarized as following: The cultivars were significantly differ in most of growth and yield traits, IPA265, gave the highest average of number of tillers per area unit (m2), flag leaf area, weight of 1000 seed, grain yield 6.05 ton ha-1, while IPA99 gave highest of plant height, number of spikes per area 491.10 spike m-1. Humic acid concentration significantly affected in most of studied traits, the concentration 1 cm3 L-1 gaue highest average of 1000 seed weight and the concentration 2 cm3 L-1 gave highest average of number of seed per spik 46.49, while 3 cm3 L-1 achieved highest average of number of tilleras and grain yield 6.59 ton ha-1. The interaction between Cultivars and Humic acid concentration significantly affected all studied traits except plant height and weight of 1000 seed, However, IPA265 cv. With 2 cm3 L-1 Humic acid gave highest average of flag leaf area 20.38 cm2 and with 1 cm3 L-1 gave highest average of number of seed per spike 50.60 grain, as well as gave with 3 cm3 L-1 highest average of grain yield 7.74 ton ha-1.

MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF GENETIC VARIATION AMONG SOME MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) INBRED LINES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HYBRID VIGOR

S. S. M. Al-Obaidi, M. O. G. AL-Ubaidi and F. O. G

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

A full cross was carried out among six inbred lines of maize in the autumn season (2016) in one of the fields of the college of Agriculture, University of Anbar (alternative site-Abu Ghraib-Baghdad). In the spring season (2017) west of Iraq. The experiment included cultivating the seeds of inbreds lines and hybrids resulting from the crossing among them, which included 30 hybrid and reverse hybrids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of inbred lines and their diallel hybrid and reverse axes by molecular methods. The results of the Molecular Analysis of RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) showed that the five prefixes were successful in diagnosing 32 specialized cutting sites spread within the genomes of the paternal and crossbreeding genomes, 26 of them polymorphic loci, The results of the ISSR (Inter Single Sequence Repeats) indicators showed that the five prefixes used were particularly successful when compared with RAPD indicators. There were 40 correlation sites, 39 of which were multiform and 97% of the polymorphisms. Cluster analysis results for replicated sites were very similar in both techniques used in the study. The genotypes were separated into three main groups according to the nearest neighbor method. The two breeds 1 and 2 were the most divergent, as they belonged to the two most heterogeneous groups on both ends of the hierarchical assembly.

THE ROLE OF SILYBUM MARINUM AND VITAMIN E IN REDUCING THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE AND THE STATUS OF ANTIOXIDANTS OF BROILER

E. M. Kadem, A. A. Yousuf and F. M. Hussai

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

This experiment was conducted at the Poultry Research Station - Agricultural Research office - Ministry of Agriculture. In Baghdad/Abi Gharib for the period from 31/10/2016 until 12/12/2016, with the aim of finding a natural cheap antioxidant and does not adversely effect on animal health and not leaves any residues in the various animal products which effect the health of the consumer. Using 460 chicks (Ross 308) in an average weight of 187.8± gm. Sexing to male in 10 days old, The chicks were randomly distributed to 5 treatments. Each treatment included 4 replicates with 23 chicks per duplicate. The replicates area was 3 m2. The treatments was as following: T1= Normal diet without Additions (Control), T2= Normal diet + H2O2 (0.50%) with drinking water, T3= Normal diet with add 10 g/kg from S.M.s + H2O2 (0.50%) with drinking water, T4= Normal diet with add 15 g/kg from S.M.s + H2O2 (0.50%) with drinking water, T5= Normal diet with add 450 Mg / kg from V.E + H2O2 (0.50%) with drinking water.The results of the traits of biochemical blood were showed in 42 days old, there was significant differences for T3 in value of total protein at P <0.05 compared with T2 while not different with other experimental treatments, there were significant decrease in AST value at P <0.05 compare with T2 which not differ significantly with T1, T3.The results of enzymatic antioxidants in age (24 and 42 days) were showed significant improvement was achieved at P <0.01 in the values of antioxidant enzymes (Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase) for T3, T4 and T5. While there were significant decrease in value of MDA for T3, T4 and T5 compare with T2.

