About Journal

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences (AJAS) is a Journal of Scientific Research on Agricultural Sciences published by the University Of Anbar - College Of Agriculture since 2005 under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY). The journal publishes twice a year (June and December). AJAS aims to disseminate distinguished scientific research to various fields of agricultural sciences. We invite original work and research in various fields of agricultural sciences and related papers, reviews and short communications of content related to agriculture written in Arabic and English. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is used to assure the quality of the publication. We are also using Turnitin to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. The journal is not financially supported by any governmental or non-governmental organization.

 

EFFECT OF LEMON PEEL AND PULP EXTRACT ON SOME LOCAL KURDISH RAM MEAT QUALITIES AND ITS SHELF LIFE

A. A. Hamma, H. G. Dahir, Z. K. Khidhir*, M. M. Mohammad, D. J. Ahmmed, A. K. Ahmmed, and S. O. Kaki

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

To investigate the effectiveness of adding lemon peels and pulp extracts on some quality properties and shelf-life of the sheep longisimussdorsi muscle during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C for 0, 4, and 8 days for this purpose am meat trim of visible fat and connective tissue, they cut in small cubes. The meat samples divide into four equal proportions and mix with different concentrations of lemon peel and pulp extract according to the following formulations: Control; T1 1%; T2 2% and T3 3% of lemon peel and pulp extract, by applied immersion method. The results showed acceptable results of moisture content, Water-holding capacity cooking loss, thiobarbituric acid, met-myoglobin, myoglobin, and sensory traits of the samples treated with lemon peel in comparison to the control group. The phiso-chemical traits changed during the storage periods but the meat sample treated with lemon extract was more stable than control groups. These results suggested that using lemon peels and pulp extracts to maintain physio-chemical properties of ram meat and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage, which may have implications of meat processors.

MOLECULAR STUDY OF HUMAN HEAD LICE, PEDICULUS HUMANUS CAPITIS COMPARISON WITH GOAT SUCKING LICE, LINOGNATHUS STENOPSIS (BURMEISTER) STRAINS

S.N. Al-Doury* , O. I. Mahmood , S. M. Lafta , S.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

In this study, only (122) out of (915) primary school students were shown to be infected with head lice Pediculus. humanus capitis. The number and percentage of infected males was 46 (11.3%), while the number and percentage of infected females was 76 (14.9%). The results in our study also showed that the number and percentage of goats infected with goat sucking lice, Linognathus stenopsis was 70 (21.7%) of the total 322 animals, with the highest number and percentage among female goats 44 (62.9%) compared to the male goats 26 (37.1%). The study demonstrated that rate of genetic difference between the studied samples was 89% and the similarity rate was 11%. Detection of OP-K01 gene pieces by PCR products showed that the amplicon size was 520 bp for P. humanus capitis isolated from humans, while the detection of OP-E20 and OP-M05 gene pieces with PCR product showed the lowest amplicon size 230 bp for Linognathus stenopsis isolated from goats.

ESTIMATION OF TECHNICAL, SPECIALIZED AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATED POTATO VARIETIES USING DATA ENVELOPE ANALYSIS METHOD (DEA) IN IRAQ FOR SPRING LUG 2018

M. M. Alzobaee , M. A. Aldulaimi*

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

Research highlights the importance of potato crop, which occupies a prominent food and economic status in food security besides rice, wheat and corn at the local and global level. Despite the expansion of the cultivation of potato crop in Iraq in general and Ameriyah district in particular However, potato productivity remains substandard, this may be due to a lack of knowledge of the most efficient varieties and not to use productive resources at the levels at which technical, specialized and economic efficiency is achieved. Therefore, the aim of the research is to determine the technical, specialized and economic efficiency according to the cultivated seed category. The data envelope analysis (DEA) method was used to estimate technical, specialized and economic efficiency, assuming constant and variable capacity returns. As a result of the study, the Safrana variety achieved the highest average technical efficiency according to the stability of the yield and capacity efficiency in addition to achieving the highest average specialized and economic efficiency, The Lapadia variety achieved the highest average technical efficiency, assuming that capacity returns have changed. Therefore, we recommend the adoption of items that achieve higher efficiency and the need to redistribute the elements of production better and Achieving the optimum levels at which technical, specialized and economic efficiency is achieved and saving what has been wasted.

FORECASTING OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN IRAQ USING BOX- JENKINS MODEL FOR PERIOD 2020-2024

A. R. H. Al-Moola

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

Wheat is a major crop of food grown in different parts of Iraq, whether irrigated in the middle or south or demilitarized in northern Iraq, which is grown in large quantities but does not meet the actual need for local consumption, and as a strategic commodity, this research aims to make a forecast of wheat production for the next five years 2020-2024, by using time series based on the Box-Jenkins model. This is one of the models that depend on the accuracy of diagnosis of the phenomenon studied by relying on time series data for the study period 1980 - 2018, where a set of results were obtained through the use of statistical analysis program Minitab17 that may help those interested in the future vision of the Iraqi economy in drawing A successful planning policy, the results showed that the best model for forecasting wheat production in Iraq is ARIMA (1.0.2).

ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCE AND HYBRID VIGOUR AND ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN F1 HYBRIDS OF GYNOECIOUS CUCUMBER

S. S. Al-Samariee , H. A. Al-Zobaee

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A field trial was conducted in spring season 2015 on cucumber in plastic house in Abu_Gharib region, to study combining ability and gene action in F1 hybrids of domestical evaluation cucumber. We put five lines in full diallel cross, then conducted the trial which included Geno types (lines and their hybrids) with the importer hybrid (saif) to comparison some vegetative and yield characters. Results showed that diallel hybrids 1x3 and 1x4 and reciprocal hybrid 4x1 were significant for rate of many characters like number of total female flowers, number of clusters per plant, stem diameter, number of fruits and yield per plant, the number of total female flowers was 99.48, 90.35 and 85.77 Sequentially, the number of fruits was 54.31, 48.00 and 42.87 Sequentially. The best general and specific combining ability between the lines 1,3 and 4 which their hybrids 1x3 and 1x4 give higher mean for yield of plant 4.28 and 3.84 Kg. plant-1 Sequentially, and they superior than the importer hybrid (saif). Gene action was nonadditive for characters like yield per plant , fruit set, number of fruits , number of flower clusters, for plant high rate was additive and non-additive type the gene action was additive and nonadditive type for characters of percentage plant height .the percentage of heritability was high for all characters .so we recommend to used them for local propagation to compensation some Iraqi need of seeds.

EFFECT OF LEMON PEEL AND PULP EXTRACT ON SOME LOCAL KURDISH RAM MEAT QUALITIES AND ITS SHELF LIFE

A. A. Hamma, H. G. Dahir, Z. K. Khidhir*, M. M. Mohammad, D. J. Ahmmed, A. K. Ahmmed, and S. O. Kaki

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

To investigate the effectiveness of adding lemon peels and pulp extracts on some quality properties and shelf-life of the sheep longisimussdorsi muscle during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C for 0, 4, and 8 days for this purpose am meat trim of visible fat and connective tissue, they cut in small cubes. The meat samples divide into four equal proportions and mix with different concentrations of lemon peel and pulp extract according to the following formulations: Control; T1 1%; T2 2% and T3 3% of lemon peel and pulp extract, by applied immersion method. The results showed acceptable results of moisture content, Water-holding capacity cooking loss, thiobarbituric acid, met-myoglobin, myoglobin, and sensory traits of the samples treated with lemon peel in comparison to the control group. The phiso-chemical traits changed during the storage periods but the meat sample treated with lemon extract was more stable than control groups. These results suggested that using lemon peels and pulp extracts to maintain physio-chemical properties of ram meat and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage, which may have implications of meat processors.

MOLECULAR STUDY OF HUMAN HEAD LICE, PEDICULUS HUMANUS CAPITIS COMPARISON WITH GOAT SUCKING LICE, LINOGNATHUS STENOPSIS (BURMEISTER) STRAINS

S.N. Al-Doury* , O. I. Mahmood , S. M. Lafta , S.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

In this study, only (122) out of (915) primary school students were shown to be infected with head lice Pediculus. humanus capitis. The number and percentage of infected males was 46 (11.3%), while the number and percentage of infected females was 76 (14.9%). The results in our study also showed that the number and percentage of goats infected with goat sucking lice, Linognathus stenopsis was 70 (21.7%) of the total 322 animals, with the highest number and percentage among female goats 44 (62.9%) compared to the male goats 26 (37.1%). The study demonstrated that rate of genetic difference between the studied samples was 89% and the similarity rate was 11%. Detection of OP-K01 gene pieces by PCR products showed that the amplicon size was 520 bp for P. humanus capitis isolated from humans, while the detection of OP-E20 and OP-M05 gene pieces with PCR product showed the lowest amplicon size 230 bp for Linognathus stenopsis isolated from goats.