INFLUENCE OF SOME TREATMENTS ON DATE PALM FROND AND IT USAGE TO PREPARING COMPOST FOR WHITE BUTTON AGARICUS BISPORUS GROWTH

M. M. Muslat and A. Th. Mahmood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

This study was conducted on Agriculture college of Abu-Grab/ Baghdad as a replacement location of Anbar University during 2015 / 2016 season to study the effects of Date palm frond incubation 30 days after soaking in solution of 5% Urea or 3.3% Ammonium hydroxide before using it to preparing a compost, and its effect on mycelium growth rate on solid medium, matt on liquid medium and protein content, and to study complete over growth time on compost media. Agaricus bisporus 169 strain and its spawn obtained from Organic Farming Project Belonging to Agriculture Researches Office / Agriculture Ministry. Simple experiments according to completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replicates and 5 experimental units for each treatment .Genstat program was used to analyses all data and means tested by Least Significant Difference at 0.05 level. Results showed that, all composts prepared by usage partial from Date palm frond soaked in NH4OH solution increased vegetative growth of mycelium . Treatments of 75% wheat straw + 25% date palm frond and 50% wheat straw + 50% date palm frond given faster growth rat were 2.6 and 2.56 cm per day, while treatments of 75% wheat straw + 25% date palm frond and 50% wheat straw + 50% date palm frond soaked in Urea solution increased 2.5 and 2.53 cm day-1 respectively and increased protein content significantly (P.L. 0.05) were 24.30% and 26.25% respectively, when control treatment given 2.0 cm day-1, 0.15 g dry weight of biomass and 18.75% protein content respectively. On other hand compost from 50% wheat straw + 50% date palm frond soaked in water before incubation, 75% wheat straw + 25% date palm frond without treatment, 50% wheat straw + 50% date palm frond and 70% wheat straw + 25% date palm frond soaked in NH4OH reduced period of mycelia overgrowth on compost to 30.66 , 31.0 , 31.66 and 32.0 days respectively , while the control recorded 47.0 days.

EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES AND AGRICULTURAL MEDIA ON SOME GROWTH AND YIELD PROPERTIES OF STRAWBERRY CV. FESTIVAL UNDER GREEN HOUSE CONDITION

Z. O. Abdulhafedh and H. H. AL-Ali

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

The study was done in an unwarmed plastic house of Department of Horticulture and Garden Engineering, Agriculture college, Baghdad University the Alternative location of Al?Anbar University to study the effect of planting dates and Agricultural media and their interactions on some properties of growth and yield of strawberry cultivar festival for the season of 2016?2017. The study included 12 treatments of interactions of three planting dates (16/10/2016, 3/11/2016 and 21/11/2016) named D1,D2,D3 respectively, and four Agricultural media 100% sandy loam soil (control medium), sandy loam soil with peatmoss and composted sheep manure, sandy loam soil with peatmoss and composted calf manure, sandy loam soil with peatmoss and composted poultry manure in the ratios of (2:1:1) respectively These named M0, M1, M2 and M3 respectively. The study according to (R.C.B.D) with three replicates means were compared using L.S.D test on 5% probability. The results showed the superiority of early planting in the first planting day since it recorded the highest means for leafes number (30.10 leaf plant ?1), leaf area (1342.92 cm2. plant ?1), vegetative dry weight (13.51 g. plant ?1), harvested fruits number (10.72 fruit Plant ?1), fruit weight and total yield of plant reached of respectively (11.25 g fruit ?1, 124.925 g plant?1). From the other hand, planting in mixed organic media ledge significant increases in all growth and yield parameters comparing with control medium (M0).