ESTIMATION OF TECHNICAL, SPECIALIZED AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATED POTATO VARIETIES USING DATA ENVELOPE ANALYSIS METHOD (DEA) IN IRAQ FOR SPRING LUG 2018

M. M. Alzobaee , M. A. Aldulaimi*

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

Research highlights the importance of potato crop, which occupies a prominent food and economic status in food security besides rice, wheat and corn at the local and global level. Despite the expansion of the cultivation of potato crop in Iraq in general and Ameriyah district in particular However, potato productivity remains substandard, this may be due to a lack of knowledge of the most efficient varieties and not to use productive resources at the levels at which technical, specialized and economic efficiency is achieved. Therefore, the aim of the research is to determine the technical, specialized and economic efficiency according to the cultivated seed category. The data envelope analysis (DEA) method was used to estimate technical, specialized and economic efficiency, assuming constant and variable capacity returns. As a result of the study, the Safrana variety achieved the highest average technical efficiency according to the stability of the yield and capacity efficiency in addition to achieving the highest average specialized and economic efficiency, The Lapadia variety achieved the highest average technical efficiency, assuming that capacity returns have changed. Therefore, we recommend the adoption of items that achieve higher efficiency and the need to redistribute the elements of production better and Achieving the optimum levels at which technical, specialized and economic efficiency is achieved and saving what has been wasted.

TEMPORAL VARIATION OF AGRICULTURE LAND DEGRADATION AND ESTIMATION OF RELATIVE YIELD FOR SOME MAJOR CROPS WEST FALLUJA CITY

S. M. Al-Juraisy and M. K. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The study area is located in the lower part of the Euphrates basin at the modern plain of Mesopotamian at 169 path and 37 row landsat7, the area was 8051.94 hectare. Land degradation was studied using Land Degradation Index (LDI), to determine some of the quantitate parameters of land degradation degree as relative extent, degradation rate, severity of degradation level. in the study area. The Relative yield of some major crops (tractum, bare, zea, and cotton) was assessed using the relative yield equation. The Results showed that there is a continuous increase in the areas of lands with severe and very severe degradation with value of (10.21hactar/year,16.5hectar/year). with a mild increase in the area of land of slight degradation with value of (3.43h/y with ratio of 0.04% year with a significant with decrease in lands with moderate degradation by 30.17 hectare/year with ratio 0.37%. which shows the seriousness of the degradation danger in the study area due to the continuous transformation of lands to sever and very sever degradation areas. Area with 72.42% of total area is very low Relative yield for maize planting and 46.46 % of total area is very low relative yield for wheat and with 43.30% of total area is very low Relative yield for barley and cotton planting.

DETECTION OF THE SOME HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN THE LOCAL BULLS TISSUES IN KIRKUK DURING THE WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS

A. A. Alperkhdrim , M. I. Abdullah and Z. Kh. Khid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

For the purpose of investigating the levels of some heavy contamination metals in muscle, liver and kidney meat for Cattle in Kirkuk governorate in winter and summer seasons, samples were collected randomly from males (aged 16-18 months) from three districts of Kirkuk governorate (Downtown, Daquq and Debs) During the December and February (winter season) and July and August months of (summer season). There was a significant effect (p?0.05) on the factors (meat type, location and season) in the concentration of lead, Kidney meat in the Downtown in the winter season recorded the highest concentration of lead and significant difference (6.678 ppm) The lowest concentration (0.881 ppm) was found in Liver in Winter. The highest concentration level of cadmium in muscle in summer season from Downtown (3.336 ppm), and lowers Concentration of cadmium (2.106 ppm) recorded in kidney from Daquq in summer season. The concentration of zinc in the Liver at the Downtown in the summer season was the highest concentration (140.052 ppm), while the Kidney in the winter season from Downtown recorded the lowest concentration (30.54 ppm). For Copper the liver in the Downtown in the winter season had the highest concentration (24.520 ppm), while the Liver from the Downtown at summer was recorded lowest concentration (2.383 ppm). For Cobalt, in winter season in Kirkuk, the Muscle recorded the highest concentration of cobalt (7.344 ppm), while the lowest concentration was recorded in Kidney the Winter season from Downtown (1.062 ppm). All types of metals recorded levels higher than the internationally accepted limits.

Effect of lime content of the soil on Its spectral Reflectivity of the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammad ,Wissam A. Abed , Azhar A. Has

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

An experiment was achieved in laboratories of college of Agriculture / Anbar University. A sample of clay loam soil with 50% lime content was brought from sefen mountain, Shaqlawa district / Erbil province, to study the effect of lime percentage on soil spectral reflectivity. Different lime percentage were removed from origin soil using 0.1 N HCl to obtain same soil texture with 40%, 29.5%, 24.5%, 20%, 15.8% and 9.4% lime contents. Spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of the soil with different lime levels at 22% soil moisture content. The result showed an increasing of the soil reflectance with increasing of lime content. Also the result showed an absorption band at 2350 nanometer was appeard, which may be attributed to the presence of lime in soil. It was noted that the depth of the band was increasing with increasing lime percentage in the soil. Results also showed that a significiant correlation between lime content and reflectance in the all studied bands, especially with the two near infrared bands (B6 and B9) was found, whereas the correlation coefficient (r) for the two bands were 0.968 and 0.958, respectively. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was also found. The linear, quadratic and cubic models were efficient to forecasting lime content from reflectance data at near infrared band (B6). The determination coefficient (R2) for the three models were 0.93, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. While the standard error values were 3.8, 4.8 and 2.7, respectively.

Using x-ray and FT-IR teqencue to study and comparative two methods of carbonate minerals removal

Muhammod .A. Latef

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The objective of this study was to obtain the of best method carbonate removal from soil without effect in mineralogical properties. Three soil treatments for soil high content in calcite (Tall Keef region).Were used HCl acid (0.2N), sodium acetate pH (5) treatment and control treatment were conducted compared with control treatment.Results showed Bulk X-ray and XRDclay mineral were that use of HCl acid Caused to removal all carbonate without the effecting in quality and quantity of minerals Comparison with first treatment that it was not great influence. The group of mineral were diagnosed for the three treatments by using the Bulk x-ray showed dominate quartz,calcite,palygorskite,feldspar and kaolinite respectively,while the XRD for clay realated the rule of chlorite, illite,semctite and kaolinite respectively,as for FT-IR appearance group are bands important (1450 )cm-1,which represents carbonate group (dolomite-calcite)and Disappearance with third treatment without second,therefore acetate method is considered inappropriate for measurements which means to remove the carbonate. Meaning that use of HCl acid (0.2), N is optimum method.

Using x-ray and FT-IR teqencue to study and comparative two methods of carbonate minerals removal

Muhammod .A. Latef

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The objective of this study was to obtain the of best method carbonate removal from soil without effect in mineralogical properties. Three soil treatments for soil high content in calcite (Tall Keef region).Were used HCl acid (0.2N), sodium acetate pH (5) treatment and control treatment were conducted compared with control treatment.Results showed Bulk X-ray and XRDclay mineral were that use of HCl acid Caused to removal all carbonate without the effecting in quality and quantity of minerals Comparison with first treatment that it was not great influence. The group of mineral were diagnosed for the three treatments by using the Bulk x-ray showed dominate quartz,calcite,palygorskite,feldspar and kaolinite respectively,while the XRD for clay realated the rule of chlorite, illite,semctite and kaolinite respectively,as for FT-IR appearance group are bands important (1450 )cm-1,which represents carbonate group (dolomite-calcite)and Disappearance with third treatment without second,therefore acetate method is considered inappropriate for measurements which means to remove the carbonate. Meaning that use of HCl acid (0.2), N is optimum method.