WATER IN THE ISLAMIC GARDEN BETWEEN FUNCTION AND SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE

S. A. Ibrhiam, H. G. Khaleefa and O. F. Alkaisi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Water associated with human life in all its aspects. It is the origin of existence and the pillar of life. It is the thought and spirit that cannot be separated. The o Islamic gardens design has shown creative examples in use of water as a functional decorative element that has symbolic connotations derived from human thought and Islamic doctrinal principles, which focused on the importance of water as a basic functional element for the establishment of Islamic gardens and a masterpiece of artistic art. The study of water in terms of its multiple forms and functional uses and its symbolic meaning in the Islamic gardens has not been addressed locally, which was the main research problem. The aim of this research is to focused on the importance of water as a fundamental element that enhances the functional and symbolic aspects of the design of the Islamic gardens, which enables the designer to expose his basic indicators and mechanisms to achieve his dependence on him as an actor in the architectural designs of contemporary gardens.

EFFECT OF SOILLESS AGRICULTURE AND CARBOLIZER SPRAYING ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE

S. A. Mahmoud and N. J. Jassim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

The field experiment was conducted at the vegetable field of the Department of Horticulture and lands scape at the Faculty of Agriculture / Anbar University Abu Ghraib (alternative site) for the winter planting season 2016-2017 to study the effect of soilless agriculture and carbolizer spraying on some growth and yield lettuce. The study included two types of solutions containing all the ingredients in the preparation, but they differ between the concentration of calcium were150 and 300 mg L-1 and four concentrations of carbolizer were 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml. The results showed that both nutritive and carbolizer solutions increased head length, head diameter, leaf area, dry weight and root length, were 50.74, 13.63, 29.15, 59.00 cm and 52.10 g respectively compared with the control which given the lowest values were 42.27, 11.10, 17.69, 248.89 cm and 7.67 g on the out her head increased comertial of head weight total head weight and total comertial yield were 565.7 g and 608.0 g، 113.1 tons e-1, 121.67 tons h-1 1compared with the control, which given the lowest values were 455.3 g, 488.7 g, 90.5 tons h-1, 97.73 tons h-1 It is also clear from the results of the mtraetion between the two factors of this study given an increase in most of the studied traits.

INFLUENCE OF ROOTING MEDIA AND ANDOLE BUTYRIC ACID (IBA) ON ROOTING ABILITY OF BUXUSSEMPERVIRENS L. CUTTINGS

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Lath house trial was laid out at Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar at duration from 15 – 3 – 2016 up to 15-9-2016. The experiment included effect of rooting media viz., Building sand, peatmoss and perlites and concentrations of IBA viz., 0,1500 and 3000 mg l-1. Thus, treat ments were designed under factorial arrangement using RCBD with three replicates. Each experimental unit contained 14 cuttings. Means were compared using L.S.D to extract the significant and differences (p ? 0.05). Cuttings that rooted in peatmoss were supervisor on other treatments in all root traits as rooting % of 87.27%, root no. of 11.33 root cutting-1, fresh weight of 0.868 gm and dry weight of 0.222 gm, respectively. Consequently, this positive effect was reflected on vegetative growth traits viz., leaf no. of 27.0 leaf cuttings -1, plant height of 14.47 cm, fresh weight of 3.61 gm and dry weight of 0.914 gm, respectively. Cuttings treated with 3000 mg l-1 were significantly differed in root traits as rooting % of 86.34%, root no. of 12.10 root cuttings -1, fresh weight of 1.171 gm and dry weight traits were improved as treated with 3000 mg l-1 like leaf no of 30.7 leaf cuttings-1, plant height of 15.08 cm, fresh weight of 3.47 and dry might of 1.023 gm. Cutting grown in combination of peatmoss X 3000 mg l-1 were significantly improved that their rooting % was of 90.5 % root no. of 14.60 root cuttings-1, fresh weight of 1.383 and dry weight 0.317 gm. While vegetative traits were of 36.6 leaves per cuttings, 18.63 cm of plant height, 4.64 gm of fresh weight and 1.93 gm of dry weight. Therefore, it could be derived that peatmoss and treated with IBA were effective to improve root traits of this plant species. Hence, it could be recommended to use peatmoss to produce seedlings from this specie

EFFECT SOME INSECTICIDES AGAINST TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA ON POTATO PLANT AT FIELD CONDITIONS.

S. H. Abd Krnoos

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

A field experiment conducted during spring and autumn seasons of 2014 with RCBD evaluate six insecticides were Avant, Sparta, Brocleem, Triser, Baz and Berat. Result indicated that Avant given superior effect with 15 ml L -¹ concentration against the pest compared with other concentration, where given 96.43% and 94.44% for mortality at two seasons respectively. On other hand, all treatments were different statistically on insecticides activity after 24 h.

THE INHIBITION ACTIVITY FOR THE PUNICA GRANATUM EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC MICROBES

J. R. Al-waaly

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibition activity of extracts cortex against some types of food poisoning bacteria and yeast. The extracts were prepared with cold, hot water and Alchole with (25, 50, 75 and 100) % concentration. The experimental microorganism were Samonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp. Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The result showed that Al-Chloe extract gave the best inhibition activity compared with other treatments and the best result were against Staphylococcus auras. The inhibition zone were 29 ml for 100% concentration. The inhibition activity for Al-Chole extract were compared with some antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Gentamycin, Tetracyclin and Vancomycin). The result showed that Al-Chole extract gave better inhibition activity compared with the antibiotics above.

A NEW RECORD FOR TWO SPECIES OF CLEOME L. FROM CLEOMACEAE FAMILY IN IRAQ.

M. O. Mousa

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Two new species have been recorded in Iraq, them are Cleome brachycarpa Vahl ex DC. and Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del. during the field trips in the Desert region Western desert distract in the northeast of Anaiza Mountain at the Iraqi – Jordanian – Saudi borders during a spring seasons of 2013 and 2014. The two species were diagnosed and described as a comprehensive morphological description during taxonomic treatment as well as a some drawing and photographs of the Floral and vegetative parts with their distribution map of two species. The plant samples were deposited at the National Herbarium of Iraq with the numbers (59287, 59288, 59289 and 59290) Cleome brachycarpa Vahl ex DC. وCleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del.

A COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF FRUITS AND SEEDS FOR SOME GENERA OF PAPILIONACEAE FAMILY GROWN IN SEFFEN

A. H. Al-Mosawi and K. K. Hammood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Five species of fruits and seeds for five genera of Papilionaceae have been studied which are from the wild species of Dicotyledonous growing in the study area at the Seffen mountain in Erbil. The study included appearance criteria for the seeds including, form, dimensions, colour, type of Surface configuration of the seeds and the anatomical criteria of the seed including thickness of the cover of seeds, number of layers, number of lines and the form of cells in every layer, In addition to the type of embryo, its shape, dimension, and the form of the cots, its dimensions and location of stored nuttition whether in endsperm or in the emberyo tissue. The fruits have been mentioned as they have a very close relation with the seeds, The fruits have been characterized concerning (form, type, dimensions, number of seed in every fruit) due to the importance of these characteristics and their use in many vegetarian books and encyclopedias in order to classify the vegetarian types. The results of this study show the variations in the seeds form, colours, dimensions, and type of surface configuration where all studied seeds were with smooth surface except for one type with granular surface scorpurus muricatus Also, the result of the anatomical study have showed variation in thickness of the seeds cover between the studied types and form of cells in the layers. It has been found that the seeds cover is more thick in the species Scorpurus muueicotus where the cover thickness was 82.5 micrometer, and the last cover thickness was in the species Hippocrips unisiliquous where the cover thickness is 37.5 micrometer, but the forms of embryos and lobes showed a clear variation between the studied types as mentioned in the results. This study which handled the anatomical side of the seeds represents one of the few studies for the wild Iraqi types and it emphasized the classifying importance for those characteristics in isolating the classification different ranks especially those similar in appearance

PROBLEMS OF THE IMPACT OF TRAINING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS TO THEIR PLACE OF WORK ACCORDING TO AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION OFFICIALS

M. H. S. AL-Hamdiny

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

The aim of the research is The respondents' opinion regarding the extent of some problems facing extension workers when transferring the impact of training to their place of work in the management of agricultural training programs. The research was conducted on some agricultural extension officers in a group of Iraqi agricultural departments. The research sample reached 25 officials and collected data during the month of September 2017 in a personal interview with the respondents using a questionnaire prepared to achieve the research objectives. Table width with frequency and percentage (relative average). The main results of the research is the existence of problems that have an impact on the management of training programs, as well as weakness in the management of training programs planning, implementation, follow-up and evaluation. The most prominent recommendations for the results of the research on agricultural organizations in general, especially organizations (agricultural extension) responsible for training and human resources development in the organizations taking into account the presence of specialists supervising the management of training programs.