DETECTION OF THE SOME HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN THE LOCAL BULLS TISSUES IN KIRKUK DURING THE WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS

A. A. Alperkhdrim , M. I. Abdullah and Z. Kh. Khid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

For the purpose of investigating the levels of some heavy contamination metals in muscle, liver and kidney meat for Cattle in Kirkuk governorate in winter and summer seasons, samples were collected randomly from males (aged 16-18 months) from three districts of Kirkuk governorate (Downtown, Daquq and Debs) During the December and February (winter season) and July and August months of (summer season). There was a significant effect (p?0.05) on the factors (meat type, location and season) in the concentration of lead, Kidney meat in the Downtown in the winter season recorded the highest concentration of lead and significant difference (6.678 ppm) The lowest concentration (0.881 ppm) was found in Liver in Winter. The highest concentration level of cadmium in muscle in summer season from Downtown (3.336 ppm), and lowers Concentration of cadmium (2.106 ppm) recorded in kidney from Daquq in summer season. The concentration of zinc in the Liver at the Downtown in the summer season was the highest concentration (140.052 ppm), while the Kidney in the winter season from Downtown recorded the lowest concentration (30.54 ppm). For Copper the liver in the Downtown in the winter season had the highest concentration (24.520 ppm), while the Liver from the Downtown at summer was recorded lowest concentration (2.383 ppm). For Cobalt, in winter season in Kirkuk, the Muscle recorded the highest concentration of cobalt (7.344 ppm), while the lowest concentration was recorded in Kidney the Winter season from Downtown (1.062 ppm). All types of metals recorded levels higher than the internationally accepted limits.

Effect of lime content of the soil on Its spectral Reflectivity of the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammad ,Wissam A. Abed , Azhar A. Has

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

An experiment was achieved in laboratories of college of Agriculture / Anbar University. A sample of clay loam soil with 50% lime content was brought from sefen mountain, Shaqlawa district / Erbil province, to study the effect of lime percentage on soil spectral reflectivity. Different lime percentage were removed from origin soil using 0.1 N HCl to obtain same soil texture with 40%, 29.5%, 24.5%, 20%, 15.8% and 9.4% lime contents. Spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of the soil with different lime levels at 22% soil moisture content. The result showed an increasing of the soil reflectance with increasing of lime content. Also the result showed an absorption band at 2350 nanometer was appeard, which may be attributed to the presence of lime in soil. It was noted that the depth of the band was increasing with increasing lime percentage in the soil. Results also showed that a significiant correlation between lime content and reflectance in the all studied bands, especially with the two near infrared bands (B6 and B9) was found, whereas the correlation coefficient (r) for the two bands were 0.968 and 0.958, respectively. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was also found. The linear, quadratic and cubic models were efficient to forecasting lime content from reflectance data at near infrared band (B6). The determination coefficient (R2) for the three models were 0.93, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. While the standard error values were 3.8, 4.8 and 2.7, respectively.

ROLE OF GROWTH REGULATORS BRS AND CPPU IN GROWTH AND LEAVES MINERAL AND HORMONAL CONTENT OF OLIVE TRANSPLANTS

E. H. Elsadig , E. A. Al-Hadethi , T. A. Hamdullah

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This study was conducted in the olive orchard, in Habbaniyah city, Anbar province 84 km west of Baghdad during 2018 growing seasons to investigate the influence of brassinolide (BRs) and CPPU spray on 2 year's old trees of “Nebali” olive cultivar. This study included two treatments: three levels of spraying of BRs, 0 (BR0), 1mg L-1 (BR1) and 2mg L-1 (BR2) and four levels of spraying of cytokinins (CPPU), 0 (C0), 2.5mg L-1 (C2.5), 5mg L-1 (C5) and 10mg L-1 (C10) and their interaction. Treatments were replicated three times with two transplants in experimental unit at factorial experiment in a RCBD. The number of trees used was 72 trees. The experimental results showed that BRs spray at 2 mg L-1 gave the highest leaves chlorophyll content of 62.69 SPAD units, leaves dry weight of 29.49 %, highest leaf area of 6.80 cm2, leaf nitrogen content of 1.169 %, highest leaf IAA content of 44.49 ?g g-1 FW and highest leaf GA content of 150.24 ?g g-1 FW. Results also showed that CPPU spray at levels 10 mg L-1 superiority of the control treatment and gave the highest leaves chlorophyll content of 62.89 SPAD units, leaves dry weight of 28.92 %, leaf IAA content of 41.82 ?g g-1 FW and highest leaf GA content of 134.00 ?g g-1 FW .The lowest value of these parameters was found in the control (BR0C0)



Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences


Publisher: University of Anbar
E-Mail: anbar-agri-jour@uoanbar.edu.iq
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Yas K. Al-Hadithi