Gelatin Processing From bones, legs, heads and skins of spent hens (1- study its Chemical contents and yield)

Waleed I. Kurdi , Mohammed F. A. Al-Baghdadi , K

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

Gelatin had been processed from bones, heads. legs and skin which got from spent hens, the sample were cleared, cut and getting rid of oil by boiling then the removal of mineral salts by hydrochloric acid 6% for 24 hours , after that soaking in diluted base ( NaOH ) 0.2N for 18 hours and washing with water, The process of extracting was made by damp heating in an electric furnace at various temperatures 65, 75 and 85 Celeries with both time periods 10 and 20 hours. After that, the process of clarification , filtration and drying the gelatin solutions were mille red, filtrated and dried, then they grinded and filling. It had been studied the chemical contents and yield of the product and the results referred to 1-there were high significant differences due to effectiveness of the studied factors and their interaction gelatin yield. 2- It had been seen that there were significant differences due to the effectiveness of tempera- ture, gelatin sources and extracting period on the humidity percentage. There were insignif- Incant differences due to the effectiveness of interaction between the three factors on the humi- dity percentage in the processed gelatin . 3-It had found high significant differences due to effectiveness of gelatin sources, temperature and the extractor period on the percentage of oil in the processed gelatin in addition to high significant differences due to interactions between temperature and gelatin sources on the percentage of oil , whereas, there were insignificant differences due to interaction between other. 4-There were higher significant differences due to the gelatin sources, temperatures, and the interaction between the gelatin sources and temperatures on the ash percentages of the processed gelatin. 5- Its possible to process gelatin from bones , legs , heads and skins of spent hens .The best extraction temperatures were 65 c and 75 c. In temperature 85c the yield of gelatin increase low quality. 6- The results shown high percent of protein in bones and heads gelatin, but low percent in skins and legs gelatin, and shown higher percent of fat in skin gelatin than other samples.

province spend hit practical case for the period 1980-2013

Marwan mother Abd AL wahab , Hameed Rasheed AL-Ab

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:1

The Peanut pistachio harvest field of oil and industrial crops important to the advantage of its high nutritional value economic payoff rewarding compared with other summer crops, Constitute an important part in the Economies of several countries in the world, including the Arab world Who characterized some of the efficiency of the productivity of countries comparative advantage which generate foreign currency for the benefit of their national economies. This study aimed to shed light on the cultivation of this crop and find out the comparative advantage of this crop and the extent of local competence and a global rival to know the nature of then terventionist policy of the production in Anbar Governorate Hit spend a practical state of matter 1980-2013 using the style of modern analytical athlete knows policy analysis matrix (PAM). The show from results matrix that own profitability (D) was 21365 Dinar, While the social profitability (H) reached 787883 dinar, Net transfers which came negative worth -49250, this explains the lack of support for producers by the stat for this crop. The cost of local resources coefficient (DRC value positive 0.88, this means that the crop has a comparative advantage at the local level. The back of the nominal protection coefficient for output (NPCO) value positive 0.92, this explains that producers receive their product prices lower than world prices. However, the nominal protection coefficient of input, which was, value positive 1.04, this underlines the lack of real income by the state. The back of the effective protection coefficient (EPC) value positive 0.89 this indicates that producers receive lower returns in the absence of interventionist policy, the price of any absence of government support for the production of this crop in Iraq. The study found a number of recommendations, most notably the need for attention and support of the state of the domestic product direct government support aggressive policy of raising the efficiency of resource use and achieve comparative advantage of the crop in An bar Governorate .